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Maryland Room 
^Jm^&s'ity of M&rylaad LiWerr 
ColJeec Park. M<i 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PAT?K 




DC HOT zmim 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Sixty-Fifth Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1931 

LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY Of MARYLAND 




twt:ntieth century printing company, 
baltimore, md. 



38861 



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1^? 



STATE OF MARYLAND 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 



DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH, President _ Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK, Secretary-Treasurer „ Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU „ Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLENTZ _ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS „ Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY ^.Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES ...Cumberland 

E. W. McMASTER Pocomoke City 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 
2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK - State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

SAMUEL M. NORTH Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) _ Supervisor of High Schools 

W. K. KLINGAMAN (Hagerstown) - Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD...- _ Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON - Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D. BLACKWELL _ Director of Vocational Education 

ELISABETH AMERY Supervisor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL - Supervisor of Industrial Education 

ROBERT C. THOMPSON (3 E. 25th St.) 

Supervisor of Vocational Rehabilitation and Special Education 

J. K. COSGROVE (3 E. 25th St.) Assistant Supei-visor of Vocational Rehabilitation 

THOMAS L. GIBSON Supervisor of Music 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK (7 E. Mulberry St.) _ Director of Physical Education 

ADELENE J. PRATT Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN „ Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WALTER Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS _ Stenographer 

HELEN BUCHER BANDIERE Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGINNITY _ Stenographer 

FRANCES BELL. „ Stenographer 

ERNA OPITZ (3 E. 25th St.) Stenographer 

LOUISA STORATH SCHWING.... Stenographer 

MINDELL SCHAFF „ Senior Clerk 

MARGARET WOODWARD „ Junior Clerk 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL _ Maryland State Normal School Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School „ Frostburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Salisbury Normal School „_ Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES Maryland Normal School (for Colored Students). ...Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
2004 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS _ State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice-Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM .Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY Secretary 

HELEN KIRKMAN „ Clerk 

HELEN R. SMITHSON Stenographer 



MARYLAND COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISING 
AND HELPING TEACHERS 
1931-1932 



County Address 

ALLEGANY— Cumberland 
Charles L. Kopp, Supt. 
Lillian Compton, Asst. Supt., S. T. 
Winifred Greene, S. T. 
Anna B. Higgins, S. T. 
t. Grace Shatzer. S. T. 
Mabel Smith, Part-time S. T. 
James E. Spitznas, High School 
Supervisor 



ANNE ARUNDEL— Annapolis 
George Fox, Supt. 
Mary E. Downs, S. T. 
Vera Pickard, S. T. 
Julia Wetherington, S. T. 
Howard A. Kinhart, High School 
Supervisor 



BALTIMORE — Towson 
C. G. Cooper, Supt. 
John T. Hershner, Asst. Supt. 
Viola K. Almony, H. T.^ 
Emma H. Boettner, S. T.^ 
Amy C. Crewe, S. T.^ 
M. Annie Grace. S. T.^ 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T.' 
M. Lucetta Sisk, High School 
Supervisor- 



CALVERT— Prince Frederick 
Franklin D. Day, Supt. 
Mattie V. Hardesty, S. T. 



CAROLINE— Denton 

Edward M. Noble, Supt. 
A. May Thompson, S. T. 



CARROLL— Westminster 
M. S. H. Unger, Supt. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 
Ruth DeVore, S. T. 
Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 

CECIL— Elkton 

Howard T. Ruhl, Supt. 
Lula H. Crim, S. T. 
Olive Reynolds, S. T. 

CHARLES— La Plata 

F. Bernard Gwynn, Supt. 
Jane Bowie, H. T. 

DORCHESTER— Cambridge 
James B. Noble, Supt. 
Hazel L. Fisher, S. T. 
Evelyn Johnson, H. T. 

FREDERICK— Frederick 

James C. Biehl. Acting Supt. 
Hal L€e T. Ott, H. T. 
Angeline Sunday, S. T. 
Helen Woodley, S. T. 
A. Drucilla Worthington, S. T. 

3 203 Burke . 

^ Sparrows Point * Grantsville 

2 200 W. Saratoga St.,Baltimore ^ Havre de G 



County Address 

GARRETT— Oakland 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Supt. 
Kate Bannatyne, S. T.* 
Gladys B. Hamill, H. T. 
Flossie R. Skidmore, S. T. 

HARFORD— Bel Air 

C. Milton Wright, Supt. 
Mary L. Grau. S. T.^ 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

HOWARD— Ellicott City 
W. C. Phillips, Supt. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 



KENT — Chestertown 

Louis C. Robinson, Supt. 
Esta V. Harrison, S. T. 

MONTGOMERY— Rockville 
E. W. Broome, Supt. 
Hulda Brust, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson, S. T. 
Fern D. Schneider, High School 
Supervisor 

PRINCE GEORGE'S— Upper Marlboro 
Nicholas Orem, Supt. 
J. A. Miller. Asst. Supt. 
Maude A. Gibbs, S. T. 
Catherine R. Green. H. T. 
Mary Kemp, S. T. 

QUEEN ANNE'S— Centreville 
T. Gordon Bennett. Supt. 
Tempe H. Dameron, S. T. 

ST. MARY'S — Leonardtown 
Lettie M. Dent, Supt. 
E. Violette Young, H. T. 

SOMERSET — Princess Anne 

W. Stewart Fitzgerald, Supt. 
Jane D. Wilson, H. T. 

TALBOT — Easton 

Eugene W. Pruitt, Supt. 
William F. Phipps, S. T. 

W A SHINGTON— Hagerstown 

B. J. Grimes, Supt. 
Pauline Blackford, H. T. 
Grace B. Downin, S. T. 
Katherine L. Healy. S. T. 
Anne Richardson, S. T. 

WICOMICO— Salisbury 

James M. Bennett, Supt. 

C. Nettie Holloway, S. T. 
M. Jewell Swain, S. T. 

WORCESTER— Snow Hill 

Arthur C. Humphreys, Supt. 
Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 

Towson 

S. T. — Supervising Teacher 
;e H, T.— Helping Teacher 



* 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Letter of Transmittal _ _ _ 5 

The State Public School Budgets for 1932 and 1933 „ 7 

The 1930 Federal Census— Race, Illiteracy, Rural and Urban; 

The 1930 School Census of White Children _ 9 

White Elementary Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, With- 
drawals, Long Absence „ _ 23 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions _ _ 35 

Tests; Education for Handicapped Children in Counties and City...... 47 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience „ _ 53 

Size of Class, Teachers' Salaries, Men Teaching _ 64 

Per Pupil Costs, Transportation, Libraries, Health, Consolidation 71 

Supervision 88 

White High Schools: 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 92 

Distribution by Subject of Enrollment, Failures, Withdrawals, 

Teachers ' 107 

Certification, Resignations, Turnover, Experience, Sex of Teachers... 123 

Number and Size of High Schools 132 

Size of Class, Salaries - 137 

Per Pupil Costs, Vocational Education, Transportation, Libraries, 

Health _ 140 

Supervision of High Schools _ „ 157 

Colored Schools: 

1930 School Census „ 159 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, 

Withdrawals _ _ - 162 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions - 170 

High Schools; Schools in Baltimore _ 176 

Teacher Certification, Summer School Attendance, Resignations, 

Turnover, Experience, Men Teachers, Size of Class, Salaries 184 

Cost Per Pupil, Buildings, Rosenwald Fund, Value of School 

Property _ _ 195 

Size of School, Transportation, P. T. A.'s, Physical Education 203 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds 209 

Supei-vision of Colored Schools - 210 

Bowie Normal School „ 211 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland 214 

Summer and Evening Schools, Vocational Rehabilitation 222 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil _ 227 

Financing the Vocational Education Program _ _ 240 

Transportation of Pupils _ 242 

Capital Outlay, Bond Issues, Value of School Property „ 249 

County Budgets, Assessments, and Tax Rates for 1931-32 _ 254 

Parent-Teacher Associations — White Schools _ 264 

Receipts and Expenditures from Other Than County Funds — 

White Schools „ » 266 

County School Administration _ 269 

Certification of Teachers and Changes in Regulations _ 270 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury _ _ - 274 

The State Teachers' Retirement System _ 287 

List of Financial Statements and Statistical Tables 290 

Index _ _ - 342 



April 15, 1932. 

Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

My dear Governor Ritchie : 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws 
of Maryland, the sixty-fifth ''annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, 
condition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" 
for the school year ending in June, 1931, and considerable data 
for the current school year 1931-32, is herewith presented to you. 

Reference to the Table of Contents on the preceding page will 
show the rather complete study which is made of the measurable 
activities in our school program. The report shows uninter- 
rupted progress in all phases of school work. 

At the beginning of the report is included a- statement re- 
garding the State Public School Budgets for 1932 and 1933. 
Some of the data from the 1930 Federal census on composition 
of the population, illiteracy, and farm population for individual 
counties have been presented. 

The percentage o f traj ngj and experienced teachers working 
under competent supervision continues to increase making pos- 
sible more efficient instruction of the State's children ; in fact, we 
feel reasonably certain that in percentage of county teachers 
with standard training in all of our schools, rural and urban, 
white and colored, Maryland probably leads the^'country. This 
is accomplished through our program for teacher training in our 
normal schools, largely at State expense, and by our State equal- 
ization program, which provides funds so that even our least 
wealthy communities may employ teachers with standard train- 
ing as vacancies occur, without increasing local tax rates for 
school maintenance beyond the average for the counties of the 
State in 1922, when the equalization fund was first established. 

Partly because of the greater holding power of the schools 
taught by well trained, well supervised teachers, partly due to 
additional provision for transportation to high school at public 
expense, and partly due to the economic depression and the lack 
of employment, more and more boys and girls are entering high 
school and successfully completing the high school course. Addi- 
tional provision for transportation of pupils to larger elementary 
schools continues to result in the abandonment of one-teacher 
schools which are handicapped in many ways in giving children 
an adequate school training. 



5 



The progress shown in this report was made possible by the 
enthusiastic cooperation received from all county teachers, 
clerks, attendance officers, supervisors, and superintendents, who 
have in most cases been given the wholehearted moral and finan- 
cial support of their patrons, county boards of education, and 
county commissioners. The improvement would not have oc- 
curred without your splendid interest and that of the Legislature 
in the Maryland education program. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry M. Fitzhugh, President 
Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 
Tasker G. Lowndes 
Edgar W. McMaster 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 

Secretary -Treasurer 
State Board of Education 



6 



THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL BUDGET 

The State Public School Budgets for 1932 and 1933 which, in 
addition to the regular items, carry out the legislative program 
for the equalization fund, supervision, and retirement of teach- 
ers, first put into effect in the budgets for the years 1923 and 
1928, respectively, has increased less rapidly than the wealth of 
, the State represented in the assessable basis taxable at the full 
rate for State purposes. In 1923 had the entire school budget 
been raised by direct State tax, 24 cents would have been the tax 
rate required. For 1932 and 1933 with a conservative estimate 
of the taxable wealth, less than 23 cents in direct tax would be 
needed to carry the public school budget. Meanwhile, the public 
school population, especially that in the high schools, has been 
growing so that there will be 20 per cent more children in school 
in 1933 than in 1923. Since the instruction of high school pupils 
costs twice as much as that of elementary pupils, the increase in 
funds required to care for the increase in school population is 
necessarily greater than 20 per cent. Because of the existing 
financial depression every effort is being made to keep expendi- 
tures to a minimum, in order that any balances remaining at the 
close of the year may be returned to the State Treasury. (See 
Table 1.) 

TABLE 1 









Rate for 






Taxable Basis for 


State Public School 


Public 


Average Number 


Year 


State Purposes 


Budget Excluding 


Schools 


of Pupils 




Pacing Full State 


Normal School Fees 


on Each 


Enrolled in 




Rate in Thousands 


and Deficits 


SlOO 


PubUc Schools 


1920 


SI, 176,000 


$2,000,000 


S.170 




1921 


1,365.000 


2,776,755 


.203 




1922 


1,430,000 


2,787,730 


.195 




1923 


1,452,169 


3,477,000 


.239 


234,914 


1924 


1,622,679 


3,507,000 


.216 


235,218 


1925 


1,741,322 


3,629,745 


.208 


239,392 


1926 


1,871,967 


3,742,600 


.200 


241,961 


1927 


1.993,278 


3,826.681 


.192 


246,113 


1928 


2,117,303 


3,946,111 


.185 


251,701 


1929 


2,386,468 


4.027,219 


.169 


254.196 


1930 


2,419.114 


14,665.484 


.193 


259^464 


1931 


2,406,213 


$4, 596. 230 


.191 


267,409 


1932... 


*2, 400, 000 


15.363.842 


*.223 


273 , 709 


1933 


*2, 450,000 


15,609.550 


*.229 


♦277,709 



* Estimated. 

t Excludes S102,694 in 1930 and $271,317 in 1931 for the deficits in the census and attendance funds, 
t Including appropriations to meet deficits for years 1930 and 1931, when tax collections did not equal 
amount pro\'ided in budget to come from pubUc school tax. 

The annual report for 1930 included a comparison of the 
budget requests for 1932 and 1933 v^ith the appropriations for 
1931. The actual appropriations for 1932 and 1933 are included 

7 



8 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



in Table 2. The only changes from the amounts requested ap- 
pear for vocational education, physical and health education, the 
consultant architect, the census and attendance fund, and the 
equalization fund. 

TABLE 2 * 



State Public School Budget Appropriations 



Purpose 


1931 


1932 


1933 


Retirement System 








County Teachers 


$445 , 886 


$494,342 


$519,059 




432,487 


473 , 622 


497,303 




7,500 


10,000 


10,000 


Total 


$885,873 


$977,964 


$1,026,362 


High School Aid 


518,192 


561,632 


581,512 




30 , 750 


30,750 


30 , 750 




187,000 


190,000 


190,000 


Textbooks and Materials 


250 . 000 


250,000 


250 , 000 


State Board of Education 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




lo,UOO 


lo , UUU 


Zo , UUU 


Physical Education 


15,000 


15,000 


15,000 


Educational Aleasurements 


12,000 


12,000 


12,000 




7! 000 


7,500 


7,500 


Certification and Medical Examination 


500 


3,500 


3,500 


Extension Teaching; 


3,000 


3,000 


3.000 




73,650 


76,650 


76,650 


Towson Normal School 


+QIO HQQ 

\oxz , uoy 


1 Z . oUD 


*Q19 CflA 
olZ , oUO 


Frost burg Normal School 


183,565 


*89,065 


*89,065 


Salisbury Normal School 


t91,015 


*93,215 


*93,215 




155.200 


*54,680 


*54,680 


Consultant Architect 


1.500 


1.500 


1,500 


Census and Attendance 


1.900,000 


1. 800 ; 000 


1,800,000 




526,563 


824.960 


979,010 




5,000 


10,000 


10,000 


Physically Handicapped Children 


10,000 


10,000 


10,000 






102,694 


150,000 






23,926 




Total 


t$4,983,847 


*$5, 476,842 


*$5,722,550 




116,300 


113,000 


113,000 




$4,867,547 


$5,363,842 


$5,609,550 



+ Includes receipts from normal school fees: Towson, $62,000; Frostburg, $20,300; Salisbury, $21,000; 
Bowie, $13,000; Total, $116,300. 

* Includes receipts from normal school fees: Towson, $62,000; Frostburg, $17,000; Salisbury, $21,000; 
Bowie, $13,000; Total, $113,000. 



A cut of $100,000 in the census and attendance fund reducing 
it from $1,900,000 to $1,800,000, made after the equalization 
fund had been calculated, was partly offset by an increase of 
$31,000 in 1932 and $41,000 in 1933 in the amount provided for 
the equalization fund. Since the amount originally requested for 



State School Budgets 1932 and 1933 ; 1930 Federal Census 9 



the equalization fund was predicated on the receipt of §1,900,000 
from the census and attendance fund, it was necessary to add to 
the equalization fund the difference between the amount predi- 
cated and the amount which would actually be received. (See 
Table 2.) 

THE 1930 FEDERAL CENSUS FOR MARYLAND 
Composition of the Population in Counties and City 

At the time of the publication of the 1930 annual report of the 
State Department of Education, it was possible to include a com- 
parison of the total population in the individual counties for 
1930 and 1920*. Information which arrived later indicates that 
over 276,000 or 17 per cent of the State's population is negro, 
and over 1,354,000 or 83 per cent is white, the proportion of 
colored people in the counties being 16.3 per cent and in Balti- 
more City 17.7 per cent. (See Table 3.) 



TABLE 3 

Composition of Maryland Population According to 1930 Federal Census 



Color and 
Nativity 


State 


Counties 


Baltimore City 


No. 


Per Cent 


No. 


Per Cent 


No. 


Per Cent 


1930 Census 


T'oreign-Born White 

Total 


1,259.077 
95,093 
276,379 


77.2 
5.8 
16.9 


671,363 
20,683 
134,273 


81.2 
2.5 
16.3 


587,714 
74,410 
142,106 


73.0 
9.2 
17.7 


1,630,549 


99.9 


826,319 


100.0 


804,230 


99.9 


Change from 1920 


Native White 

Foreign-Born White 


+156.517 
- 7,084 
+ 31,900 


+1.1 
-1.2 


+110,022 
+ 2,417 
- 1.884 


+2.7 


+46,495 
- 9,501 
+33,784 


- .8 
-2.2 
+2.9 




-2.7 


Total 




+181.333 




+110,555 




+70,778 













The total negro population in Baltimore City exceeds that in 
the counties for the first time in the Federal census of 1930, the 
excess for the city over the counties being nearly 8,000. While 
the counties decreased by nearly 2,000 in negro population, the 
gain in the city from 1920 to 1930 was nearly 34,000. 

Both the counties and the city increased in white population. 
But the gain in the counties, nearly 112,500, was about three 
times the gain in white population in Baltimore City, 37,000. 
The native white population increased in both counties and city, 



* See page 15 in the 1930 annual report. 



10 



1931 Eeport of State Department of Education 



but the foreign born population decreased by 9,500 in the city 
and increased by over 2,400 in the counties in the decade from 
1920 to 1930. Part of the decrease in foreign born population in 
Baltimore City is probably caused by the more restrictive policy 
regarding immigration adopted by the Federal Government. 
(See Table 3.) 

TABLE 4 



Number and Per Cent of Native White, Foreign-Born White, and Negroes, 
in Total Population According to 1930 Federal Census 



County 


Native White 


Foreign-Born 
White 


Negroes 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per 
Cent 


Total and County Average 














1930 


A71 QAQ 
D / 1 , OOO 


CI o 




O K 

Z.o 


1 Q/l 07Q 
lO'l ,Zi6 


1 A Q 
ID . o 


1920 


561,341 


78.5 


18,266 


2.5 


136,157 


19.0 


Western Maryland 














Garrett 


19,606 


98.5 


276 


1.4 


24 


.1 


AUegany 


75,319 


95.2 


2,323 


2.9 


1,454 


1.8 


Washington 


63,300 


96.1 


565 


.9 


2,010 


3.1 


Frederick 


49,405 


90.8 


319 


.6 


4,713 


8.7 


Montgomery 


39,659 


80.6 


1,257 


2.6 


8,266 


16.8 


Central Maryland 














Carroll 


66 , oy^ 


\)6 . D 


Oz6 


1 EC 

1 .o 






Baltimore 


105,865 


85.0 


6,908 


5.5 


11,764 


9.4 


Howard 


12,612 


78.0 


284 


1.8 


3,270 


20.2 


TTflrforH 


26,697 


84.5 


878 


2.8 


4,023 


12.7 


Southern Maryland 

Prince George's 














44,033 


73.3 


2,015 


3.4 


14,023 


23.3 


Annp Anindpl 


37,633 


68.2 


2,407 


4.4 


14,927 


27.1 




8,478 


52.4 


196 


1.2 


7,492 


46.3 


St. Mary's 


9,459 


62.3 


138 


.9 


5,592 


36.8 


Calvert 


4,981 


52.3 


28 


.3 


4,519 


47.4 


Hiastem onore 














Cecil 


22,419 


86.8 


804 


3.1 


2,595 


10.0 


Kent 


9,640 


67.7 


164 


1.2 


4,437 


31.2 


Queen Anne's 


10,041 


68.9 


150 


1.0 


4,379 


30.1 


Talbot 


12,345 


66.4 


282 


1.5 


5,943 


32.0 


CaroUne 


13,261 


76.3 


449 


2.6 


3,677 


21.1 


Dorchester 


18,695 


69.7 


286 


1.1 


7,830 


29.2 


Somerset 


15,169 


64.9 


102 


.4 


8,111 


34.7 


Worcester 


14,786 


68.4 


126 


.6 


6,712 


31.0 


Wicomico 


24,268 


77.7 


203 


.7 


6,750 


21.6 


Baltimore City 












17.7 


1930 


587,714 


73.0 


74,410 


9.2 


142,106 


1920 


541,219 


73.8 


83,911 


11.4 


108,322 


14.8 


Entire State 












16.9 


1930 


1,259,077 


77.2 


95,093 


5.8 


276,379 


1920 


1,102,560 


76.1 


102,177 


7.0 


244,479 


16.9 



1930 Federal Census of Population Composition and Illiteracy 11 



The Composition of the Population in Individual Counties 

Among the individual counties, Calvert and Charles have the 
largest percentage of their population colored, 47 and 46 per 
cent, respectively. These counties in addition to St. Mary's with 
37 and Somerset with 35 per cent colored, are the only ones in 
which more than one-third of the population is colored. There 
are five Eastern Shore counties — Talbot, Kent, Worcester, Queen 
Anne's, and Dorchester — in which the percentage of colored 
people is close to 30. (See Table 4.) 

Anne Arundel, Prince George's, and Baltimore are the counties 
with the largest colored population, 15,000, 14,000, and nearly 
12,000, respectively. These three counties, together with Wicom- 
ico and Carroll, are the only counties which showed a larger col- 
ored population in 1930 than in 1920. (See Table 4 in which the 
counties are arranged according to geographical location.) 

Decline in Maryland's Illiteracy 

Although Maryland still ranks 29th among the States in illiter- 
acy, according to the Federal Census figures, illiteracy in Mary- 
land shows a commendable decrease from 1920 to 1930. The 
number of illiterates 10 years old or over declined from 64,434 
in 1920 to 49,910 in 1930, a reduction of 14,524. The correspond- 
ing percentage of illiteracy, 5.6 in 1920, decreased to 3.8 per cent 
in 1930. (See Table 5.) 

TABLE 5 



Number and Per Cent of Population, 10 Years Old and Over, Illiterate, 
According to 1930 Federal Census 



Year 


Entire State 


Maryland Counties 


Baltimore City 


Xo. 


Per Cent 


No. 


Per Cent 


No. 


Per Cent 


1910 


73,288 


7.2 










1920 


64,434 


5.6 


38,186 


6.8 


26,248 


4.4 


1930 


49,910 


3.8 


29,048 


4.4 


20,862 


3.1 


Reduction 1920-30 


14,524 


1.8 


9,138 


2.4 


5,386 


1.3 



Although illiteracy is higher in the counties than in Baltimore 
City, in the decade from 1920 to 1930, the counties made greater 
headway in its reduction than Baltimore City. The counties 
lowered their percentage of illiteracy from 6.8 in 1920 to 4.4 in 
1930. The corresponding percentages for Baltimore City were 
4.4 in 1920 and 3.i in 1930. (See Tables 5 and 6.) 



12 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 6 



Comparison of Number and Per Cent of Illiterates, 10 Years Old and Over, 
in 1930 and 1920, According to 1930 Federal Census 



County 


1930 


1920 


Reduction 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 














Average 


29,048 


4.4 


38,186 


6.8 


9,138 


2.4 


Alleganv 


1,205 


1.9 


1,799 


3.3 


594 


1.4 


Washington 


1,181 


2.2 


1,582 


3.4 


401 


1.2 


Baltimore 


2,569 


2.6 


2,281 


3.8 


*288 


1.2 




1,145 


2.6 


1,574 


3.8 


429 


1.2 


Cecil 


603 


2.9 


857 


4.6 


254 


1.7 


Montgomery 


1,130 


2.9 


1,604 


5.9 


474 


3.0 


Harford 


788 


3.1 


1,216 


5.1 


428 


2.0 


Carroll 


933 


3.2 


937 


3.4 


4 


.2 


Howard 


447 


3.5 


868 


7.1 


421 


3.6 


Garrett 






/Do 








Prince George's . . . 


2,187 


4.7 


2,306 


7.0 


119 


2.3 


Anne Arundel .... 




K 1 


Zi , t (O 






9 Q 




1,473 


5.8 


1,795 


8.1 


322 


2.3 


Caroline 


832 


5.9 


1,245 


8.6 


413 


2.7 




830 


7.1 


1,529 


12.3 


699 


5.2 


Talbot 


1,097 


7.2 


1,358 


9.3 


261 


2.1 




1,648 


7.6 


2,553 


11.7 


905 


4.1 


Somerset 


1,417 


7.6 


2,076 


10.8 


659 


3.2 


Kent 


930 


8.1 


1,065 


8.9 


135 


.8 




1,807 


10.4 


2,549 


14.7 


742 


4.3 


Calvert 


876 


12.1 


1,048 


14.6 


172 


2.5 


St. Mary's 


1,383 


12.3 


2,120 


18.2 


737 


5.9 


Charles 


1,683 


14.2 


2,286 


17.7 


603 


3.5 


Baltimore City .... 


20,862 


3.1 


26,248 


4.4 


5,386 


1.3 


State 


49,910 


3.8 


64,434 


5.6 


14,524 


1.8 



*In<;rease 



Although there are nearly equal numbers of white and colored 
illiterates, for the State as a whole in 1930 the per cent illiterate 
is 5 times greater for the negro than for the white population. 
In the counties the per cent of illiteracy is over 7 times greater • 
for negroes than for whites, while in Baltimore City, the colored 
illiteracy percentage is 3 times higher than that for the white 
population 10 years old or over. (See Table 7.) 

On the average in the counties and Baltimore City, slightly 
over 2 per cent of the white population 10 years old or over is 
illiterate. For the negro population, the percentage of illiteracy 
is much higher in the counties (16.4) than in the City (7.0), and 
the average for the State as a whole is 11.4. (See Table 7.) 



Number and Per Cent of Illiterates in 1930 13 
TABLE 7 



Number and Per Cent of Illiterates in 1930 Population, 10 Years Old and Over, 
According to 1930 Federal Census 













Decrease from 




White Illiterates 


Negro Illiterates 


1920 to 


1930 in 


County 










Per Cent 


Illiterate 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


White 


Negro 


Total and County 














Average 


12,153 


2.2 


16,879 


16.4 


1.0 


6.5 


Allegany 


1.126 


1.8 


79 


6.9 


1.4 


1.7 


Washington 


939 


1.8 


240 


14.0 


1.0 


3.9 


Baltimore 


1,734 


1.9 


833 


8.8 


.5 


5.1 


Frederick 


734 


1.8 


411 


11.2 


.6 


6.7 


Cecil 


335 


1.8 


268 


13.3 


.6 


6.5 


Montgomery 


336 


1.0 


794 


12.6 


.7 


6.6 


Harford 


349 


1.6 


438 


13.8 


.6 


7.4 




726 


2.6 


206 


15.3 


.1 


2.2 


Howard 


146 


1.4 


300 


12.3 


1.4 


11.0 


Garrett : 


DUU 


4- 


4 




1.3 


8.4 


Prince George's 


441 


1.2 


1,742 


16.7 


o 
. (5 


4 1 


Anne Arundel 


Oil 


1 7 


1 707 


14- 7 




8.1 




799 


3.9 


673 


12.9 


1 4. 


O . o 


Caroline 


379 


3.4 


453 


15.7 


1.5 


5.1 




165 


2.0 


664 


19.0 


1.9 


11.5 


Talbot 


185 


1.8 


912 


19.4 


. 5 


4.3 


Dorchester 


728 


4.7 


920 


14.9 


2.1 


8.2 


CI 1 

Somerset 


385 


3.1 


1,032 


16.6 


1.4 


5.9 


Kent 


154 


1.9 


775 


22.3 


.5 


*.8 


Worcester 


618 


5.0 


1,189 


23.7 


3.1 


6.1 


Calvert . . . ." 


138 


3.5 


738 


22.6 


*.7 


5.1 


St. Mary's 


325 


4.5 


1,058 


26.5 


2,5 


9.3 


Charles 


240. 


3.6 


1,443 


27.6 


1.0 


6.1 


Baltimore City 


12,588 


2.3 


8,194 


7.0 


.5 


5.9 


State 


24,741 


2.2 


25,073 


11.4 


.8 


6.8 



♦Increase 



Illiteracy in Individual Counties 

Montgomery, Prince George's, Howard, Harford, and Anne 
Arundel have the lowest percentage of illiteracy among the white 
population, the percentages varying from 1 to 1.7 per cent. At 
the opposite extreme, Worcester, Dorchester, St. Mary's, Garrett, 
Wicomico, Charles, and Calvert report illiteracy for from 3.5 to 
5 per cent of their white population ten years old or more. 

Calvert is the only county in the State for which a higher per 
cent of the white population was reported illiterate in 1930 than 
in 1920. Anne Arundel showed no change, and Carroll had a 
reduction in illiteracy of .1 per cent. (See Table 7.) 



14 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The 1930 census indicated that only four counties — Allegany, 
Baltimore, Frederick, and Howard — had as few as one eighth 
of the negro population ten years old or over illiterate, and that, 
at the opposite extreme, five counties — Kent, Calvert, Worcester, 
St. Mary's, and Charles — had approximately one fourth of the 
negroes illiterate. Every county, except Kent, had a lower per- 
centage of negro illiteracy in 1930 than in 1920. In Queen 
Anne's, Howard, St. Mary's, Garrett, Dorchester, and Anne 
Arundel, the 1930 percentages of negro illiteracy were lower 
than those for 1920 by amounts varying from 8 to 11.5. (See 
Table 7.) 

Farm Population in Maryland 

Out of the total Maryland population of 1,631,526, there are 
237,456 people who are actually living on farms. This means 
that 15 out of every 100 people in the State live on farms. How- 
ever, since all of the farm population, with the exception of 726, 
live in the counties, for every 100 county people there are be- 
tween 28 and 29 living on farms. (See Table 8.) 

Allegany and Baltimore Counties have the smallest per cent of 
their population living on farms, 7 and 15 respectively. Wash- 
ington and Anne Arundel Counties have one fifth of their popu- 
lation living on farms, while in Montgomery and Prince George's 
the proportion living on farms is close to one fourth. (See 
Table 8.) 

In Cecil and Dorchester the farm population includes 29 per 
cent of the total, while in Somerset, Wicomico, Kent, Frederick, 
and Talbot, approximately one third of the people live on farms. 
(See Table 8.) 

At the opposite extreme, Charles County has 65 per cent of 
its people living on farms, while Calvert has 62 per cent; St. 
Mary's, 55 per cent ; Garrett, Queen Anne's, and Caroline, 51 per 
cent; Worcester and Howard, 48 and 46 per cent, respectively; 
and Harford and Carroll, 43 and 41 per cent, respectively. (See 
Table 8.) 

Baltimore County, with 19,000, has more people living on 
farms than any other county. Frederick is a close second with 
nearly 19,000 numbered in the farm population. Prince George's 
and Carroll, with approximately 15,000; Harford and Washing- 
ton, with 13,500; Anne Arundel and Montgomery, with over 
11,000; Charles, Worcester, Garrett, and Wicomico, with over 
10,000 on farms, together with Baltimore and Frederick, have 
two thirds of the State's farm population within their borders. 
(See Table 8.) 



Number and Per Cent of Population Living on Farms 15 
TABLE 8 



Number and Per Cent of Total Population Classified as Farm and Non-Farm 
Population, According to the 1930 Federal Census 





Total 
Population 


Farm 
Population 


Non-Farm 
Population 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County 












Average 


826,652 


236,730 


28.6 


589,922 


71.4 


ITT J. — Ti Jf ^ 1 J 

Western Maryland 












Garrett 


19,908 


10,187 


51.2 


9,721 


48.8 


Allegany 


79,098 


5,303 


6.7 


73,795 


93.3 


Washington 


65 , 882 


13,553 


20.6 


52,329 


79.4 


Frederick 


54,440 


18 825 


34.6 


35 61.'i 


65 4 


Montgomery 


49,206 


11^317 


23^0 


37,889 


77!o 


Central Maryland 












Carroll 


35,978 


14,856 


41.3 


21,122 


58.7 


Baltimore 


124,565 


19,214 


15.4 


105,351 


84.6 


Howard 


16, 169 


7,355 


45.5 


8,814 


54.5 




31,603 


13,587 


43.0 


18,016 


57.0 


Southern Maryland 












60 , 095 


15,097 


25.1 


44,998 


74.9 




55, 167 


11 445 


20.7 


43 722 


7Q 


Charles 


16, 166 


10^564 


65^3 


5^602 


34.7 


ot. Mary s 


15, 189 


8 309 


54 7 




4*^ 

. o 


Calvert 


9,528 


5^881 


6L7 


3,647 


38.3 


Eastern Shore 












Cecil 


25,827 


7,614 


29.5 


18,213 


70.5 


Kent 


14,242 


4,885 


34.3 


9,357 


65.7 


Queen Anne's 


14,571 


7,439 


51.1 


7,132 


48.9 


Talbot 


18 .^83 


6,613 


35.6 


11,970 


64.4 


Caroline 


17,387 


8,809 


50.7 


8,578 


49.3 


Dorchester 


26,813 


7,877 


29.4 


18,936 


70.6 


Somerset 


23,382 


7,490 


32.0 


15,892 


68.0 


Worcester 


21,624 


10,461 


48.4 


11,163 


51.6 




31,229 


10,049 


32.2 


21,180 


67.8 


Baltimore City 


804,874 


726 


.1 


804,148 


99.9 


Entire State 


1,631,526 


237,456 


14.6 


1,394,070 


85.4 



THE 1930 SCHOOL CENSUS OF COUNTY WHITE CHILDREN 

The regular biennial school census taken in the Maryland 
counties in the fall of 1930 enumerated 187,073 white children of 
ages five to eighteen years inclusive. This is 3,700 more children 
than were enumerated in 1928, an increase of approximately 2 
per cent in the two-year period. There were 4,153 more boys 
than girls enumerated. 



16 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The enumeration is most complete for the ages from six to 
fourteen years, since the majority of children of these ages were 
in school. If the school census is at all incomplete, it is more 
likely to be so for children not enrolled in school. The number 
of white children entering public and private schools annually 
for the first time is approximately 14,850, of whom 7,500 are 
boys and 7,350 girls. 

There were more children in the ten- and nine-year age groups 
than in groups over and under these ages. The curious drop in 
the eleven-year old group perhaps reflects the effect of the world 
war on the birth rate. (See Table 9.) 



TABLE 9 

Census of White Children Five and under 19 Years of Age Inclusive in 23 
Maryland Counties November, 1930 



'Age 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 1930 


187,073 


95,613 


91,460 


1928 


183,380 


93,627 


89,753 


18 


8,446 


4,546 


3,900 


17 


10,524 


5,532 


4,992 


16 


12,280 


6,284 


5,996 


15 


12,768 


6,505 


6,263 


14 


13,171 


6,685 


6,486 


13 


13,375 


6,791 


6,584 


12 


14,288 


7,178 


7,110 


11 


13,718 


6,977 


6,741 


10 


15,610 


7,943 


7,667 


9 


15,271 


7,745 


7,526 


8 


14,896 


7,531 


7,365 


7 


14,764 


7,414 


7,350 


6 


14,762 


7,607 


7,155 


5 


13,200 


6,875 


6,325 



Comparison of 1930 Federal and School Census 

Although the Federal census was taken in April, 1930 and the 
school census in November, 1930, it is possible to compare the 
two with the purpose of securing a rough check of completeness 
and accuracy. For this purpose we are using the age groups 
from six to fifteen years inclusive. The school census figures 
exceed the Federal census figures for the counties as a group, 
except for ages fourteen and fifteen years. For the individual 
counties, with the exception of Baltimore, Charles, Frederick, 
Kent, and Talbot Counties, for ages six to fifteen years, and of 
Calvert and Carroll for ages seven to fifteen years, the school 
census includes slightly more children than the Federal census. 
Since the school census figures for ages six to fifteen years were 
from 5 to 11 per cent in excess of the Federal figures, the school 
authorities of Howard, Allegany, Prince George's and Mont- 



Comparison of 1930 School Census with 1930 Federal Census 17 

gomery were asked to recheck their 1930 school census to insure 
that no duplicates had been included. This verification led to the 
conclusion that the school census in these counties was more 
reliable as to completeness and accuracy than the Federal census. 
(See Table 10.) 

TABLE 10 

Comparison of 1930 Federal and School Census for White Children 
of Ages 6 to 15 Years, Inclusive, in Maryland Counties 



Ages for Census 



County 


6-15 Years 


6 Years 


7-13 Years 


14-15 Years 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Total Counties 


139,988 


142,623 


14,358 


14,762 


99,235 


101,922 


26,395 


25,939 




16,081 


17,192 


1,697 


1,875 


11,392 


12,180 


2,992 


3,137 




7,431 


7,560 


756 


811 


5,319 


5,474 


1,356 


1,275 


Baltimore 


23,279 


22,702 


2,397 


2,393 


16,588 


J^6,455 


4,294 


3,854 




1,049 


1,033 


106 


112 


734 


724 


209 


197 




2,760 


2,866 


262 


273 


1,963 


2,045 


535 


548 


Carroll 


6,252 


6,184 


602 


646 


4,406 


4,365 


1,244 


1,173 


Cecil 


4,436 


4,610 


471 


475 


3,129 


3,304 


836 


831 




2,082 


2,009 


226 


208 


1,481 


1,459 


375 


342 




3,781 


3,815 


381 


381 


2,657 


2,685 


743 


749 




10,157 


10,119 


1,016 


1,010 


7,256 


7,249 


1,885 


1,860 


Garrett 


4,920 


4,901 


519 


555 


3,459 


3,487 


942 


859 




5,044 


5,269 


543 


530 


3,540 


3,761 


961 


978 




2,640 


2,939 


272 


311 


1,888 


2,107 


480 


521 


Kent 


1,976 


1,945 


194 


177 


1,387 


1,384 


395 


384 


Montgomery 


7,954 


8,354 


868 


903 


5,627 


5,956 


1,459 


1,495 


Queen Anne's 


9,646 


10,223 


1,048 


1,079 


6,844 


7,317 


1,754 


1,827 


2,094 


2,109 


190 


198 


1,499 


1,504 


405 


407 


St. Mary's 


2,377 


2,454 


244 


276 


1,685 


1,707 


448 


471 


Somerset 


3,022 


3,054 


302 


309 


2,112 


2,162 


608 


583 


Talbot 


2,417 


2,399 


220 


210 


1,707 


1,697 


490 


492 




13,127 


13,187 


1,329 


1,306 


9,306 


9,468 


2,^92 


2,413 




4,525 


4,669 


416 


436 


3,215 


3,322 


894 


911 


Worcester 


2,938 


3,030 


299 


288 


2,041 


2,110 


598 


632 



School Census of Ages 6-14 Years Used as Basis in Distributing Two-Thirds 
of Census and Attendance Fund 

The comparison of the school census of white and colored chil- 
dren of ages six to fourteen years for 1928 and 1930 used as the 
basis in calculating two thirds of the census and attendance 
funds for 1930 and 1931, respectively, is shown for individual 
counties in Table 171, page 229. Twelve counties had a larger 
school census of ages six to fourteen years in 1930 than they had 
in 1928, the largest increases being found in Baltimore, Mont- 
gomery, Allegany, Prince George's, Howard, and Anne Arundel 
Counties. With the exception of Cecil, all counties on the East- 
ern Shore enumerated a smaller number of children of ages six 
to fourteen years in 1930 than in 1928. 

Place of Birth of County Children Reported on 1930 Census Blank 

The importance of having a birth certificate which may be 
obtained for each child whose birth is registered in the Bureau 



18 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



of Vital Statistics occasioned the request of the State Depart- 
ment of Health that the 1930 school census blank be arranged to 
secure information regarding place of birth of each child. Place 
of birth in addition to date of birth makes possible a verification 
by county and State health officials of the completeness and ac- 
curacy of birth reports from the individual counties. 

White Children of Compulsory Atttendance Ages in and out of School 

Of the 140,141 white county children of ages seven to sixteen 
years, 115,148, or 82.2 per cent, were enrolled in public schools ; 
11,948, or 8.5 per cent, had their instruction in parochial and 
private schools ; and the remaining 13,045 children, 9.3 per cent 
of the total, were not in any school in November, 1930. (See 
Table 11.) 

TABLE 11 



Number and Per Cent of White Children Enumerated of Ages 7-16 Years 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 
November, 1930 







NUMBER 








PER CENT 








In Private 








In Private 




COUNTY 


In 


and 


In No 




In 


and 


In No 




Public 


Parochial 


School 


Total 


Publ ic 


Parochial 


School 




School 


School 






School 


School 





Total and Average: 



1930 115,148 

1928 113,243 

M ontgomery 6 , 805 

Talbot 2,264 

Prince George's 8,537 

Cecil 3,691 

Charles 1,539 

Anne Arundel 6,223 

Howard 2,352 

Allegany 12,718 

Harford 4,559 

Caroline 2,562 

Garrett 4,260 

Baltimore 16,698 

Washington 11,335 

Wicomico 4,141 

Kent 1,702 

Worcester 2,687 

Somerset 2,628 

Queen Anne's 1 , 833 

Carroll 5,148 

Dorchester 3,332 

St. Mary's 1 , 134 

Calvert 884 

Frederick 8,116 



11,948 


13,045 


140,141 


11,037 


11,617 


135,897 


994 


374 


8,173 


29 


119 


2,412 


812 


661 


10,010 


559 


310 


4,560 


285 


137 


1,961 


573 


511 


7,307 


310 


230 


2,892 


2,583 


1,435 


16,736 


176 


478 


5,213 


21 


264 


2,847 


63 


478 


4,801 


3,185 


2,216 


22,099 


353 


1,306 


12,994 


64 


471 


4,676 


54 


199 


1,955 


38 


323 


3,048 


37 


343 


3,008 


24 


244 


2,101 


239 


722 


6,109 


30 


461 


3,823 


988 


296 


2,418 




134 


1,018 


531 


1,333 


9,980 



82.2 


8.5 


9.3 


83.3 


8.1 


8.6 


83.3 


12.1 


4.6 


93.9 


1.2 


4.9 


85.3 


8.1 


6.6 


80.9 


12.3 


6.8 


78.5 


14.5 


7.0 


85.2 


7.8 


7.0 


81.3 


10.7 


8.0 


76.0 


15.4 


8.6 


87.4 


3.4 


9.2 


90.0 


.7 


9.3 


88.7 


1.3 


10.0 


75.6 


14.4 


10.0 


87.2 


2.7 


10.1 


88.5 


1.4 


10.1 


87.0 


2.8 


10.2 


88.2 


1.2 


10.6 


87.4 


1.2 


11.4 


87.2 


1.2 


11.6 


84.3 


3.9 


11.8 


87.2 


.8 


12.0 


46.9 


40.9 


12.2 


86.8 




13.2 


81.3 


5.3 


13.4 



This latter group of non-school attendants included 9,680 nor- 
mal children fifteen and sixteen years old, many of whom were 
elementary school graduates whose attendance at school was no 
longer required by law. In addition, there were 745 children 
excused from school attendance because of mental or physical 



School Status of White Children of Compulsory Attendance Ages 19 



defects. This left 2,618 county pupils of ages seven to fourteen 
years, who were not handicapped and who were out of school for 
employment or other reasons. (See Table 11.) 

The counties vary considerably in the percentage of county 
children of compulsory attendance ages, from seven to sixteen 
years, in public schools. In Talbot, Caroline, Garrett, Wicomico, 
and Worcester, over 88 per cent of the white children were in 

CHART 1 



PER CENT OF WHITE CHILDREN OF AGES 7-16 YEARS, INCLUSIVE, 
ENUMERATED NOVEMBER, 1930, IN PUBLIC AND IN 
PRIVATE AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



Total No. ^ In 56 In Private 

Coimty of Whits Public % In No and Parochial 

Children Schools School ■■■ Schools 



Total and 

Co. Av. 140,141 



Uont. 

Talbot 
Pr. Geo. 

Cecil 
Charles 



8,173 
2,412 
10,010 
4,560 
1,961 



A. Arundel 7,307 

HoTfard 2,892 
Allegany 16,736 

Harford 5,213 
Caroline 
Garrett 
Balto. 
Wash. 
Wicomico 
Kent 

Worcester 
Somerset 

Q. Anne's 2,101 

Carroll 6,109 

Dorch. 3,823 

St. Mary's 2,418 

Calvert 1,018 

Frederick 9,980 



2,847 
4,801 
22,099 
12,994 
4,676 
1,955 
3,048 
3,008 



82.2 

83.3 
93.9 
85.3 
80.9 
78.5 
85.2 
81.3 
76.0 
87.4 
90.0 
88.7 
75.6 
87.2 
88.5 
87.0 
88.2 
87.4 
87.2 
84.3 
87.2 
46.9 
86.8 
81.3 




9.2 S! 



9.3 I 




11.8 



12.0 I 




40.9 



20 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

public schools, while in St. Mary's only 47 per cent, in Allegany 
and Baltimore only 75 per cent, and in Charles only 78 per cent 
of the children of these ages were in public schools. 

The percentage of children in parochial and private schools 
was highest in the counties having the lowest percentage in pub- 
lic schools. In St. Mary's 41 per cent were in parochial and 
private schools, in Allegany 15 per cent, in Charles and Baltimore 
14 per cent, and in Cecil, Montgomery, and Howard from 11 to 
12 per cent. (See Table 11 and Chart 1.) 

White Children Out of School for Employment 

There were 37 white boys and girls of ages seven to twelve 
years out of school who were reported as employed. For ages 
thirteen and fourteen the number of such children increased to 
1,250. If the census was taken in November, these children were 
required by law to be in school. Most of the 6,584 employed 
boys and girls of ages fifteen and sixteen years had completed 
the elementary school and were eligible for employment. To 
ascertain the counties in which these children were, it is only 
necessary to consult the first three columns in Table 12. 



TABLE 12 

White Children Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties, Not Attending School and 
Not Defective, Distributed According to Employment and Age Groups 
November, 1930 



County 



Employed 
Children of Ages 



(7-12) 



(13-14) 



(15-16) 



Not Employed 
Children of Ages 



(7-12) 



(13-14) 



(15-16) 



Total. 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington , . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



1,250 

120 
31 

220 
15 
16 
81 
21 
10 
54 

200 
5 
58 
26 
31 
23 
29 
45 
28 
33 
3 

103 
64 
34 



6,584 

623 
222 
1,156 

56 
174 
389 
140 

65 
254 
596 
291 
250 
144 
115 
175 
330 
157 
127 
173 

49 
604 
315 
179 



251 

49 
14 
30 
7 
1 



142 
50 

201 
11 
11 
52 
29 
9 
37 

163 
2 
32 
15 
9 
29 
51 
13 
15 
27 
13 

129 
15 
25 



427 
180 
494 
39 
48 
143 
96 
30 
75 
276 
132 
111 
39 
33 
90 
196 
20 
100 
77 
40 
340 
39 
71 



Children of Compulsory Attendance Ages Not Attending School 21 



White Children, Not Handicapped, Out of School Without Employment 

For the age group seven to twelve years, there were 251 not 
defective white children who were not in school and not employed 
when the 1930 school census was taken. Children coming under 
this classification of ages thirteen and fourteen years numbered 
1,080. Those of ages fifteen and sixteen years who were not 
employed totaled 3,096. All of these children through age four- 
teen years and those not graduates of the elementary school of 
ages fifteen and sixteen years should have been in school, if the 
compulsory attendance law were strictly enforced. Undoubtedly 
each county has an explanation for the non-school attendance of 
each of the children in question. In many cases the poor home 
environment and lack of community resources for remedying 
conditions make the difficulties of enforcing the compulsory at- 

TABLE 13 



Defective White Children Enumerated in 23 Maryland Counties, School Attendants 
and Non-School Attendants, Distributed by Type of Defect, for Children 7-16 
Years of Age, November, 1930 



County 


School Attendants 


Non-School Attendants 


Defective 


Defective 


Physically 


Mentally 


Physically 


Mentally 


Total 


767 


237 


462 


283 


Alleganv 


93 


37 


43 


28 


Anne Arundel 


11 




7 


5 


Baltimore 


123 


28 


70 


41 


Calvert 






2 


2 




16 


5 


8 


5 


Carroll 


44 


20 


25 


24 


Cecil 


30 


5 


9 


9 




7 


6 


2 


3 




28 




18 


10 




51 


9 


41 


17 




67 


10 


31 


17 




23 


7 


13 


7 


Howard 


22 


9 


3 


2 


Kent 


8 


3 


8 


3 




44 


35 


21 


17 


Prince George's 


24 


4 


29 


23 


Queen Anne's 






6 


2 


St. Mary's 


17 


17 


13 


9 


Somerset 


4 




19 


2 


Talbot 


4 




6 


5 




113 


24 


64 


30 


Wicomico 


26 


11 


18 


14 


Worcester 


12 


7 


6 


8 



22 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



tendance law almost insuperable. Only by bringing these cases 
to light and focussing the attention of the community upon them, 
will it be possible to secure community, county, and State support 
for the necessary preventive social case work. Each county 
should study Table 12 and review the individual cases which are 
summarized there. 

Physically and Mentally Handicapped White Children Out of School 

The compulsory attendance law specifically excuses from 
school attendance children who are too physically and mentally 
defective to attend school. The 1930 school census enumeration 
disclosed 462 children of ages seven to sixteen years who were 
physically defective and not in school. Through the 1931 legisla- 
tion regarding handicapped children, the State may aid the coun- 
ties in providing for the needs of a number of physically handi- 
capped children, either through special classes in the larger cen- 
ters, or through teachers who instruct the children in their 
homes, or through transportation to regular classes. Mr. R. C. 
Thompson, Supervisor of Special Education, is taking care of 
such children who, in the opinion of the Superintendent and him- 
self, can profit by instruction. (See Table 38, page 50, for physi- 
cally handicapped children receiving instruction in the fall of 
1931.) 

The 1930 census enumerated 283 mentally handicapped chil- 
dren of ages seven to sixteen years who were out of school. The 
1931 legislation for handicapped children will eventually make 
possible the establishment of special classes for mentally handi- 
capped children. The only State aid available for such classes, 
however, will come through the Equalization Fund. (See Table 
13.) 

Physically and Mentally Handicapped White Children in School 

In addition to the defective children out of school, there were 
a number in the regular school classes. The 1930 census showed 
that there were in school 765 2^^ysieally defective children of 
ages seven to sixteen years. A few of these children might be 
able to benefit from the special help available for physically 
handicapped children, although contact with normal children in 
the regular grades is probably the most advantageous environ- 
ment for most of them. 

The school census indicated that there were 237 TYientally 
handicapped children of ages seven to sixteen years in the regu- 
lar school classes. If these children are not disturbing the regu- 
lar classes, they are probably satisfactorily adjusted. If, how- 
ever, they are making the work of normal children difficult, their 
segregation in special classes or in institutions is probably ad- 
visable. The Supervisor of Special Education will be glad to 
consider cases of such mentally handicapped children with super- 
intendents. (See Table 13.) 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



WHITE ELEMENTARY PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT INCREASES 

In the counties as a group the elementary public school enroll- 
ment increased by 669 from 1930 to 1931 and by 3,337 from 1923 
to 1931. Six of the first seven counties on the list, Baltimore, 
Allegany, Washington, Prince George's, Montgomery, and Anne 
Arundel, together with Howard, had larger enrollments in 1931 
than in 1930, the largest increase being one of 442 in Baltimore 
County. The remaining counties had lower elementary school 
enrollments. Baltimore City also showed a lower white elemen- 
tary school enrollment in 1931 than it had in 1930 or in 1923. 
(See Table 14.) 

TABLE 14 

Total Enrollment in Maryland White Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates 
for Years Ending July 31, 1923, 1930, and 1931 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1931 



1930 



1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
White Elementary Schools 



1931 



1930 



Total Counties. 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Frederick 

Montgomery. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 

Carroll 

Harford 

Garrett 

Wicomico 

CecU 



•109,406 

17,211 
tl2,438 

11,342 
7,893 
7,789 

t6,776 
6,554 
5,205 
4,307 
4,128 
3,813 
3,323 



^108,737 

16,769 
tl2,104 

11,186 
7,779 
7,981 

t6,500 
6,361 
5,209 
4,405 
4,178 
3,874 
3,349 



■106,069 

13,333 
11,107 
10,859 
6,421 
8,505 
4,524 
4.947 
5,902 
4,290 
5,373 
3,986 
3,405 



Dorchester 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's . . . . 

Kent 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Baltimore City . . . 

State 



3,099 
2,439 
2,425 
2,352 
2,071 
1,909 
1,713 
1,559 
1,473 
1,070 
855 

t*78,202 

t*187,608 



3a63 
2,456 
2,466 
2,405 
2,032 
1,962 
1,733 
1,572 
1,523 
1,116 
887 

t*78,838 

t*187,575 



t*79,124 
t*185,193 



* Total excludes duplicates. 

t Includes estimate of enrollment in grades 7 and 8 of junior high schools and kindergartens. 
Foi enrollment in counties, arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 295. 



The county public elementary school enrollment of 109,406 
was considerably higher than that for Baltimore City, which 
totaled 78,202, including enrollment in kindergartens and junior 
high schools through Grade 8. Part of the difference is due to 
the parochial and private school enrollment which is over 21,000 
more in the City than it is in the counties. The remaining differ- 
ence of 10,000 is probably due to excess of county over city popu- 
lation and to the larger number of children per family in the 
counties than in the City. (See Tables III-V, pages 296 to 299.) 



23 



24 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Type of 1931 White Elementary Enrollment 

School Counties Baltimore City 

Public Schools _ 109,406 78,202 

Catholic Schools _ 8,976 29,462 

Private Schools _ 1,381 1,970 



Total _ 119,763 109,634 



LENGTH OF SESSION IN WHITE SCHOOLS 

The date of opening schools for white pupils in September, 
1930 extended from September 1 to 10 and closing dates covered 
a period from May 29 to June 19, 1931. The length of session 
varied from just under 180 days to over 193 days. Every county 
had a meeting of one day or two days prior to the opening of the 
schools in September, 1930. (See Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 

Length of Session in White Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



School Year, 
1930-31 



No. of 
Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day 
of 
School 



Last 
Day 
of 
School 



COUNTY 



Average Days in 
Session 



White 
High 
Schools 



White 
Elemen- 
tary 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City . 



9/2 

9/9 

9/8 

9/1 

9/8 

9/1 

9/4 

9/3 

9/8 

9/2 

9/8 

9/8 

9/3 

9/8 

9/10 

9/10 

9/3 

9/8 

9/2 

9/8 

9/2 

9/1 

9/8 

9/4 



6/19 

6/19 

6/19 

6/5 

6/12 

6/5 

6/12 

6/5 

6/12 

t6/9 
6/19 
6/18 
6/19 
6/19 
6/12 
6/18 
6/12 

t6/12 
6/3 
6/12 
6/5 
5/29 
6/5 

6/18 



County Average 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Howard 

Queen Anne's. . . 

Garrett 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 

Harford 

Cecil 

Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Washington. . . . 

Carroll 

Montgomery. . . 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Calvert 

Charles 

Baltimore City . 

state Average . . 



186.5 

193.2 
191.0 
191.9 
189.0 
190.2 
189.1 
187.1 
186.9 
187.0 
186.8 
184.8 
184.0 
185.0 
184.1 
183.6 
182.4 
183.7 
181.4 
181.8 
180.4 
180.1 
179.6 
180.4 

188.0 

187.2 



186.6 

193.0 
190.6 
190.6 
189.1 
188.6 
187.9 
187.8 
186.6 
185.8 
185.6 
184.8 
184.5 
184.1 
184.0 
183.7 
183.6 
183.3 
182.3 
181.9 
180.8 
180.6 
180.4 
179.9 

195.1 

190.0 



* One day for high school teachers. t High schools, 6/8 and 6/12. 
t High schools, 6/10, 6/11, 6/12. 
For length of session for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 301, 



There were but 12 schools open fewer than 180 days. The im- 
provement in this particular is very marked since 1926, when 



Length of Session; Per Cent of Attendance 



25 



124 schools were open too few days. Seven of the 12 schools 
thus handicapped were one-teacher schools. Only seven counties 
had schools open too few days, and only one of these counties had 
as many as 3 schools which were open fewer than 180 days. The 
others had only one or two schools for which the session was 
short. (See Table 16.) 

TABLE 16 

Number of Maryland County White Schools in Session Less Than 180 Days, 
Year Ending July 31, 1931 



No. of Schools Open Less Than No. of Schools Open Less Than 

180 Days 180 Days 











Having 








Having 








Having 


More 






Having 


More 






Total 


One 


than One 




Total 


One 


than One 


County 


Year 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 




1931 


12 


7 


5 


Calvert 


1 




1 




1930 


28 


22 


6 


Cecil 


1 


1 




All 


1929 


62 


45 


17 




1 


1 




Counties. . . . 


192S 


33 


25 


8 




2 




2 




1927 


83 


68 


15 




2 


2 






1926 


12-i 


109 


15 




2 




2 












Carroll 


3 


3 





1931 A BANNER YEAR IN ATTENDANCE 

The 1931 per cent of attendance in county white elementary 
schools was 91.6, higher by .6 than for the year preceding. The 
graded schools reached 92 per cent, the two-teacher schools 91.4, 
and the one-teacher schools had an attendance just under 90 per 
cent. The greatest gains over 1930 were made in the one- and 
two-teacher schools. (See Table 17.) 

TABLE 17 

Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland Countv White Elementary Schools, for School 
Years Ending in June 1923, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1930, 1931 



1931 
Increase 

Type of School 1923 1925 1927 1929 1930 1931 over 1930 

White Elementary 84. 2 87.2 88.7 88.8 91.0 91.6 .6 

One Teacher 79.4 83.1 85.0 85.7 88.4 89.9 1.5 

Two Teacher 82.2 85.8 87.4 87.5 90.1 91.4 1.3 

Graded 87.3 89.4 90.2 89.8 91.8 92.0 .2 



In 1931 the counties ranged in per cent of attendance from 
88.3 per cent to 94 per cent. The difference of less than 6 be- 
tween the lowest county and highest county in per cent of at- 
tendance is considerably less than that of 15 per cent which 
measured the difference in 1923 between the counties highest and 
lowest in attendance. Moreover the county having the lowest 
attendance in 1931 is only a trifle below the attendance found in 



26 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

the county which had the highest attendance in the State in 1923. 
(See Table 18.) 

TABLE 18 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


*1931 


County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


*1931 


County Average . . 


84.2 


88.8 


91 


.0 


91.6 




, , 84 


.5 


89.7 


91.0 


90.9 














84, 


,0 


89.6 


90.9 


90.8 




89.0 


91.0 


93, 


.8 


94.0 


Kent 


86 


.7 


88.6 


91.0 


90.7 


Caroline 


86.5 


90.0 


90 


.8 


93.2 








Prince George's , . . 


84.9 


91.0 


92 


.2 


92.9 


Cecil 


, , 84 


.8 


86.7 


90.7 


90.7 


Talbot 


85.8 


89.4 


91. 


,9 


92.5 


Carroll 


79 


.4 


86.4 


88.4 


90.6 




83.9 


86.6 


90, 


5 


92.5 


St. Mary's 


74 


.5 


86.4 


91.0 


90.2 














Harford 


84, 


5 


87.8 


89.7 


89.9 




83.6 


88.7 


91. 


3 


92.5 




. . 85, 


.4 


87.6 


89.4 


89.8 




81.9 


88.2 


91 


.5 


91.7 














Somerset 


83.3 


88.2 


88. 


9 


91.6 




83 


,5 


88.0 


88.9 


89.5 




86.5 


89.8 


92. 


1 


91.5 


Calvert 


. , ,79 


.9 


84.8 


88.4 


89.5 




84.9 


88.7 


90, 


.8 


91.5 


Charles 


. , 79 


,5 


83.8 


87.0 


88.3 




81.2 


88.3 


90, 


3 


91.4 


Baltimore City , , , 


, 89 


.8 


90.5 


91.8 


91.4 




84.0 


88.7 


90, 


.7 


91.0 
























Entire State 


, , 86, 


.7 


89.5 


91.3 


91.6 



TABLE 19 

Per Cent of Attendance for School Years Ending in June 1924, 1930 and 1931 
By Types of White Elementary Schools 



Schools Having One Teacher Schools Having Two Teachers Graded Schools 

County 1924 1930tl931 County 1924 1930tl931 County 1924 1930tl931 



County Aver. . 


.80 


.9 


88 


.4 89 


.9 


County Aver. . 


.83.9 


90 


.1 


91 


.4 


County Aver. . 


.88 


.3*91 


.8*92.0 




79. 


6 


88. 


.5 92, 


5 




88.9 


93 


.8 


94 


.0 




92 


.4*94 


.3*94.2 


Talbot 


87. 


2 


92 


.0 


92. 


4 


Somerset 


83.3 


89 


.5 


93 


.4 




89 


.9 92 


.7 93.4 


Caroline 


.88, 


.3 


88 


.6 


91 


,9 




86.3 


91 


.3 


93 


.2 


Caroline 


89 


.9 90 


.9 93.3 


Garrett 


81, 


,2 


89 


.0 91 


.7 


Garrett 


87.7 


90 


.8 


93 


.0 


Prince George' 


s.89 


.0 92 


.5J93.2 




83, 


,9 


90 


.8 


91 


.4 


Caroline 


87.9 


91 


.6 


92.9 


Frederick 


86 


.4 92 


.2 92.6 


Somerset 


81. 


,7 


87. 


,8 91, 


2 


Talbot 


86.7 


95 


.3 


92 


.9 


Talbot 


88 


.5 91 


.8 92.6 




82. 


9 


87, 


.8 


90 


.7 


Prince George's. 85 . 8 


91 


.7 


92 


.7 


Washington . . . 


.88 


.8 92 


.2 92.4 


Montgomery. . 


.78. 


1 


89, 


,3 


90. 


3 


Cecil 


86.5 


91 


.9 


92 


.5 


Dorchester. . . 


.89 


.5 91 


.3 92.3 


Prince George'i 


3.83, 


3 


89, 


,8 


90, 


.2 


St. Marv's. . . . 


81.4 


92 


.0 


92 


.2 


Howard 


85 


.8 91, 


.4 92.0 




82. 


3 


89 


.8 


90, 


.0 


Montgomery. . 


.80.5 


89, 


,9 


92 


.0 


Montgomery . . 


.86, 


.3*92, 


.2*91.7 


Cecil 


81. 


,7 


89, 


.8 


90, 





Anne Arundel. 


.81.9 


91 


.8 


91 


.9 




89 


.3 92 


.7 91.4 


Calvert 


77. 


2 


87, 


,7 


89, 


,8 




80.3 


89 


.7 


91 


.7 




86 


.7 89 


.1 91.3 


Kent 


84. 


8 


89, 


,7 


89, 


,8 


Queen Anne's . 


.86.5 


91 


.4 


91 


.0 




88 


.3 92 


.2 91.3 


Dorchester. . . 


.81. 


3 


88 


.1 


89 


.4 


Kent 


85.8 


90 


.0 


90 


.9 


Baltimore . . . . 


86 


.2 91 


,0 91.2 




82, 


.7 


88 


.6 


89 


.4 


Calvert 


81.7 


90 


.2 


90 


.8 


Carroll 


84 


.3 90, 


.0 91.1 


Carroll 


78, 


2 


86 


.4 


89 


.3 




81.9 


91 


.2 


90 


. 5 


Anne Arundel . 


.87 


.9 91, 


.1 90.8 


Anne Arundel. 


.77. 


6 


87, 


1 


89. 





Carroll 


81.4 


85, 


.3 


90 


.5 




89 


.3 89, 


,9 90.5 




77. 


3 


82, 


.7 


88. 


9 


Harford 


85.6 


88, 


.8 


90 


.3 


Cecil 


87 


.3 90, 


,7 90.4 


Howard 


82. 


5 


89 


.9 


88, 


.6 


Dorchester. . . 


.86.7 


89 


.2 


90 


.1 


Queen Anne's . 


.88 


.3 89, 


,6 90.3 


St. Mary's 


79. 


3 


89 


.1 


88, 


.4 


Worcester .... 


82.6 


92 


.1 


89 


.6 




88 


.9 90, 


.5 89.9 


Queen Anne's . 


.82, 


.9 


86 


.9 


87 


.8 


Washington. . . 


.80.6 


87 


.5 


89 


.2 


St. Mary's 




91 


.9 89.2 


Washington. . , 


.80 


.1 


86 


.6 


87 


.7 




82.5 


89 


.0 


89 


.2 


Charles 


88 


.4 88 


.6 88.5 




77 


.0 


84 


.6 


86 


.3 




84.3 


87 


.1 


87 


.1 






87 


.8 86.9 



t For similar data by counties arranged alphabetically, see Table \T, page 300. 
* Includes Junior High School, Grades 7-8. 
X Includes Junior High School, Grade 7. 



Per Cent of Attendance by Counties and Months 



27 



All except five of the counties equalled or exceeded in 1931 the 
per cent of attendance in white elementary schools they had in 
1930. 

In one-teacher schools, the counties varied in attendance from 
86.3 to 92.5 per cent. In two-teacher and graded schools, the 
range was from 87 to 94 per cent. (See Table 19.) 

Monthly Attendance 

The average enrollment in white elementary schools was high- 
est in November and December, after which it declined slightly 

TABLE 20 



Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County White 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1931 



MONTH 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 




Average Number Belonging 


September 


102,206 


14,200 


11,800 


76,206 


October 


104,727 


14,929 


12,174 


77,624 


November 


105,299 


14,984 


12,265 


. 78,050 


December 


105,280 


14,973 


12,255 


78,052 


January 


104,901 


14,820 


12,262 


77,819 


February 


104,816 


14,820 


12,219 


77,777 


March 


104,201 


14,684 


12,101 


77,416 


April 


103,551 


14,505 


12,086 


76,960 


Mav 


102,702 


14,301 


11,945 


76,456 


June 


♦85,802 


*11,651 


♦10,233 


♦63,918 




104,147 


14,609 


12,209 


77,329 




Per Cent of 


Attendance 




September 


96.2 


94.3 


96.0 


96.6 


October 


94.5 


92.5 


94.3 


94.9 


November 


93.1 


91.7 


92.9 


93.4 


December 


91.8 


90.9 


91.7 


92.0 


January 


90.9 


90.2 


90.8 


91.1 


February 


89.0 


88.3 


89.3 


89.1 


March 


89.0 


87.0 


88.5 


89.5 


April 


89.5 


87.0 


89.1 


90.1 




90.4 


88.0 


89.8 


90.9 




93.5 


91.3 


93.0 


93.9 


Average for Year 


91.6 


89.9 


91.4 


92.0 



* In four countiee the schools close on May 31st and no pupils are enrolled in June. 



28 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

each month. The average enrollment for the year of 104,147 
included 14,609 in one-teacher schools, 12,209 in two-teacher 
schools, and 77,329 in graded schools. (See Table 20.) 

The per cent of attendance was highest in September in all 
types of schools and lowest in March and April in one-teacher 
schools, in March in two-teacher schools, and in February in 
graded schools. Thereafter it increased until the close of the 
school year. 

The corresponding figures for one-teacher, two-teacher, and 
graded schools are furnished in Table 20. 

Fewer Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Days 

The number of white elementary pupils present in 1931 under 
100 days, 5,825, is about one third of the comparable number in 
1924, namely, 15,110. Only 5.5 per cent of the pupils in 1931 
attended fewer than 100 days compared with 15 per cent in 1924. 
In one-teacher schools 7.7 per cent, in two-teacher schools 5.8 
per cent, and in graded schools 5 per cent were present under 
100 days. (See Table 21.) 

TABLE 21 



County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Davs, for School Years 
Ending in June from 1924 to 1931 





PRESENT UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


YEAR 

• 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


xla^'eher ^^^^^^ 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- Two- 
Teacher 1 Teacher 


Graded 



NUMBER 



1924 


15,110 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


30,913 


12,684 


5,704 


12.525 


1925 


12,343 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


26,497 


10,502 


4,776 


11,219 


1926 


11,533 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


25,327 


9,359 


4,196 


11,772 


1927 


10,382 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


22,513 


7,749 


3,579 


11,185 


1928 


8,479 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


18,712 


5,989 


2,656 


10,067 


1929 


8,692 
6,888 


2,512 


1,337 


4,843 


19,985 


5,539 


3.121 


11,325 


1930 


1,566 


996 


4,326 


15,871 


3,883 


2,329 


9.659 


1931 


5,825 


1,155 


717 


3,953 


13.631 


2,733 


1.717 


9.181 



PER CENT 



1924 


15 





23 


4 


15.6 


10 


7 


30 


7 


45.4 


33.5 


22.5 


1925 


12 


2 


19 


6 


13.2 


8 


5 


26 


1 


39.7 


29.0 


19.2 


1926 


11 


3 


17 


8 


11.9 


8 


6 


24 


9 


38.1 


26.9 


19.1 


1927 


10 


1 


16 


1 


10.9 


7 


8 


21 


9 


33.7 


24.8 


17.1 


1928 


8 


2 


13 


3 


8.7 


6 


6 


18 


2 


28.3 


19.7 


14.7 


1929 


8 


4 


13 


3 


9.6 


6 


8 


19 


3 


29.4 


22.5 


16.0 


1930 


6 


6 


9 


3 


7.4 


5 


8 


15 


2 


23.2 


17.2 


13.1 


1931 


5 


5 


7 


7 


5.8 


5 





12 


9 


18.3 


13.8 


11.7 



A similar decrease is evident in pupils present under 140 days. 
This means that teachers are having a larger proportion of chil- 



Pupils Present under 100 and 140 Days 



29 



dren in school more days to benefit from the instruction offered. 
(See Table 21.) 

The teachers in some counties had much more time to work 
with pupils than was the case in other counties. While four 
counties had less than 3 per cent of their pupils present under 
100 days, six counties had from 7 to 9 per cent present so limited 
a time. 

Five counties had less than 11 per cent of their white ele- 
mentary pupils present under 140 days as against six counties 
with 16 to 21 per cent attending so short a time — i.e. missing at 
least two months of school work. (See Table 22.) 

TABLE 22 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 100 and 140 Days for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1931 



PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 



COUNTY 


All Elementary 


One-Teacher 




Two-Teacher 




Graded 






Schools 






Schools 






Schools 




Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under lOojunder 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Total Number . 


5,825 


13,631 


1,155 


2,733 


717 


1.717 


3.953 


9,181 


County Aver . . 


5 


5 


12 


9 


7 


7 


18 


3 


5 


8 


13.8 


5 





11.7 


Prince George's 


2 


3 


8 


1 


4 





14 


3 


2 


6 


10.4 


2 


1 


7.3 


Allegan V 


4 


9 


9 





8 


3 


17 


3 


4 


4 


7.9 


4 


8 


8.6 




2 


4 


9 


8 


5 


2 


11 


1 


1 


5 


11.1 


2 


2 


9.4 




1 


8 


10 


7 


2 





12 


1 


1 





11.0 


2 


1 


8.4 


Kent 


2 


8 


10 


7 


2 


2 


11 


7 


3 


8 


11.6 


2 


8 


9.5 


Talbot 


5 





11 


5 


3 


6 


9 


7 






8.2 


5 


4 


11.9 


Baltimore 


5 


6 


11 


7 


9 





18 





5 


8 


14.0 


5 


3 


11.0 




5 


7 


12 


4 


9 


5 


19 


2 


3 


6 


10.2 


4 


3 


9.3 


Queen Anne's. . 


5 


4 


13 


3 


6 


7 


17 


9 


4 


1 


10.9 


5 


3 


12.2 


Somerset 


5 


4 


13 


4 


7 


8 


17 




5 


5 


12.6 


4 


8 


12.6 


Cecil 


6 


3 


13 


8 


10 


1 


18 


4 


5 


3 


10.9 


4 


5 


12.3 




5 


4 


14 





8 


6 


18 


1 


7 


2 


15.5 


3 


7 


12.0 


Carroll 


5 


8 


14 


6 


7 


5 


19 





6 


9 


16.3 


5 





12.3 


Anne Arundel . 


6 


9 


14 


8 


7 


5 


17 





6 


8 


13.0 


6 


9 


14.9 


Montgomery. . 


7 


5 


14 


8 


8 


8 


19 


1 


6 


9 


14.1 


7 


4 


14.4 


Caroline 


6 


1 


15 


1 


5 


9 


16 


5 


11 


6 


19.6 


5 


2 


14.2 


Dorchester. . . . 


6 


8 


15 


9 


9 


4 


23 


3 


7 


9 


18.3 


5 


8 


13.1 




7 


5 


16 





6 


5 


15 


6 


4 


6 


10.5 


8 


3 


16.9 


Washington . . . 


7 


7 


16 


4 


16 


8 


30 


6 


11 


2 


22.5 


5 


7 


13.3 


Worcester 


6 


6 


17 


6 


8 


7 


25 


5 


7 


9 


18.7 


5 


8 


15.0 


St. Mary's 


7 


8 


19 


8 


7 


5 


23 


4 


7 


4 


15.9 


9 


2 


21.6 


Charles 


8 


3 


20 


5 


8 


3 


11 


1 


8 


4 


20.6 


8 


3 


20.7 


Calvert 


8 


9 


21 


1 


8 


9 


23 





8 


7 


16.6 


9 


3 


23.6 



FEWER CHILDREN ENTER SCHOOL LATE 

Whereas over 10 per cent of the public school white elementary 
pupils in 1924 entered school after the first month, this was the 
case for only 2.6 per cent of the pupils in 1931, if those who are 
transferred are excluded. Every type of cause of late entrance 
shows a decrease for every type of school, except those resulting 



30 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 23 

Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in 

June, 1924-1931 





entering AFTER 
FIRST MONTH EX- 
CLUSIVE OF TRANS- 
FERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 
ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE FIRST 
MONTH BECAUSE OF 


YEAR 


Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 

Indif- 
ference 


Just 
Moving 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


Illness 
or 

Quaran- 
tine 


Under 
School 
Age and 
Other 
Causes 



White Elementary Schools 



1924... . 


11,792 


10.4 


3.5 


2.5 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


.2 


1925. . . . 


9,297 


8.2 


2.8 


2.1 


1.6 


.8 


.7 


.2 


1926. . . . 


8,646 


7.6 


2.7 


1.6 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.5 


1927. . . . 


7,330 


6.4 


2.2 


1.4 


1.1 


.5 


.7 


.5 


1928. . . . 


5,534 


4.8 


1.7 


1.1 


.8 


.4 


.5 


.3 


1929... . 


6,227 


5.4 


1.6 


1.0 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930. . . . 


4,240 


3.6 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.2 


.5 


.2 


1931.... 


3,020 


2.6 


.8 


.7 


.5 


.1 


.3 


.2 



One-Teacher Schools 



1924. . . . 


5,644 


17.5 


7.4 


3.5 


1.9 


3.0 


1.4 


.3 


1925... . 


4,349 


14.3 


6.1 


3.1 


1.9 


2.0 


.9 


.3 


1926. . . . 


3,854 


13.7 


6.2 


2.5 


1.5 


1.9 


.9 


.7 


1927. . . . 


3,058 


11.6 


5.0 


2.3 


1.2 


1.3 


.9 


.9 


1928. . . . 


2,178 


8.9 


4.2 


1.7 


.9 


.9 


.6 


.6 


1929... . 


2,160 


9.9 


4.3 


1.5 


1.1 


.8 


.9 


1.3 


1930. . . . 


1,334 


6.9 


3.2 


1.4 


.7 


.6 


.7 


.3 


1931.... 


805 


4.7 


1.9 


1.1 


.8 


.2 


.5 


.2 



Two-Teacher Schools 



1924. . . . 


2,183 


11.5 


3.9 


2.6 


1.8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 


1925... . 


1,725 


9.4 


3.2 


2.6 


1.7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926... . 


1,494 


8.6 


3.5 


1.6 


1.2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927. . . . 


1,228 


7.6 


3.1 


1.6 


.9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1928. . . . 


896 


6.0 


2.1 


1.6 


.9 


.4 


.5 


.5 


1929... . 


926 


6.0 


2.1 


1.1 


1.0 


.4 


.7 


.7 


1930. . . . 


710 


4.7 


1.8 


1.1 


.8 


.3 


.4 


.3 


1931.... 


454 


3.3 


1.1 


.8 


.6 


.3 


.3 


.2 



Graded Schools 



1924... . 


3,965 


6.4 


1.4 


1.8 


1.7 


.5 


.8 


.2 


1925. . . . 


3,223 


5.0 


1.0 


1.6 


1.4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926... . 


3,298 


4.8 


1.0 


1.4 


1.2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927... . 


3,044 


4.2 


1.0 


1.0 


1.1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928. . . . 


2,460 


3.2 


.8 


.8 


.8 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1929. . . . 


3,141 


4.0 


.8 


.9 


.9 


.2 


.6 


.6 


1930. . . . 


2,196 


2.7 


.7 


.7 


.5 


.2 


.4 


.2 


1931.... 


1,761 


2.0 


.5 


.6 


.4 


.1 


.3 


.1 



Causes of Late Entrance to White Elementary Schools 31 



from newcomers to one-teacher schools who were not transferred 
from other schools. This satisfactory improvement has resulted 
from improved schools, greater interest of teachers and attend- 
ance officers, and wider publicity by school officials regarding the 
importance of entering school when it first opens. (See Table 
23.) 

The number of late entrants to white elementary schools for 
employment, negligence, or indifference decreased from 1930 to 
1931 by one third, the number being 1,843 in 1931, or 1.6 per 
cent of the total enrollment. In five counties 1 per cent or less of 
the pupils were late entrants, while in four counties over 3 per 
cent of the pupils entered late for employment, indifference, and 
neglect. Employment was an important factor in late entrance 
in St. Mary's, Dorchester, and Carroll, while neglect or indiffer- 
ence affected the late entrance of over 2 per cent of the Calvert 
County pupils. If, before opening schools each year, a careful 
check is made of families which have been offenders in the past 
in the matter of late entrance, and this is followed by notification 
or visits prior to the opening of school, a still further reduction 
in the number of late entrants may be expected. (See Table 24.) 

TABLE 24 

Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference, or Neglect, 
for School Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons : 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 
























Total 


Total 


13 Years 


Negli- 
gence 


Under 
13 Years, 


13 Years 


Negli- 
gence 


Under 
13 Years, 




Number 


Per Cent 


or More, 
Employed 


or Indif- 
ference 


Illegally 
Employed 


or More, 
Employed 


or Indif- 
ference 


Illegally 
Employed 


County Aver . . . 


1,843 


1 


6 




8 


.7 


.1 








86 


7 




2 


.5 


1 


7 


1 


Baltimore 


134 




7 




3 


.4 




4 


6 


5 


Prince George's. 


72 




9 




3 


.6 




2 


12 


4 


Montgomery . . . 


63 




9 




4 


.5 




5 


8 


6 


Anne Arundel . . 


68 


1 







3 


.5 


.2 


3 


9 


14 


Talbot 


23 


1 


2 


1 





.2 




12 


2 


2 


Charles 


44 


1 


3 


5 


.7 


.1 


6 


13 


10 




52 


1 


3 




9 


.4 




11 


5 


3 


Frederick 


134 


1 


6 




9 


.7 




10 

9 


14 




Worcester 


42 


1 


7 




7 


.8 


.2 


15 


13 


Kent 


28 


1 


7 


1 


5 




.2 


18 
8 


1 


17 




42 


1 


9 


5 


1.3 


.1 


20 


12 




51 


2 


1 


1 


5 


.3 


.3 


17 


4 


18 


Harford 


99 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1.0 


.1 


14 


18 


11 


Cecil 


33 


2 


2 




5 


1.3 


.4 


7 


21 


19 


Queen Anne's. . . 


42 


2 


3 


1 


4 


.2 


.7 


16 


3 


21 


Washington .... 


293 


2 


4 


1 


.0 


1.2 


.2 


13 


19 


15 


Garrett 


107 


2 


5 


1 


.6 


.8 


.1 


19 


17 


8 


Carroll 


143 


2 


6 


2 





.5 


.1 


21 


10 


9 


Somerset 


84 


3 


4 


1 


.8 


1.4 


.2 


20 


22 


16 




118 


3 


6 


2 


.5 


.6 


.5 


22 


11 


20 


Calvert 


37 


4 


2 


1 


.1 


2.2 


.9 


15 


23 


23 


St. Mary's 


48 


4 


3 


2 


8 


.8 


.7 


23 


16 


22 







32 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



FEWER CHILDREN WITHDRAW FROM COUNTY ELEMENTARY 

SCHOOLS 

Slightly fewer than 10 per cent of the county white elementary 
pupils withdraw from school because of removal, transfer, or 
death. One eighth of the pupils in one-teacher schools move away, 
are transferred, or die, while this is the case for one tenth of 
the pupils in two-teacher schools, and for 9.3 per cent in graded 
schools. (See Table 25.) 



TABLE 25 

Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools, for School Year 

Ending in June, 1931 





Number Leaving 


Per Cent Leaving 


Causes of Withdrawal 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All Ele- 
mentary 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Removal, Transfer, 
Death 


11,479 


■ ■ ■ ■ 
2,097 


1,361 


8,021 


9.8 


12.4 


9.9 


9.3 












Total Other Causes . . . 


3,642 


755 


488 


2,399 


3.1 


4.5 


3.5 


2.8 




1,493 
1,255 


402 


224 


867 


1.3 


2.4 


1.6 


1.0 


Mental and Physical 


162 


149 


944 


1.1 


1.0 


1.1 


1.1 


Under 7 or Over 18 . . . 


420 

306 


93 

58 


62 
37 


265 
211 


.3 
.3 


. 5 
.4 


.4 
.3 


.3 
.3 


Other Causes 


168 


40 


16 


112 


.1 


.2 


.1 


.1 













Withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death affected 3.1 per cent of the white elementary pupils. Em- 
ployment was assigned by teachers as the reason for the with- 
drawal of 1,493, or 1.3 per cent of the white elementary pupils 
enrolled, mental and physical incapacity for the withdrawal of 
1,255, or 1.1 per cent of the pupils. The one-teacher schools re- 
ported 2.4 per cent of their pupils withdrawn for employment, 
the two-teacher schools 1.6 per cent, and the graded schools 1 
per cent. Poverty caused the withdrawal of a slightly higher 
percentage of pupils from one-teacher than from larger schools. 
(See Table 25.) 

The three southernmost counties of Southern Maryland and 
Somerset County had the lowest percentage of withdrawals for 
removal, transfer, or death — under 6 per cent, while Howard, 
Wicomico, Harford, Prince George's, Cecil, Queen Anne's, and 
Kent had over 11 per cent of their white elementary pupils with- 
drawn for these reasons. 

Less than 3 per cent of the white elementary pupils in Prince 
George's, Cecil, Baltimore, Carroll, Montgomery, and Queen 
Anne's left school for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death, while over 5 per cent of the Somerset and St. Mary's 
pupils withdrew for these reasons, chiefly for employment, and 
in St. Mary's for mental and physical incapacity. (See Table 
26.) 



Causes of Withdrawal from County White Elementary Schools 33 



TABLE 26 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending June 30, 1931 



COUNTY 




WITHDRAWALS 


FOR FOLLOWING 


CAUSES 


»» ll/llU. 

fc 

Rem 
Trans 
De 

No. 


)r 

oval, 
fer or 
ath 

Per 
i^eni 


Total 
Num- 
ber 


Total 
Per 
Cent 


PEE 

Em- 
ploy- 
ment 


. CENT V 

Mental 

and 
Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


k^ITHDRA 

Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


WING 

srOV- 
erty 


FOR 
Causes 


Total and Average 


1 1 479 


Q s 
y . o 




3 1 


1 3 




3 




]^ 


Prince George's . . . 


you 


11./ 


1 OQ 


1 i\ 


_ 

■ 2 


ft 
. o 








Cecil 


Ana 


1 1 . D 


61 


1 7 


' 


Q 

. y 






. 1 


Baltimore 


1 , / iO 




OTtO 


1 Q 

1 . y 


. o 


Q 
. o 


Q 

. o 


. 1 


. 1 


Carroll 


466 


8.5 


131 


2.4 


.9 


.9 


.4 


.1 


.1 


Montgomery 


701 


10 


176 


2.5 


. 5 


1.3 


. 5 


. 1 


.1 


Anne Arundel 


666 


9.8 


174 


2.6 


.9 


1.0 


.4 


.1 


.2 


Queen Anne's 


206 


11.5 


46 


2.6 


1.3 


.9 




.3 


.1 


Talbot 


177 


8.9 


61 


3.1 


1.2 


1.1 


.2 


.2 


.4 


Calvert 


47 


5.4 


28 


3.2 


1.1 


1.0 


.2 


.5 


.4 


Howard 


311 


14.3 


71 


3.3 


1.3 


1.1 


.7 




2 


Caroline 


255 


10.3 


81 


3.3 


2.2 


.5 


.1 


.3 


.2 


Harford 


536 


11.7 


153 


3.3 


1.5 


1.0 


.5 


.1 


.2 


Allegany 


1,185 


9.2 


436 


3.4 


1.4 


1.0 


.3 


^.o 


.2 


Frederick 


691 


8.4 


284 


3.5 


1.5 


1.6 


.2 


.2 




Kent 


181 


11.1 


63 


3.9 


1.7 


1.8 


.1 


.1 


.2 


Charles 


73 


4.9 


59 


3.9 


1.5 


.9 


.3 


1.1 


.1 


Garrett 


449 


10.4 


183 


4.2 


2.1 


1.1 


.6 


.2 


.2 


Washington 


1,313 


10.7 


526 


4.3 


1.9 


1.2 


.5 


. 5 


2 


Wicomico 


485 


11.9 


175 


4.3 


1.4 


1.9 


.4 


.3 


^3 


Worcester 


237 


9.4 


111 


4.4 


1.7 


1.2 


.5 


.9 


.1 


Dorchester 


228 


7.0 


143 


4.4 


2.3 


.9 


.7 


.4 


.1 


Somerset 


135 


5.4 


119 


4.8 


3.0 


1.0 


.2 


.4 


.2 


St. Mary's 


53 


4.8 


86 


7.8 


3.9 


3.0 


.6 


.1 


.2 



TABLE 27 



Per Cent of Pupils Absent 40 Days or More, With Cause of Absence, for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1931 





One- 


Two- 




All Whit^e Ele- 


Cause of Absence 


Graded 


mentary Schools 


Teacher 


Teacher 










Schools 


Schools 


Schools 














1931 


1930 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 














4.2 


3.5 


3.7 


3.8 


4.1 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect 


3.8 


3.3 


2.5 


2.8 


3.3 


Illegally Employed 


.6 


.4 


.2 


2 


.4 


Bad Weather and Roads 


. 5 


.2 


.1 


.1 


.3 


Other Causes 


.4 


.2 


.1 


.2 


.3 


Total 


9.0 


7.6 


6.6 


7.1 


8.4 


Number Absent 40 Days or More . . 


1,477 


981 


5,332 


7,790 


9,109 



84 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



LONG ABSENCES DECREASE IN NUMBER AND PER CENT 

Sickness accounts for over one-half of the long absences in 
white elementary schools — 3.8 per cent of the white elementary 
pupils being absent 40 days or more for these causes. Poverty, 
indifference and neglect were the explanations given for the long 
absence of 2.8 per cent of the white elementary pupils. This fact 
alone points to the need of a social worker in every county who 
would be in a position to render service to a number of families 
whose children are being deprived of the opportunity for an ed- 
ucation. (See Table 27.) 

EFFICIENCY IN GETTING AND KEEPING CHILDREN IN SCHOOL 

In order to sum up the various measures of school attendance 
thus far presented, viz., per cent of attendance, late entrance and 
withdrawals, the 23 counties have been ranked in accordance 
with an average of their ranking in these three items for white 

TABLE 28 



An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools for School Year 

Ending June 30, 1931 



COUNTY 


PER CENT OF 


RANK IN PER CENT OF 






















Attend- 


*Late 


fWith- 


Attend- 


*Late 


fWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


County and Average 


91 


6 


1 


6 


3 


1 








Prince George's 


92 


9 




9 


1 


6 


3 


3 


1 


Allegany 


94 







7 


3 


4 


1 


1 


13 


Montgomery 


91 


7 




9 


2 


5 


7 


4 


5 


Baltimore 


91 







7 


1 


9 


12 


2 


3 


Talbot 


92 


5 


1 


2 


3 


1 


4 


6 


8 




90 


9 


1 





2 


6 


13 


5 


6 


Caroline 


93 


2 


2 


1 


3 


3 


2 


13 


11 


Frederick 


92 


5 


1 


6 


3 


5 


6 


9 


14 


Cecil 


90 


7 


2 


2 


1 


7 


16 


15 


2 




90 


8 


1 


9 


3 


3 


14 


12 


10 




91 


5 


1 


3 


4 


3 


9 


8 


19 


Carroll 


90 


6 


2 


6 


2 


4 


17 


19 


4 


Garrett 


92 


5 


2 


5 


4 


2 


5 


18 


17 


Kent 


90 


7 


1 


7 


3 


9 


15 


11 


15 




89 


8 


2 


3 


2 


6 


20 


16 


7 


Harford 


89 


9 


2 


2 


3 


3 


19 


14 


12 


Washington 


91 


5 


2 


4 


4.3 


10 


17 


18 


Charles 


88 


3 


1 


3 


3.9 


23 


7 


16 




91 


6 


3 


4 


4 


8 


8 


20 


22 


Worcester 


89 


5 


1 


7 


4 


4 


21 


10 


20 


Calvert 


89 


5 


4 


2 


3.2 


22 


22 


9 


Dorchester 


91 


4 


3 


6 


4 


4 


11 


21 


21 


St. Mary's 


90 


2 


4 


3 


7 


8 


18 


23 


23 



* For employment, negligence, and indifference. The county having the smallest percentage of late 
entrants is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer and death. The county having the smallest percentage 
of withdrawals is ranked first. 



Index of School Attendance; White County Grade Enrollment 35 



elementary schools. That county is considered highest which 
has the highest percentage of attendance accompanying a low- 
percentage of late entrance and withdrawals. A county which 
lets its children enter school late and withdraw early may keep 
them in steady attendance while they are enrolled, but it is un- 
questionably doing less for its children than a county which pro- 
motes early attendance and discourages withdrawals and still 
keeps a high percentage of attendance. With this method of 
ranking, Prince George's led the counties of the State, and 
Allegany, Montgomery, and Baltimore took positions next in 
order. St. Mary's stood lowest on the list and Dorchester and 
Calvert next to the bottom. (See Table 28.) 

CHART 2 



Grade 
or tear 

Kgn. 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLLED BY GRADES 
IN MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1931 




7,514 



Total Boys 
445 [Ij227 

17,419 
15,432 

14,721 
15,273 
14,349 
13,394 
11,834 



Girl s i I 





I 


9,777 F 


HOOLS 


• II 


6,969 W 


o 








III 


5,490 P 


s 








IV 


*4,359 P 



7,413 



6,963 



6,579 



4,823 



3,722 



13 



2,565 



* Includes 8 boys and 13 girls, post-graduates. 



36 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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Distribution of White Enrollment by Grades 



37 



DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE COUNTY ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The enrollment in every grade of the county schools is larger 
in 1931 than in 1930, with the exception of grades 3 and 7, and 
of girls in grade 8. The first grade enrollment, especially for 
boys, is far in excess of that found for any other grade. Except 
for grade 4, the number of boys enrolled decreases in each suc- 
ceeding grade from the first to the last year of high school. For 
girls there is a decrease from grade to grade, except that the 
enrollment in grades 3 and 2 is smaller than that in the fourth 
grade. (See Cliart 2.) 

The number of boys exceeds the number of girls enrolled in 
each grade through the first year in high school. Since the 
census discloses more boys than girls in the population, this is 
to be expected. In the last three years of high school the girls 
outnumber the boys. Until 1931 this was the case for all four 
years of high school. This is, therefore, an indication that boys 
are accomplishing more work before they leave school than they 
did formerly. (See Chart 2.) 

Each county may find its white enrollment distributed by 
grade in Table 29. 

TABLE 30 



Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of Maryland County White 
Elementary Schools (By Types) Year Ending June 30, 1931 



GRADE 


* Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent of Average for 
Grades 2-4 in Each Grade 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Average of Grades 2-4 . . . 
Kindergarten 


2,305 


1 , 842 


10,995 

445 
12,392 
11,227 
10,619 
11,139 
10,698 
10,011 
9,222 
2,573 






4 
113 
102 
97 
101 
97 
91 
84 
23 


1 

2.... 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

Total 


2,793 
2,341 
2,257 
2,316 
1,970 
1,802 
1,345 
81 


2,234 
1,864 
1,845 
1,818 
1,681 
1,581 
1,267 
137 


121 
102 
98 
100 
85 
78 
58 
4 


121 
101 
100 
99 
91 
86 
69 
7 


14,905 


12,427 


78,326 

















'Exclusive of pupils who withdrew for removal, transfer or death. 



38 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



If it is assumed that the entrants to white elementary schools 
equal the average enrollment in grades 2 to 4, then of each 100 
entrants, 85 in one-teacher schools, 91 in two-teacher schools, and 
97 in graded schools stay through grade 5. The estimated sur- 
vival through grade 6 of each 100 entrants to school is 78 in one- 
teacher schools, 86 in two-teacher schools, and 91 in graded 
schools. For grade 7, the corresponding figures are 58 for one- 
teacher schools, 69 for two-teacher schools, and 84 for graded 
schools. Since a number of the counties are growing in popula- 
tion, these figures are probably too low. (See Table 30.) 

WHITE GRADUATES OF COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

DECREASE 

The year 1930 was the peak year in the number of boys and 
girls graduated from county white elementary schools, there be- 
ing 227 fewer in 1931. The 1931 graduates represented 10.2 per 
cent of the girls and 8.7 of the boys enrolled in white elementary 
schools, excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 
Assuming a stationary enrollment and graduation from the ele- 
mentary school for every first grade entrant, the maximum per 
cent of graduates in the elementary enrollment would be 14.3 
per cent in a county having seven grades in the elementary school 
course and 12.5 per cent in one having eight grades. (See Table 
31.) 

TABLE 31 

White County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per Cent 



Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 3,200 4,136 7,336 6.1 8.5 7.2 

1924 3,360 4,210 7.570 6.4 8.7 7.5 

1925 3,705 4,549 8.254 7.0 9.4 8.1 

1926 4,054 4,599 8,653 7.7 9.4 8.5 

1927 *4,290 *5,059 *9,349 *8.1 ♦10.2 *9.1 

1928 *4,329 *5,029 *9,358 *8.1 *10.1 *9.1 

1929 *4,742 *5.186 *9.928 *8.8 *10.4 *9.6 

1930 *4,857 *5,283 n0,140 *9.0 *10.5 '9.7 

1931 *4,757 *o,156 *9,913 *8.7 no.2 *9.4 



• Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 

It is to be expected that in ranking the counties in per cent of 
graduates, those having an eight grade elementary course will 
appear at the bottom of the list. They are accompanied, how- 
ever, by Calvert, Dorchester, and Somerset, all of which counties 
graduate relatively fewer pupils, since their per cent of non- 
promotion ranks high among the counties. For boys the per 
cent of graduates in the elementary enrollment ranged from 6 



Graduates of County White Elementary Schools 
CHART 3 



39 



PER Cmi OF GRADUATES 
IN rOTAL COUNTY WHITE ELBlFiNTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
1931 



County 



Number 
Boys Girls 



I Per Cent Boy£ 



IPer Cent Girls 



Total and . 
uO« Average 


,757 


5,156 


Kent 


81 


100 


Cecil 


184 


188 


Garrett 


241 


218 


Queen Anne's 


87 


97 


Caroline 


132 


124 


St. Mary's 


57 


60 


Carroll 


276 


274 


Worcester 


116 


131 


Iticonico 


178 


208 


Baltimore 


744 


817 


♦Montgomery- 


299 


310 


Charles 


63 


74 


Harford 


173 


212 


Pr. George's 


335 


343 


Talbot 


86 


81 


Howard 


84 


89 


Frederick 


339 


350 


Somerset 


74 


130 


Washington** 


417 


470 


Dorchester 


113 


131 


*Allegany** 


440 


481 


Calvert 


25 


39 


Anne Arundel«<-213 


229 




♦Includes eighth grade promotions in junior high schools. 
♦♦County has eight grades in elementary school course. 



40 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



per cent to over 11 per cent, and for girls the variation was from 
under 8 per cent to nearly 15 per cent. (See Chart 3.) 

Cecil, Garrett, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Washington, and 
Allegany graduated more boys and girls in 1931 than in 1930. 
Kent, Caroline, Carroll, Wicomico, and Anne Arundel had more 
boy graduates, while Baltimore, Prince George's, Howard, and 
Somerset had more girl graduates than they had a year ago. 
(See Chart 3.) 

It is to be expected that with the progress of consolidation 
there will be fewer graduates absolutely and relatively from one- 
and two-teacher schools. While the graded schools show more 
graduates, the per cent of graduates in the enrollment was lower 
in 1931 than in 1930. In Table 32, the individual counties are 
listed in the order in which they appear in Chart 3. 



TABLE 32 



Number of County White Elementary School Graduates in 1931 by Types of Schools 



COUNTY 


Number of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1931 


Per Cent of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1931 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and Average 


557 


555 


535 


578 


3,665 


4,023 


7.1 


■ 7.9 


8.2 


9.8 


9.1 


10.6 


Kent 


22 


30 


20 


18 


39 


52 


9.1 


13.8 


11.5 


12.3 


10.9 


16.5 


Cecil 


41 


48 


31 


38 


112 


102 


8.3 


11.4 


10.3 


13.4 


12.9 


13.4 


Garrett 


117 


95 


36 


41 


88 


82 


11.3 


11.2 


9.5 


12.1 


12.7 


13.2 




24 


10 


20 


19 


43 


68 


12.1 


6.3 


11.8 


15.3 


9.1 


14.8 


Caroline 


6 


1 


12 


5 


114 


118 


6.3 


1.3 


8.1 


3.9 


12.6 


13.7 


St. Mary's 


20 


24 


24 


22 


13 


14 


9.1 


13.1 


9.2 


11.1 


12.6 


17.1 


Carroll 


11 


12 


32 


29 


233 


233 


1.7 


2.0 


10.4 


12.6 


13.7 


15.3 


Worcester 


13 


11 


2 


2 


101 


118 


4.5 


4.8 


3.0 


2.7 


11.3 


16.0 




40 


48 


15 


21 


123 


139 


8.3 


10.7 


11.0 


14.1 


10.3 


11.8 




41 


52 


65 


65 


638 


700 


8.3 


10.5 


8.7 


10.0 


9.1 


10.5 


Montgomery 


31 


31 


39 


39 


*229 


*240 


9.6 


11.5 


8.8 


10.5 


9.1 


10.1 






1 


12 


7 


51 


66 




7.7 


14.8 
8.1 


9.5 


7.8 


11.3 


Harford 


34 


30 


37 


42 


102 


140 


7.7 


7.7 


11.2 


8.4 


12.0 


Prince George's 


14 


12 


39 


27 


282 


304 


5.0 


4.8 


9.4 


7.1 


9.2 


10.7 


Talbot 


8 


4 


4 


3 


74 


74 


5.5 


3.9 


17.4 


11.5 


9.2 


10.5 


Howard 


19 


21 


14 


18 


51 


50 


6.2 


8.7 


8.6 


10.6 


9.6 


10.8 


Frederick 


43 


25 


65 


75 


231 


250 


12.2 


7.8 


14.7 


18.3 


7.4 


8.7 


Somerset 


10 


15 


7 


17 


57 


98 


4.7 


7.6 


3.7 


9.6 


7.1 


12.8 


Washington 


16 


32 


21 


36 


380 


402 


2.4 


4.7 


3.8 


6.4 


8.8 


9.7 


Dorchester 


32 


24 


13 


11 


68 


96 


9.1 


8.3 


6.8 


6.7 


6.5 


9.8 


Allegany 


2 


17 


6 


13 


*432 


*451 


.6 


5.2 


1.2 


2.5 


8.3 


9.1 


Calvert 


13 


12 


5 


15 


7 


12 


6.7 


6.4 


3.8 


11.2 


9.7 


10.9 


Anne Arundel 






16 


15 


197 


214 






6.8 


6.3 


6.9 


8.0 

















* Includes pupils promoted from eighth grade in junior high schools. 



Graduates and Non Promotions, County White Elementary Schools 41 

NON-PROMOTIONS DECREASE FOR GIRLS 

With the exception of the year 1930, the 14,524 pupils not 
promoted formed a smaller group than in any year preceding. 
The per cent not promoted, 13.7 was the same as in 1930. The 
number and per cent of girls not promoted was the lowest num- 
ber on record, while the number and per cent of boys not pro- 
moted increased slightly. The excess of non-promotions for boys 
over girls still continues. (See Table 33.) 

TABLE 33 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County White Elementary Sclioois 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 13,435 8,586 

1924 11,999 7,193 

1925 10,673 6,336 

1926 10,392 6,140 

1927 9,954 6,134 

1928 10,346 6,109 

1929 9,147 5,609 

1930 8,962 5,371 

1931 9.231 5,293 







Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


22,021 


25.6 


17.5 


21.7 


19,192 


22.7 


14.8 


18.9 


17,009 


20.2 


13.0 


16.8 


16,532 


19.7 


12.5 


16.3 


16,088 


18.7 


12.4 


15.6 


16,455 


19.4 


12.3 


15.9 


14,756 


17.1 


11.3 


14.3 


14,333 


16.6 


10.7 


13.7 


14,524 


16.8 


10.4 


13.7 



Non-promotions for boys ranged from 6 per cent in one 
Eastern Shore County to 28.5 per cent in another Eastern Shore 
County, while in these same counties the percentages of girls 
who failed were 2.4 and 17.3, respectively. In every county more 
boys than girls were reported as failures. (See Chart 4.) 

The extremes of very small and very large numbers not pro- 
moted make a considerable difference in the school life of the 
children in the counties concerned. Is teaching superior or in- 
ferior in the counties at the extremes? Are children different 
in mental ability in these counties? Are standards different, 
lower in the counties having few failures and higher in those 
having many failures? Are the problems of individual children 
who are not doing work meriting promotion in the judgment of 
the supervisor being studied as suggested by Miss Skidmore in 
''A Cross Section of Supervision in Garrett County",* or by Miss 
Compton in her supervisory report for 1930-31 ? 

In general, the percentage of failure was higher in one-teacher 
than in two-teacher schools, and in two-teacher than in graded 
schools, but in individual counties this is not necessarily the case. 
In a number of counties the two-teacher schools have a lower 
percentage of failure than the graded schools, and in several the 
highest per cent of failure is found in the graded schools. (See 
Table 34.) 



* See pages 8-11 of Maryland School Bulletin. Vol. XIII. No. 2. November. 1931. 



42 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 4 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CODNTI WHITE ELmENTAHT AIJD JUNIOR HIGH PUPILS 
THROUGH GRADE 8 NOT PROMOTED, 1931 

Coiinty Number 

■■■ Per Cent Boys v/Z/A Per Cent Girls 



Total and 
Co. Average 



Boys Girls 
9,231 5,293 



10.4 7/////////////A 



Caroline 67 
Cecil ■ 131 

Garrett 233 
Allegany 816 
K§nt 119 
Talbot 154 
Kontgomery 465 
Queen Anne's 122 
Prince George's 556 
Anne Arxmdel 527 
Carroll 
Harford 
BaltL-nore 
Washington 
Worcester 
St. Uary's 
Frederick 



Wicomico 

Somerset 

Charles 

Howard 

Calvert 

Dorchester 



501 
390 
1,429 
1,011 
231 
117 
777 
379 
260 
176 
212 

108 
450 



26 
65 

121 

470 
50 
59 

287 
72 

338 

315 
232 
201 
967 
620 
111 

47 
462 
216 
140 

69 
111 

66 
248 



m 



<^.iy///////////7Z\ 



IQ . 6 V///////// /////A 



///////A 



V/////////A 



J 



10 



12.2 



...v..— 1 



^1 



In one-teacher schools, failure for boys varied in individual 
counties from 7 per cent to over 33 per cent, while the same 
counties had extremes in non-promotion rates for girls of 3 and 
22.5 per cent. In two-teacher schools, the lowest county failed 
3 per cent of the boys and the highest county over 34 per cent, 
while for girls the range was from 4 per cent to over 17. Graded 
schools had a variation in non-promotion for boys from 6 to 29 
per cent and for girls from 2 to 20 per cent. (See Table 34.) 



NoN Promotions in County White Elemeixtary Schools 



43 



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44 



1931 Report of State Departinient of Education 
CHART 5 



NON PROMOTIONS BT GRADES IN COUHn WHITE ELIMENTARI AND 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS THROUGH GRADE 8 FOR YEAR ENDING IN 
JUNE, 1931 



Number 
Grade Boys Girls 



Kgn, 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



26 
2,319 
1,214 
992 
1,280 
1,076 
1,088 
988 
248 



Per Cent Boys 



VZZ^ Per Cent Girls 




534 11677 '//////// ////////////////////// //////A 
572 



7B7 
605 



6531 



543La±l 



Non-Promotions by Grades 

Non-promotions in number and per cent were highest in grade 
1 and lowest in grade 3. A marked reduction occurred in non- 
promotions of girls in grade 1 and of boys in grade 6, while there 
was a considerable increase in the failures for boys in grades 4 
and 7 and for girls in grade 8 from 1930 to 1931. (See Chart 
5.) In the one- and two-teacher schools, excluding grades 1 and 



TABLE 35 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Boys and Girls Not Promoted, 
by Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1931 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


grade 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 












26 


23 










11.5 


10.6 




445 


261 


338 


193 


1,536 
864 


880 


28.5 


21.2 


27.2 


19.4 


23.1 


15.3 




185 


86 


165 


82 


486 


14.8 


7.9 


17.0 


9.2 


14.7 


9.1 




180 


87 


105 


74 


707 

868 


411 


14.7 


8.5 


10.7 


8.5 


12.9 


8.0 




236 


152 


176 


106 


529 


19.6 


13.6 


18.4 


12.3 


15.2 


9.7 




144 


70 


136 


74 


796 


461 


14.1 


7.4 


15.5 


9.2 


14.5 


8.9 




146 


86 


139 


64 


803 


483 


16.0 


9.7 


17.4 


8.2 


15.7 


9.8 




98 


61 


82 


57 


808 


425 


14.1 


9.4 


13.1 


8.9 


17.5 


9.2 




8 


6 


17 


13 


223 


123 


30.8 


10.9 


28.3 


16.9 


17.1 


9.7 




























Total 


1,442 


809 


1,158 


663 


6,631 


3,821 


18.3 


11.5 


17.8 


11.2 


16.4 


10.1 















NoN Promotions by Grade and Cause in White Elementary Schools 45 



8, the fourth grade seems to exhibit the highest per cent of non- 
promotions. (See Table 35.) For non-promotions by grades in 
each county, see Table VIII, page 302. 

Causes of Non-Promotion 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest are given by 
teachers more frequently as a cause of failure in 1931 than in 
1930. Over one-third of the failures are attributed by teachers 
to these causes. It is probably to be expected that home condi- 
tions would deteriorate in a period of economic depression such 
as we are suffering at present. But the fact that this is the most 

TABLE 36 



Causes of Non-Promotions for White Elementary School Pupils Not Promoted for 
Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Elementary 
Schools 




1931 


1930 



NUMBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 












of Interest 


666 


715 


3,681 


5,062 


4,724 


Mental Incapacity 


494 


333 


2,059 


2,886 


2,817 


Irregular Attendance not Due to Sick- 












ness 


284 


194 


837 


1,315 


1,510 


Personal Illness 


237 


178 


1,280 


1,695 


1,740 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed 


188 


95 


539 


822 


1,007 


Transfer from Other Schools 


121 


93 


611 


825 


863 


Late Entrance Other than 100-Day 












Pupils 


77 


46 


160 


283 


337 


Other Causes 


184 


167 


1,285 


1,636 


1,335 


Total 


2,251 


1,821 


10,452 


14,524 


14,333 


PER 


CENT 










Unfortunate Home Conditions and Lack 












of Interest 


4.5 


5.8 


4.7 


4.8 


4.5 


Mental Incapacity 


3.3 


2.7 


2.6 


2.7 


2.7 


Irregular Attendance not Due to 












Sickness 


1.9 


1.6 


1.1 


1.2 


1.4 




1.6 


1.4 


1.6 


1.6 


1.7 


Thirteen Y'ears or Over, Employed 


1.3 


.8 


.7 


.8 


1.0 


Transfer from Other Schools 


.8 


.7 


.8 


.8 


.8 


Late Entrance Other than 100-Day 












Pupils 


.5 


.4 


.2 


.3 


.3 


Other Causes 


1.2 


1.3 


1.6 


1.5 


1.3 


Total 


' 15.1 


14.7 


13.3 


13.7 


13.7 



46 



s 

o 



i 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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III 

o 



Causes of Non Promotion, Tests in White Elementary Schools 47 



important factor in retardation points to the need for developing 
an adequate social welfare program in every county. This should 
result in helping the school program. (See Table 36.) 

Over one half of the counties report at least 5 per cent of the 
children retarded in their school work because of unfortunate 
home conditions. Two counties report 5 and 6 per cent failing 
because of mental incapacity. Irregular attendance not due to 
sickness is a factor affecting 3 or more per cent of the pupils in 
three counties. In four counties 2 or more per cent of the chil- 
dren lost out in their school work because of illness, while in two 
counties employment affected the promotion of 2 per cent of the 
children. * 'Other causes" affected the promotion of 3 and 6 per 
cent of the pupils in Montgomery and Dorchester Counties, re- 
spectively. (See Table 37.) 

Standard Tests Given in White Elementary Schools of Maryland Counties 
September, 1930 to June, 1931 



County 
Allegany 



Time of Testing 

June 

September 1 

September 6 

January 2- 

January 2- 

June 8 



Grades 

Tested Tests Given 

4-8 Wiedefeld-Wa,lther Geography Test. 

Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental Test. 
Otis Intelligence. 
Otis Ingelligence. 

New Stanford Achievement Test, Form X. 
Standard Graduation Examination. 



Anne Arundel . 



June 4-8 

January 4-8 

January 4-8 

May 8 



Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 
Woody-McCall Mixed Fundamentals. 
New Stanford Arithmetic Test, Form V. 
Standard Graduation Examination. 



Baltimore. 



f May 4-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

j May 2-3 Detroit Silent Reading Test. 

I May 4-7a Courtis' Standard Practice Tests in Arithmetic. 



Calvert. . . . 
Caroline. . . 

CarroU. ... 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. 

Frederick. . 



May. 
June. 



4-7 
7 



Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 
Standard Graduation Examination. 



May 4-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test, 



May. 
May. 
May. 



6-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

2 Haggerty Reading Examination. 
3-5 PubUc School Achievement Test in Reading, 



May 4-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 



May. 
May. 



4-7 
7 



Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Maryland History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 



May 4-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 



Garrett. 



May 4-7 

October and May 4 

January and May 3 

January and May 3 

September 1 

September 2-3 

Monthly b 

May 4-7 

February 7 

2 

October and May 3-7 



February 1 

February 6-7 

s Schools, b Miss Woodley's Schools 



Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Sangren- Woody Reading Test. 

Los Angeles Diagnostic Reading Test. 

Ingraham-Clark Diagnostic Reading Test. 

First Grade Detroit Intelligence Tests. 

Otis Primary Intelligence Tests. 

Columbian Achievement Tests (Ohio State University). 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Maryland History Test Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Detroit Reading Test, Forms A and B. 
Public School Achievement Tests in Reading, Forms 3 and 4, 
McCaU Standard Test Lessons in Reading. 
Pintner-Cunningham Primary Mental Tests. 
Otis Classification Test, Form A. 



48 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



County 
Harford . . . . 



Howard . 



Kent. 



Montgomerv 



Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's. . 
St. Marv's 



Somerset . 



Talbot . 



Time of 'Pestin^ 

/ May 

"\ May 


Grades 
Tested 
4-7 


f May 

1 May 

■ May 

( May 


4-7 
7 

1-3 


[May 

1 May 

< September 

i September 

i February 


4-7 
*1 

1 

7 

2-7 


1 February 

I June 


4-7 
1-2 
3-7 
3-7 


[May 

1 May 

June 

( May-June 


4-7 
1-3 
4 


/May 

I May 


4-7 
6-7 


\ October and May . . . 


4-7 
. 2-3 


1 May 

i April 

1 November and April . 

1 AprU 

[ November and April. 


4-7 
2-3 
. 3-7 
2-3 
1 
7 


f May 

< May 


4-7 
1 



I October and May . 



i May, 



3-7 



Tests Given 



Maryland History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Wiedefcld-Walther Geography Test. 

Maryland Historj- Test Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Williams' Primary Reading Test. 

Otis-Orleans' Standard Graduation Examination. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Williams' Primary Reading Test, Form A. 

Detroit Intelligence Test. 

Tcrman Group Intelligence Test. 

New Stanford .\chievement Test, Form W. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 
Williams' Primary Reading Test. 
New Stanford Achievement Test, Form W. 
Public School Achievement Test, Battery A. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Teat. 
Williams' Primary Reading Test, Form B. 
Detroit Reading Test. 

Standard Graduation Examination, Form B. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

History Tests Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Williams' Primary Reading Test, Forms A and B. 

Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Williams' Primary Test in Reading. 

Orleans' Test in Arithmetic Reasoning, Forms 1 and 2. 

Wisconsin Inventory Tests in Arithmetic. 

Detroit Word Recognition Test — Form A. 

Grammar Test by Orleans — Forms 1 and 2. 



Williams' Primary Reading Test. 

Public School Achievement Test in Arithmetic Computation, Forms 
1 and 2. 



Washington. 



4-7 Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. • 

7-8 Maryland History Test Prepared by State Dept. of Education, 

i 2-3 Stanford .\chievement Test in Reasoning and Computation. 

) FormX. 

I Januarv a3-8 Orleans' Tests in Reading, Arithmetic Reasoning, Geography, and 

I History. 

New Stanford Achievement Test, Batteries W and X. 



Wicomico . 



May. 

May. 
May. 



f May 

I May 

Worcester -! Mav 

I May 

[ May 

*Millington only, a Rural schools only 



2-8 

4-7 
7 

4-7 
7 

2-6 



Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Marj-land History Test Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Wiedefeld-Walther Geography Test. 

Maryland History Test Prepared by State Dept. of Education. 
Williams' Primary and Intermediate Reading Tests. 
Terman Group Tests in Mental Ability. 
Otis and Orleans' Standard Graduation Examination. 



In addition to the Wiedefeld Walther Geography Tests given 
in every county near the close of the school year*, and the Mary- 
land History Tests given in eight counties, twelve of the counties 
gave other standardized tests in the white elementary schools. 

Geography Tests 

By making available the results to aid in establishing norms, 
the World Book Company made it possible for the State at very 
low cost to give the Wiedefeld Walther geography tests to every 



* Except in Montgomery County in which it was given in February. 



Standard Tests Given in White Elementary Schools 49 

county white elementary pupil above grade three. In this way 
all of the counties were given the benefits of these teaching tests 
which are most suggestive to teachers in presenting new or better 
ways for pupils to attack and solve geography problems. Wash- 
ington County also used the Orleans Test in Geography. 

History Tests 

The Maryland History Test was given to all seventh grade 
county pupils in the spring of 1930. It was repeated in the 
spring of 1931 in eight counties which requested the test for 
their seventh grade pupils. Washington County used the Orleans 
History Test. 

Intelligence Tests 

Five of the counties used intelligence tests. Allegany and Gar- 
rett gave the Pintner Cunningham Primary Mental Test, Fred- 
erick and Kent used the Detroit First Grade Intelligence Test, 
and Frederick used the Otis Intelligence Test in Grades 2 and 3. 
Allegany administered the Otis Intelligence Test in all elemen- 
tary grades above the first, while Garrett gave the Otis Classifi- 
cation Test to grades 6 and 7. 

Batteries of Achievement Tests 

The New Stanford Achievement Test was selected in Allegany, 
Kent, Montgomery (February testing) and Washington Coun- 
ties, while the Public School Achievement Test (Battery A) was 
chosen by Montgomery County for the June testing. Six coun- 
ties, Allegany, Anne Arundel, Calvert, Howard, Prince George's 
and Worcester, tested grade 7 or 8 with the Standard Graduation 
Examination of Otis and Orleans. 

Reading Tests 

Primary reading was tested by the Detroit Word Recognition 
Test in Somerset (grade 1) ; by the Williams Primary Reading 
Test in Howard, Kent, Prince George's, St. Mary's, Somerset, 
Talbot, and Worcester; by the Detroit Silent Reading Tests in 
Baltimore, Garrett, and Prince George's (grade 4) ; and by the 
Haggerty Reading Test in grade 2 of Carroll County. 

Grades 3 to 5 in Garrett were examined with the Public School 
Achievement Test in Reading. Washington County used the 
Orleans Test in Reading, while Frederick gave grades 3 and 4 
the Sangren Woody Reading Test, the Los Angeles Diagnostic 
Reading Test and the Ingraham Clark Diagnostic Reading Test. 
Garrett also used the McCall Standard Test Lessons in Reading. 

Arithmetic Tests 

Anne Arundel and Washington gave the New Stanford 
Achievement Test in Arithmetic, and in addition Anne Arundel 



50 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



checked with the Woody McCall Tests. Talbot used the Public 
School Achievement Test in Arithmetic Computation, Somerset 
gave the Wisconsin Inventory Test in Arithmetic and the Orleans 
Arithmetic Reasoning Test, the latter being selected also by 
Washington County. Baltimore County reported using the 
Courtis Standard Practice Tests in Arithmetic. 

Miscellaneous Tests 

Somerset gave the Orleans test in Grammar, while Frederick 
reported use of some of the Columbian Achievement Tests pub- 
lished monthly by Ohio State University. 

SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR THE HANDICAPPED 
Physically Handicapped Children in the Counties 

TABLE 38 

Special Provision for Physically Handicapped Children in Maryland Counties 

Fall of 1931 



County 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 
Wicomico 

Total 



Number of Pupils 



Taught 



In Special 
Classes 

11 



19 



At 
Home 

1 

2 
3 

"2" 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 

26 

V ' 

55 



Transported 
to 

Regular 
Classes 



10 



No. 

of 

Teachers 



t*2 
1 
1 

" "2" 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
*2 
2 



t24 



* Includes one full-time teacher for the special class. 

t Excludes one full-time physio-therapist for the special class. 




THE CHURCHVILLE CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL IN HARFORD COUNTY 

Completed in 1931 at a cost of $41,000. The building is of brick and 
tile on a stone foundation with corridors and stairways of steel and 
reinforced concrete. It contains eight regular classrooms, a principal's 
office, a library, and a basement play or assembly room, 56'x70'. By 
transporting 150 pupils this school takes the place of 4 one-teacher and 
3 tw^o-teacher elementary schools. 




THE MARGARET BRENT HIGH SCHOOL AT HELEN, ST. MARY'S COUNTY 

Completed in 1931 at a cost of $38,000. The site is six acres and 
the building is of red brick backed by cinder block. A corridor runs 
the length of the building. It has six classrooms, an auditorium seating 
300, two rooms used as principal's office and library, and a basement 
under part of the building. 



Tests; Special Education for County Handicapped Children 51 

The work of special education for physically handicapped 
children, which was begun by the State Supervisor of Special 
Education on April 1, 1930, has grown steadily throughout the 
past year. The cases of 1,247 physically handicapped children 
which were reported through the school census, the Maryland 
League for Crippled Children, and the county health officers have 
been investigated and as a result, 20 of the 23 counties have set 
up programs to meet the special needs of these children. Since 
the legislature of 1931 changed the school law so that an amount 
not to exceed $200 might be spent each year to provide proper 
educational facilities for each physically handicapped child in 
the State, it is now possible not only to provide for them in 
special classes where there are sufficient numbers to justify the 
establishment of a class, but also to make special transportation 
arrangements for those children who cannot ride on regular 
school busses, but who can be taught in regular schools after 
they get there ; and also, to send teachers to the homes of those 
children who are shut-in cases. 

Table 38 shows that Allegany and Washington counties have 
each organized a special class for crippled children with a full 
time teacher in charge, the class in Cumberland also having the 
services of a trained physiotherapist. There are 27 crippled 
children being taught in their homes by properly certificated 
teachers, while special transportation facilities to regular schools 
are being provided for 11 others. 

Training County Teachers for Work with Handicapped Children 

The efforts of the State Supervisor of Special Education to 
secure training for teachers so that they may give proper in- 
struction to handicapped children resulted in 12 elementary 
teachers from as many counties taking two or more courses in 
special education at Johns Hopkins University during the sum- 
mer of 1931. Each of these teachers was selected by her county 
superintendent as being qualified through successful teaching 
experience and sympathetic understanding of children to adapt 
herself to the special type of work required in dealing with 
physically or mentally handicapped groups. 

Mentally Handicapped Children 

A; survey of the elementary schools in the State is now being 
conducted to determine the number of mentally handicapped 
children who may need to be placed in special classes. 

The picture opposite page 50 shows the class for handicapped 
children in Cumberland. In addition to the teacher who has had 
special training and experience, there is also a physiotherapist 
who carries out the recommendations of physicians for special 
exercise and treatment. 



52 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Handicapped Children in Baltimore City 

Following the survey of the requirements of special classes for 
physically and mentally handicapped children and the appoint- 
ment of a new supervisor of special education, Dr. Harry Lat- 
shaw, in the fall of 1930, the provision by Baltimore City for 
special classes, especially for those mentally handicapped, was 
increased considerably. 

The 38 classes for 1,030 white physically handicapped children 
provided for the tubercular and aenemic in open air classes, the 
crippled, those in need of sight conservation, the deaf and those 
in need of hearing conservation, children with cardiac difficulties, 
for foreigners with a language difficulty, and behavior problems. 
There were 91 children who overcame their handicap and were 
returned to the regular classes. Of those who remained in the 
classes, 78 per cent earned promotion once or twice. (See Table 
39.) 



TABLE 39 

Baltimore City Special Classes for Semester Ending June 30, 1931 









Returned 




Per Cent 


Promoted 




KIND OF CLASS 


No. of 

Classes 


Total 
Admitted 


to 
Regular 


Average 
Net 


of 

Attend- 


Once or Twice 








Classes 


Roll 


ance 


No. 


tPer Cent 






White 


PrrplLS 














Physically Handicapped . . . 


38 


1,030 


91 


796 






634 


78 


.0 




14 


t442 


56 


349 


90, 


.3 


274 


78, 


.5 


Crippled 


10 


253 


8 


205 


91 


.7 


166 


82 


.6 


Sight Conservation 


3 


52 




16 


82 


.0 


47 


100 


.0 




5 


97 


10 


82 


92 


.6 


71 


88 


.8 


Disciplinary 


3 


122 


15 


87 


93 


.1 


21 


27 


.3 


Deaf 


1 


25 


1 


23 


91 


.0 


24 


100 


,0 


Hearing Conservation , . . 


1 


20 


1 


17 


88 


.0 


18 


100 


.0 


Cardiac 


1 


19 




17 


86, 


.0 


13 


76, 


.5 


Mentally Handicapped .... 


84 


1,827 


29 


1,535 






*1,245 


♦77 


.4 




71 


1,588 


25 


1,332 


88 


.0 


*1,105 


♦78 


.6 




13 


239 


4 


203 


85 


.0 


♦140 


♦69 


.0 






Colored Pupils 
















8 


202 


49 


152.8 






120 


83 


.3 


Crippled 


3 


59 




56.6 


82 


.4 


46 


80 


.7 


Disciplinary 


2 


86 


49 


41.8 


100 


.0 


32 


100 


.0 


Sight Conservation 


2 


38 




38 


89, 


.0 


29 


76 


.3 




1 


19 




16.4 


84, 


.0 


13 


76 


.5 


Mentally Handicapped. .-. . 


10 


197 


1 


166 






*101 


♦60 


.1 




4 


79 




71 


81 


.0 


*39 


♦55 


.7 




6 


118 


i 


95 


76 


.0 


*62 


♦63 


.3 



t Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or withdrawn in 
other ways. 

♦ Making satisfactory improvement. 



The 84 classes for white mentally handicapped pupils were an 
increase of 19 over the number the preceding year and took care 



Baltimore City Special Classes; Certification of County Teachers 53 

of 1,827 pupils of whom 1,588 were in opportunity classes and 13 
in special centers. Satisfactory improvement was reported for 
77 per cent of these pupils. (See Table 39.) 

The 8 classes for 202 colored physically handicapped children 
provided for the crippled, behavior problems, those in need of 
sight conservation and of an open air classroom. Of these chil- 
dren 83 per cent were reported as promoted once or twice. There 
were 197 colored pupils in 10 classes for mentally handicapped 
children, of which 4 were opportunity classes and 6 were special 
centers. This was an increase of 4 classes and 94 children over 
the corresponding figures for mentally handicapped children the 
preceding year. It was reported that 60 per cent of the colored 
mentally handicapped pupils were making satisfactory improve- 
ment. (See Table 39.) 

Of the State aid of $10,000 for classes for physically handi- 
capped children available for the school year 1930-31, $2,000 was 
distributed to Allegany County for the class in Cumberland and 
the remaining $8,000 was given to Baltimore City. 

CERTIFICATION OF THE TEACHERS IN COUN^TY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Although the total enrollment in county white elementary 
schools is increasing each year, the progress of the consolidation 
movement, bringing with it the elimination of one-teacher 
schools has brought about a decrease in the number of teachers 
each year since 1928. Of the 2,983 county white elementary 
teachers employed in October, 1931, there were 2,870 or 96.2 per 



TABLE 40 

Increase in Teachers Holding Regular First Grade Certificates, 1921-1931 





Total Number 


White Elementary Teachers 




Holding Regular First Grade 


FALL OF 


of County 
White Elementary 


and Elementary Principals' Certificates 




Teachers 










Number 


Per Cent 


1921 


3,040 


1,228 


40.4 


1922 


3,038 


1,351 


44.5 


1923 


3,026 


1,633 


54.0 


1924 


3,019 


1,936 


64.1 


1925 


3,058 


2,212 


72.4 


1926 


3,071 


2,414 


78.6 


1927 


3,037 


2,597 


85.5 


1928 


3,047 


2.756 


90.5 


1929 


3,016 


2.814 


93.3 


1930 


2,996 


2,831 


94.5 


1931 


2,983 


2,870 


96.2 



54 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



cent who held elementary principals' or first grade certificates 
indicating at least graduation from a two-year normal school 
course or the equivalent. Only 40 per cent of the teachers had 



CHART 6 







TRAINING OF MARYLAND COUNTY f.HITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 






NUMBER 


% REGULAR 1 1* PROVISIONAL 






REG- 


PROVI- 






OCT. 


ULAR 


SIONAL 


FIRST GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


1228 


3^ 






1922 


1351 


52 HIHI 


HHE9HHIHHH1] 




1923 


1633 


32 






1924 


1936 


38 ■■^H 






1925 


2212 








1926 


2414 








1927 


2597 








192a 


2756 








1929 


2814 








1930 


2831 








1931 


2870 














SECOND GRADE CERTIFICATES 




1921 


933 


189 ■■■■ 






1922 


894 


175 






1923 


820 


97 i^HK 






1924 


590 


125 






1925 


517 


55 ■■31 






1926 


405 


21 WMSKM 


] 




1927 


287 


21 KHD 






1928 


184 








1929 


142 


- a 






1930 


118 


1 a 






1931 


73 


- Q 
















1921 


368 


291 


W 1 




1922 


365 


201 






1923 


320 


124 HHE 






1924 


229 


101 ■»T1 






1925 


182 


65 mi] 






1926 


161 








1927 


87 


24 ED 






1928 


60 


4 Q 






1929 


41 


3 a 






1930 


32 


- D 






1931 


25 


B 







* Includes four substitutes. 



Certification of County White Elementary Teachers 55 



the necessary professional training ten years ago in October, 
1921. The number of trained teachers is therefore higher by 
1,642 and the per cent by 56 in the fall of 1931 than it was in 
the fall of 1921. (See Table 40.) 

The increase in the number and per cent of teachers holding 
first grade certificates and the decrease in those holding certifi- 
cates of lower grade are shown graphically in Chai^t 6. Second 
and third grade certificates are no longer issued to new appli- 
cants. Teachers holding third grade and second grade certifi- 
cates who meet the necessary requirements may raise their grade 
of certificate to second and first grade, respectively. Only 25 
county white elementary teachers hold third grade certificates 
and only 73 hold second grade certificates. These figures com- 
pare with 659 and 1,122, respectively, a decade ago. (See Table 
40 and Chart 6.) 

TABLE 41 



Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in Vari6us Types 

of Schools, October, 1931 





White 


Elementary School Teachers 




One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Schools 




Number 


First Grade and El. Principal's 










Regular 


459 


366 


2,045 


2,870 


Provisional 


1 


1 


9 


11 


Second Grade 










Regular 


24 


17 


32 


73 


Third Grade 










Regular 


14 


5 


6 


25 


Substitutes 






4 


4 












Total 


498 


389 


2,096 


2,983 






Per 


Cent 




First Grade and El. Principal's 










Regular 


92.2 


94.1 


97.5 


96.2 




.2 


.2 


.5 


.4 


Second Grade 










Regular 


4.8 


4.4 


1.5 


2.5 


Third Grade 










Regular 


2.8 


1.3 


.3 


.8 


Substitutes 






.2 


.1 












Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



For similar data by individual counties, see Tables X-XII, pages 304 to 306. 



56 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Similar figures segregated for one-teacher, two-teacher, and 
graded schools indicate that 92 per cent of the teachers in one- 
teacher schools, 94 per cent of those in two-teacher schools, and 
98 per cent of those in graded schools hold first grade certificates. 
(See Table 41.) 

The counties vary from 85 to 100 in the per cent of teachers 
holding regular first grade certificates. In five counties, Balti- 
more, Garrett, Kent, Queen Anne's, and Talbot, every teacher 
holds a regular first grade certificate. And all of the counties 
except four have more than 90 per cent of their teachers holding 
regular first grade certificates. (See Table 42.) 

TABLE 42 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers Holding Regular First Grade 
Certificates in October, 1931, Compared with 1930 and 1921 









1931 Increase Over 






1931 










L/Ounty 






1930 


1921 




Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total Average 


2,870 


96 


39 


1 


1,642 


56 


Baltimore 


379 


100 


*8 




118 


11 


t Garrett 

fKent 


132 


100 


*11 


1 


120 


93 


46 


100 


*3 


2 


26 


70 


tQueen Anne's 


50 


100 


2 


4 


15 


51 


Talbot 


51 


100 


3 


6 


17 


43 


Prince George's 


209 


98 


12 




153 


62 


Montgomery 


184 


98 


1 


*1 


98 


30 


Frederick 


193 


98 


2 


5 


102 


61 


Allegany 


331 


97 


7 


*1 


124 


26 


t Anne Arundel 


159 


97 


9 


1 


83 


38 


fWicomico 


92 


96 




3 


68 


75 


t Caroline 


60 


96 


1 


*1 


38 


70 


Howard 


58 


96 


3 


3 


42 


71 


t Calvert 


25 


96 


*2 




9 


54 


t Dorchester 


85 


94 


6 


5 


63 


76 


Harford 


117 


94 


2 


2 


71 


56 


tCarroll 


135 


93 


*6 


1 


88 


66 


Washington 


297 


91 


18 


1 


224 


64 


t Worcester 


59 


90 


*3 


1 


43 


73 


Cecil 


84 


88 


9 


6 


55 


61 


fCharles 


34 


87 


*3 


*6 


24 


72 


tSt. Mary's 


30 


85 


1 


4 


20 


69 


t Somerset 


60 


85 


*1 


*1 


41 


63 



♦Decrease. 

t Received Equalization Fund in 1930-31. 

For certification data for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table X, page 304. 



Certification and Summer School Attendance of County Teachers 57 



The extraordinary increase in the per cent of trained teachers 
in the decade from October, 1921 to October, 1931 varying from 
11 to 93 was possible in the financially poorer counties because 
of the State aid available in the Equalization Fund. (See last 
column of Table 42.) 



INCREASE IN SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

There were 913 county white elementary teachers, 19 super- 
vising and helping teachers, and 13 attendance officers at summer 
school in 1931. The teachers represented 30.6 per cent of the 
group of county white elementary school teachers in service in 
October, 1931. In six counties over 36 per cent of the teachers 
went to summer school, while in six counties under 25 per cent 
attended school in the summer of 1931. (See Table 43.) 

TABLE 43 

County White Elementary Teachers in Service in October, 1931, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1931 



County- 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1931, Who 
Attended Summer 
School in 1931 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 

of 
White 
Elementary 
School 
Teachers 



Total 

Caroline 

Charles 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Montgomery. . . 

Garrett 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's 

Worcester 

Dorchester . . . . 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Washington. . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Carroll 

Howard 

Anne Arundel . . 
Queen Anne's. . 

Wicomico 

Somerset 



:913 

26 
*16 
■*134 
**77 
10 
aSo 
^*t61 
'*t42 

nil 

^*t66 
a20 
627 
^tlll 
*t36 
*t88 
tl2 
*13 
t34 
tl4 
t38 

m 

19 
*tl2 



30.6 

41.9 
41.0 
39.8 
39.1 
38.5 
36.8 
32.6 
31.8 
31.4 
31.1 
30.8 
30.0 
29.3 
29.0 
27.2 
26.1 
25.5 
23.4 
23.3 
23.3 
22.0 
20.0 
17.1 



Total 

University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Columbia University 

University of Delaware 

University of Virginia 

Harrisonburg State Teachers' College 

Duke University 

Potomac State Junior College 

Shepherd State Teachers' College. . . . 

George Washington University 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of California 

Shippensburg State Teachers' College. 

Temple University 

University of \'ermont 

All Others 



1913 

ac36o 
=324 
x49 
37 
c33 
17 
16 
12 
6 
5 
5 
3 
3 
3 
3 

**t32 



+ Excludes 19 supervising or helping teachers and thirteen attendance officers. 
* Each asterisk represents one supervising or helping teacher excluded, 
t Excludes an attendance officer. 

° Excludes twelve supervising or helping teachers and thirteen attendance officers. 
X Excludes five supervising or helping teachers. 
a Includes one taking a double course. 
b Includes two taking a double course. 

c Three took courses at both University of Maryland and University of Virginia. 

The largest number of county white elementary teachers (365) 
enrolled at the University of Maryland, and Johns Hopkins was 
a close second with 324. Columbia University, the University of 



58 



1931 Eeport of State Department of Education 



Delaware, and the University of Virginia enrolled from 49 to 33 
county teachers. (See Table 43.) 

EXTENSION COURSES 

Four counties, Washington, Carroll, Allegany, and Frederick, 
arranged for extension courses for 128 of their teachers in 1930- 
31. It was found that the courses taken by 86 of the teachers 
met the requirements of the State for which reimbursement of a 
part of the expense could be allowed. In consequence $1,244 of 
the State Public School Budget was used for this purpose, the 
average amount paid toward each teacher's course being $14.46. 
(See Table 44.) 



TABLE 44 
Extension Courses for White Teachers 



County 


Total 
Enrollment 


Total Number 

for Whom 
Reimbursement 
Was Allowed 


Total 
Reimbursement 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1928-29 


1929-30 


1930-31 


Carroll 


t48 


13 


21 
19 

5 
83 


tl7 


7 


10 
17 
4 

55 


$755* 


$105 


$150.00 
212.50 
56.25 
825.00 
















Washington , , 
Totals 


34 


76 


25 


28 


375 


495 


t82 


89 


128 


t42 


35 


86 


$1130 


$600 


$1243.75 



t Excludes teachers doing extension course of study work in connection with Teachers' College, 
Columbia. 

* Includes $500 for partial reimbursement to county for course of study work. 



RESIGNATIONS FROM COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were only 333 resignations from county white elemen- 
tary schools, exclusive of 23 on leave of absence, 47 transfers 
from one county to another, and 10 who left elementary school 
work for high or junior high schools at the end of or during the 
school year 1929-30. For the year preceding, the number cor- 
responding to 333 was 390, so that there was a reduction of 57 
in the number and 15 in the per cent of resignations. (See Table 
45.) 

One half of the decrease occurred in the number who resigned 
because of marriage, and the remaining decrease was found in 
the number taking teaching positions in Baltimore, in the normal 
schools, in other states, in private schools, or taking supervisory 
or administrative positions in county or State. Marriage, how- 
ever, still accounts for 138 or 41.5 per cent of the resignations. 
(See Table 45.) 



Extension Courses; Resignations, Turnover, Elementary Teachers 59 



TABLE 45 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White Elementary School Teachers from 
Maryland County Schools at End of or During 1926-27, 1927-28, 
1928-29, 1929-30 



1929-1930 

Cause of Resignation 1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 No. Per Cent 



Marriage 168 150 166 138 41.5 

Work Other than Teaching 42 44 37 36 10.8 

Dropped for Low Certificate Grade or 

Non-Attendance at Summer School . . 42 37 12 15 4.5 

Dropped for Inefficiency 56 33 27 23 6.9 

Teaching in Baltimore, in State Normal "1 
School, or Acting as Supervisor or At- 
tendance Officer *61 ^ *30 23 9 2.7 

Teaching in Another State or in Private 

School J 25 49 34 10.2 

Illness 18 24 15 15 4.5 

Retirement 39 14 27 28 -8.4 

Death 10 10 8 7 2.1 

Moved Away 20 10 8 8 2.4 

Other and Unknown 26 27 18 20 6.0 

Total 482 404 390 333 100.0 

Leave of Absence 52 44 31 23 

To Other Counties 53 53 46 47 

To County High Schools or Junior High 

Schools ? ? 9 10 



* Includes teachers who left elementary for high school work in the counties. 



TURNOVER IN COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There were 347 teachers in the county white elementary 
schools in October, 1930, who were not teaching the preceding 



TABLE 46 



October 


New to 
Maryland 

County 
Elementary 

Schools 


Change in No. 
of Teaching 
Positions 


Number New to County Elementary 
Schools Who Were 


Inexperienced 


Experienced But Not 
in Maryland Counties 
Preceding Year 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


1925 


601 
564 
481 
451 
400 
347 


19.7 
18.4 
15.8 
14.8 
13.3 
11.6 


+39 
+13 

—34 
+ 10 
—31 

—19 


411 

390 
380 
326 
270 

255 


190 
174 
101 
125 
*130 
* 92 


1926 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 





* Includes for 1929, one, and for 1930, five, who taught in Maryland High Schools. 



60 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



October. Since this number was first obtained for October, 1925, 
there has been a steady and consistent annual decline averaging 
51 for the five-year period. The per cent of the teaching staff 
new to the counties of the State considered as a whole dropped 
from 19.7 for October, 1925, to 11.6 in October, 1930. The num- 
ber of teaching positions has declined slightly during the period, 
the reduction from October, 1929 to October 1930 being 19. (See 
Table 46.) 

Table 47 showing the turnover in individual counties is on a 
slightly different basis from the summary table for the counties 
as a whole described in the preceding paragraph. Since teachers 
who transferred from one county to another are not new to the 
counties as a whole, they are excluded from Table 46, but be- 
cause they are new to the counties to which they transfer, they 
are included in Table 47. Then in summary Table 46 the figure 

TABLE 47 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers, New to Maryland 
Counties, During School Year, 1930-1931, Showing Those Experienced and 
from Other Counties 



County 


New to 
County 


Change in 
Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1929 
to 

Oct., 1930 


Number New to County Who Were 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Inex- 
perienced 


Experi- 
enced 
but New 
to State 


Experi- 
enced in 
Counties 

but not 
Teaching 
1929-1930 


From 
An- 
other 
County 


From 
High 
School 


Sub- 
sti- 
tutes 


Total and Average 


401 

2 
3 
12 
8 
5 

9 
7 
39 
5 
7 

38 
15 
6 
5 
40 

4 
21 
23 
34 
19 

38 
9 
52 


13.1 

4.0 
4.3 
5.8 
8.1 
8.5 

9.8 
9.9 
9.9 
10.0 
10.9 

11.1 
11.7 
11.8 
11.9 
12.8 

14.3 
14.3 
14.7 
17.7 
20.9 

23.2 
24.3 
24.8 


-19 

-3 
-4 
-9 
-3 
+1 

-3 
-1 
+ 12 
-1 
-8 

-1 
+2 
-2 
-7 
+ 1 


242 

1 
1 
10 
4 
5 

8 
6 
35 
4 
3 

bl3 
10 
4 
1 

32 

3 
13 
20 

9 
14 

28 
8 
10 


34 


57 


45 

1 
1 


5 


18 


Worcester 




1 
1 


Frederick 


1 








4 






Howard 










Cecil 


1 










Somerset 


1 

a3 








Baltimore 




1 






Kent 


1 








2 

4 

3 


1 

9 




8 
1 


Alleganv 

Harford 


2 
1 


c2 


Talbot 


2 




Charles 


1 
2 


1 

5 

1 

5 
3 
13 
3 

4 
1 

6 




1 


Washington 


1 


Calvert 






Garrett 


-6 
—5 
+10 

+ 1 

+5 
— 2 
+4 




2 


dl 




Carroll 






Dorchester 


5 


4 

2 

1 


1 


2 


Anne Arundel 

St. Marv's 


2 




3 


Prince George's . . . 


18 


16 




2 



a Includes one supervisor, now a supervising principal. 

b Includes 3 teachers in the Greene St. Junior High School. 

c School changed to Junior High School. 

d Teacher formerly taught both high and elementary pupils. 



Turnover of County White Elementary Teachers 



61 



includes all changes between October of one year and October of 
the following year. This means that persons who started teach- 
ing after October of one school year were reported as new teach- 
ers the following October, even though they might have taught 
from 1 to 9 months in the preceding school year. Table 47 has 
been corrected to show only the changes from the close of one 
school year to the close of the following school year, so that the 
figures apply to all of the changes within one school year. As 
soon as sufficient data have been accumulated on this basis, the 
summary table will be reported in the same way. (See Tables 
46 and 47.) 

During the school year 1930-31, there were 401 white elemen- 
tary teachers new to the individual counties, 13.1 per cent of the 
entire staff. Queen Anne's County had only 2 teachers new to 
the county who represented 4 per cent of its staff, while Prince 
George's, at the opposite extreme, had 52 teachers serving in 
1930-31 who were not teaching in the county in 1929-30. These 
52 teachers were one-fourth of the white elementary teaching 
staff in Prince George's. The turnover was less than 9 per cent 
in Queen Anne's, Worcester, Frederick, Wicomico, and Howard, 
in contrast with more than 15 per cent in Montgomery, Dorches- 
ter, Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, and Prince George's. (See Table 
47.) 

Eight counties employed more white elementary teachers in 
October, 1930 than they had in October 1929, the increase being 
36. Baltimore County listed 12, Montgomery 10, Anne Arundel 
5, and Prince George's 4 more than they had the preceding year. 
Due to elimination of one teacher schools there were decreases 
of 9, 8, 7, 6, and 5 teachers in Frederick, Caroline, Charles, Gar- 
rett, and Carroll Counties, respectively. (See Table 47.) 

Of the 242 inexperienced teachers on the county staffs, over 
one half entered service in Baltimore, Washington, Anne 
Arundel, Carroll, and Dorchester Counties. Out of 34 experi- 
enced teachers from other states, 18 taught in Prince George's 
and 5 in Montgomery County. Montgomery, Prince George's, 
Garrett, and Washington employed over one half of the 57 teach- 
ers who formerly taught in the counties but who were not in 
service in 1929-30. There were 45 transfers from one county to 
another, of whom 16 went to Prince George's, 9 to Allegany, 
and 4 each to Wicomico and Montgomery. (See Table 47.) 

Of 190 teachers, who, in being transferred to a different school 
within the county, changed the type of school, i.e. from a one- 
teacher to a two-teacher or graded school or vice versa, or from 
a two- teacher to a graded school or vice versa, only 35 changed 
from a larger to a smaller school, whereas 155 went from smaller 
to larger schools. In addition, of 39 schools, which, because of 



62 



1931 Eeport of State Department of Education 



increase or decrease in enrollment changed in type, 25 grew to 
two-teacher or graded schools, while only 14, which had been 
larger, became two-teacher or one-teacher schools. (See Table 
48.) 

TABLE 48 

Number of County White Elementary Teachers Changing Type of School within 

the County 



Changing 
Type of 

Type of Change School 

One-teacher to two-teacher 30 

One-teacher to graded 78 

Two-teacher to one-teacher 11 

Two-teacher to graded 47 

Graded to one-teacher 10 

Graded to two-teacher 14 

Total 190 



In Schools 
Which Changed 
in Type of 
Organization 



8 
20 



6 

39 



EXPERIENCE OF TEACHERS 

The median years of experience of the 2,982 teachers in service 
in October, 1931 was 6.8 years, higher by a half j^ear than for 
the year preceding. The largest number of teachers, 254, was 
found for the group having had 3 years of experience. 

There is a variation among the counties in the median experi- 
ence of teachers from 4.5 years in Carroll, Garrett, and Howard 
to 10 years or more in Queen Anne's, Somerset, Kent, and 
Wicomico. (See Table 49.) 

For the 498 teachers in one-teacher schools, the median exper- 
ience was 4 years, .8 more than for the year preceding. The 
maximum number of teachers was found for the group who had 
had one year of experience and no experience. The median ex- 
perience of teachers in one-teacher schools varies by county from 
2 years or less in Anne Arundel, Talbot, Carroll, and Howard to 
8 years or more in St. Mary's, Montgomery, Prince George's, Cal- 
vert, and Charles. (See Table 49.) 

Those interested in following up the placement of inexperi- 
enced normal school graduates from the three State normal 
schools in individual counties may refer to Table 204, page 276. 



Changes in Type of School, Experience of Elementary Teachers 6( 



OOIUIODI/Y^ 



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p.IBAVOJJ 



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64 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



SIZE OF CLASS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS LARGER 

The average number of pupils belonging per principal and 
teacher in county white elementary schools increased by .4 to 34, 
while the average number in elementary schools in Baltimore 
City declined slightly from 32.1 to 32.0. The elementary schools 
in Baltimore include the kindergarten, first six grades, and 

CHART 7 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 1929 1930 1931 
Co. Average 32.9 33.6 




Hal to. City 32.9 32.1 
State 32.9 33.0 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 308. 



Pupils Belonging per White Elementary Teacher 



65 



special classes for handicapped children and the teaching staff 
includes principals, vice principals and teachers of the special 
subjects as well as regular grade teachers. (See CJmrt 7.) 

TABLE 50 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County W hite Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Schools Schools Schools 

Having Having Having 

One Two Three or 

County Teacher County Teachers County More 

Teachers 



Count}' Average . . . 24.9 

Baltimore 33.4 

Wicomico 29.0 

Frederick 27.8 

Cecil 27.3 

Montgomery 26.2 

Howard 26.1 

Harford 25.7 

Allegany 25.3 

Prince George's .... 25. 1 

Somerset 24.9 

Talbot 24.7 

Washington 24.6 

Carroll 24.5 

St. Mary's 24.3 

Caroline 24.1 

Queen Anne's 24.0 

Dorchester 23.8 

Anne Arundel 23.6 

Calvert 23.0 

Worcester 22.2 

Kent 21.7 

Garrett 21.0 

Charles 18.5 



Comity Average . . . 30.0 

Baltimore 34.4 

Worcester 34.3 

Allegany 33.7 

Frederick 32.4 

Washington 32.4 

Garrett 32.3 

Calvert 32.1 

Cecil 32.1 

Kent 31.3 

Queen Anne's 30.0 

Carroll 29.4 

Dorchester 28.6 

Anne Arundel 28.2 

Wicomico 28.0 

Prince George's. . . . 27.8 

Harford 27.3 

^lontgomerv 26.9 

St. Mary's.^ 26.9 

Caroline 26.4 

Somerset 25.4 

Charles 25.3 

Howard 25.3 

Talbot 24.5 



County Average . ^ . 37.4 

Calvert 44.5 

St. Mary's 44.0 

Baltimore 41.0 

Cecil 39.9 

Anne Arundel 38.8 

Howard 38.7 

Wicomico 38.6 

Charles 37.8 

Dorchester 37.7 

Talbot 37.7 

Somerset 37.6 

Frederick 37.5 

Washington 37.2 

Queen Anne's 37.0 

Garrett 36.8 

Prince George's. . . . 36.7 

Worcester 36.6 

Harford 36.6 

Caroline 36.5 

Allegany 36.2 

Kent 35.4 

Carroll 35.2 

Montgomery 31.8 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 308. 

In the counties the average number of pupils per teacher 
ranged from 26.6 to 39.8. Five counties had 35 or more pupils 
per teacher, while four had fewer than 30 per teacher. The num- 
ber of pupils per teacher increased from 1930 to 1931 in all ex- 
cept six of the counties. The progress of consolidation was the 
predominating factor in bringing about larger classes. Two of 
the six counties which had decreases are at the top of the list 
with the largest classes in the State, while one is among the 
counties at the bottom of the list. (See Chart 7.) 



66 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The one-teacher schools had the smallest classes, 24.9 pupils 
per teacher, the two-teacher schools had 30 on the average, and 
the graded school average was 37.4. The range in average size 
of one-teacher schools in the various counties was from 18.5 to 
33.4. The average teacher in the county having the smallest 
number of pupils per teacher in two-teacher schools instructed 
24.5 pupils, while the county having the largest number of pupils 
per teacher had 34.4. In graded schools only one county had 
fewer than 35 pupils per teacher, whereas three counties had 
over 40 per teacher. (See Table 50.) 

SALARIES OF TEACHERS INCREASE 

The average salary of principals and teachers in county white 
elementary schools increased by $18 from 1930 to 1931 to $1,217. 
The additional number of teachers holding first grade certificates 
and the larger number of teachers with more than three years of 
experience account for this small increase. (See Table 51.) 

TABLE 51 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher, 

1917-1931 



Average 
Salary 

Year White 
Ending Elementary 
June 30 School 
Teachers 

1917 $491 

1918 542 

1919 521 

1920 631 

1921 881 

1922 937 

1923 990 

1924 1,030 



Average 
Salary 

Year White 
Ending Elementary 
June 30 School 
Teachers 

1925 $1,057 

1926 l,r\3 

1927 1 . 126 

1928 1 , 155 

1929 1 , 184 

1930 1,199 

1931 1,217 



The minimum State salary scale provides for a salary of $950 
during the first three years of employment. Then for teachers 
rated as first class there is an increase of $100 making the salary 
$1,050 in the fourth and fifth year of service. Increases of $50 
after the fifth and eighth year of service make the maximum 
salary $1,150. Normal school graduates in charge of one- and 
two-teacher schools receive $100 more than the figures just 
given, and principals receive slightly more. These amounts must 
take care of the living expenses of the teachers (it must be re- 
membered that many do not live at home) and also for the con- 
tinued education of the teacher in summer school and through 
professional reading and travel. 



Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers 



67 



Sixteen of the counties pay no more than the salaries provided 
as the minimum in the State School Law. The remaining coun- 
ties which are in close proximity to Baltimore or Washington, 
D. C, or which have large cities within their borders, are the 
only ones paying more than the law requires. 

CHART 8 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN V^HITE ELEMENIAHy SCHOOLS 

County 1928 192^ 1930 1931 

Co. Average $1155 $1184 51199 

Baltimore 
Llontgo.nery 
Allegany 
Anne Arundel 
Pr. George's 
CecU 

Washington 
Kent 
Har/ord 
Queen Anne's 
Kicoraico 
Calvert 
Frederick 
Talbot 
Garrett 
Howard 
Somerset 
Carroll 
Caroline 
Worcester 
Charles 
Dorchester 
St. Mary's 

Balti-more Cit/-1698 1822 1811 
State 1397 1463 1474 




♦Includes $1812 for elementary, |2017 for junior high, $2128 for vocational 
teachers in 1931. 

For ccunties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 309. 

For the school year 1930-31 salaries ranged from $1,052 in the 
lowest county to $1,522 in the county pajang the highest salaries. 



68 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Six counties had an average salary lower than $1,100 and six 
counties averaged over $1,200. In seventeen of the counties, the 
average salary per principal and teacher varied between $1,052 
and $1,178. Every county, except two, had higher salaries in 
1931 than in 1930. (See Chart 8.) 

In Baltimore City, the average salary per teacher and princi- 
pal in elementary, junior high, and vocational schools was $1,863 
compared with $1,811 in 1930. On the average, therefore, sal- 
aries in Baltimore City are 50 per cent higher than they are in 
the average county. (See Chart 8.) 

Even though it is the State policy to pay $100 more to normal 
school graduates in charge of one-teacher schools than is paid to 

TABLE 52 

Average Salary Per Teacher in County White Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending July 1931 



Schools 
Having 
County One 
Teacher 



County Average. . $1 , 136 

Baltimore 1,602 

jNlontgomery 1 , 335 

Prince George's. . . 1 , 243 

Cecil 1.148 

Allegany 1,143 

Washington 1 , 126 

Kent 1,123 

Calvert 1,121 

Talbot 1,113 

Somerset 1 . 107 

Queen Anne's .... 1 , 106 

Gan-ett 1,105 

Harford 1.102 

\A'icomico 1 , 097 

Frederick 1,095 

Caroline 1,092 

Howard 1,088 

Worcester 1,069 

St. Marv's 1,068 

Charles 1,054 

Carroll 1,045 

Anne Arundel 1,029 

Dorchester 1,023 



Schools 
Having 



County Two 

Teachers 



County Average. .$1, 182 

Baltimore 1 . 534 

Allegany 1,287 

Montgomerv 1 , 286 

Cecil \ 1.219 

Prince George's. . . 1 , 199 

Kent 1,197 

Washington 1 , 158 

Calvert 1,135 

Frederick 1.129 

Queen Anne's .... 1 . 124 

Anne Arundel .... 1,117 

Talbot 1,107 

GaiTett 1,106 

Wicomico 1 , 104 

Worcester 1,102 

Harford 1,090 

Howard 1,083 

Carroll 1,080 

St. Marv's 1,051 

Charles 1,048 

Caroline 1.040 

Dorchester 1 . 026 

Somerset 1.020 



Schools 
Having 

County Three or 

More 
Teachers 



County Average. . SI , 246 

Baltimore 1,514 

■Montgomery 1 , 335 

Allegany 1,298 

Cecil 1,245 

Anne Arundel .... 1 , 227 

Prince George's. . . 1 , 204 

Washington 1 , 193 

Kent 1,177 

Harford 1,158 

Wicomico 1 , 143 

Queen Anne's .... 1 , 138 

Howard 1,130 

Carroll 1.129 

Somerset 1,124 

Dorchester 1,112 

Frederick 1,108 

Talbot 1,107 

Garrett 1,107 

Caroline 1,102 

Worcester 1,102 

Charles 1,095 

Calvert 1.075 

St. Marv's 995 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 309. 



Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers 



69 



those of similar training teaching in the graded schools, because 
of the constant exodus of teachers from one-teacher to larger 
schools, (See Table 48, page 62) the average salary per teacher 
is lowest in the one-teacher schools. The average for one-teacher 
schools in 1931 was $1,136, with a range from $1,023 to $1,602, 
only three counties paying more than $1,150. (See Table 52.) 

In two-teacher schools, the average salary of $1,182 repre- 
sented a range in average salaries in individual counties from 
$1,020 to $1,534. Sixteen of the counties had an average salary 
per teacher in two-teacher schools of less than $1,150. (See 
Table 52.) 

TABLE 53 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in Servjce 
in Maryland Counties, October, 1931 



TEACHERS IN WHITE ELEMENTARY 
SCHOOLS 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



Salai 



13 
1 

10 
1 

190 
19 
62 
47 
73 
20 
16 
8 
4 
12 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 



9 
3 
41 
11 
48 
29 
54 
22 
69 
26 
12 
23 
2 
9 
3 
9 
5 
4 
2 
6 



1 
1 
1 
1 
10 
5 

175 
71 
215 
171 
289 
182 
261 
167 
55 
95 
29 
36 
19 
88 
5 
12 
5 
*6 



9 
1 

3 
1 
32 
9 

226 
83 
453 
219 
4D5 
251 
403 
213 
83 
126 
35 
57 
23 
99 
11 
17 
9 
*19 



498 
$1,150 



389 
$1,150 



1,900 
$1,200 



2,787 
$1,150 



$1,150. . . 
1,200. . . 
1,250. . . 
1,300. . . 
1,350. . . 
1,400. . . 
1,450... 
1,500. . . 
1,550. . . 
1,600. . . 
1,650. . . 
1,700... 
1.750. . . 
1,800. . . 
1,850. . . 
1.900. . . 
1,950... 
2,000. . . 
2.050... 
2,100. . . 
2 . 150 . . . 
2,200. . . 
2,250. . . 
2,300. . . 
2,350. . . 
2,400. . . 
2.500. . . 
and over 

Total . . 

Median . 



* Includes one each at $2,500 and $1,932, and two at $1,850. 
t Includes one each at $2,880, $3,060 and $2,800. 



70 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



In graded schools, the average salary of $1,246 covered a vari- 
ation among the counties from $995 to $1,514. In seventeen of 
the counties the average salary was under $1,200. (See Table 
52.) 



Salaries in October, 1931 

When the salaries in October, 1931 of 2,787 elementary teach- 
ers, excluding principals, are tabulated, it will be seen that the 
median salary above and below which there is an equal number 
of cases is $1,150. For the one- and two-teacher schools, the 
median is $1,150 and for the graded schools $1,200. For one- 
teacher and graded schools, these median salaries are one step 
higher than they were in October, 1930. (See Table 53.) 

The median salary in October, 1931 of 196 principals, $1,650, 
is $50 lower than the corresponding figure for October, 1930. 
Salaries of principals vary with size of school and experience. 
(See Table 53.) 



MEN IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In the school year 1930-31, there were 206 men teaching or 
serving as principals of white elementary schools. The men 
included 6.7 per cent of the teaching staff in white elementary 
schools, a slight increase over the figure for the preceding year. 
(See Table 54.) 

TABLE 54 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County White Elementary Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923 287 9.4 

1924 253 8.3 

1925 233 7.6 

1926 224 7.3 

1927 218 7.1 



Year Number Per Cent 

1928 204 6.6 

1929 208 6.8 

1930 195 6.4 

1931 206 6.7 



TABLE 55 



Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


COUNTY 


Men Teaching 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average 


205.7 


6.7 




2 
2 
3 

5.8 

2 

5 
19.1 
39.5 
17 
43 
29.3 
23 


2.8 
2.8 
3.3 
3.6 
5.0 
5.6 
5.7 
10.0 
11.8 
13.8 
14.1 
14.6 




Cecil 


Kent 








Queen Anne's 
















Wicomico 


1 
3 
1 
1 

3 

5 


1.0 
1.4 
1.5 
1.7 
1.9 
2.4 
2.4 




Prince George's 




Caroline 


Garrett 




Washington 


Talbot 


Frederick 


Harford 


Carroll 







For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table IX, page 303. 



Salaries, Sex of Teachers, Cost per White Elementary Pupil 71 



In four counties there were no men teaching in white elemen- 
tary schools. In thirteen counties the men varied in number and 
per cent of the teaching staff from 1 to 6. In five counties the 
men teaching formed from 10 to 15 per cent of the white ele- 
mentary school staff. (See Table 55.) 

COST PER WHITE ELEMENTARY PUPIL— $50 
CHART 9 



COST PER POPIL BELONGING IN WHITE ELEliairARI SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLDDING GEHERAL CONTROL 



1929 1920 
$50 $ 50 



Count7 
Co. Average 

Montgomery 

Kent 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Queen Anne's 

Carroll 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Howard 

Pr. George's 

Harford 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Washington 

Wicomico 



Baltimore City* 77 78 
State 61 62 




♦Includes elementary schools $76; junior high schools $92; vocational 
schools $191, 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 176. page 238. 



72 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



On the average the current expense of teaching a white ele- 
mentary pupil in the Maiyland counties in 1930-31 was approx- 
imately SoO, an increase of 39 cents over the preceding year. 
This amount excludes the cost of general control. (See Chart 9.) 

The highest county spends S20 more for each white elementary 
pupil than is spent in the lowest county, the highest cost per 
pupil being $62 and the lowest $42. All except eight of the coun- 
ties had a higher cost per white elementary school pupil in 1931 
than in 1930. (See CMrt 9.) 

The expense for all items entering into the cost per white ele- 
mentary pupil in the average county was lower, except auxiliary 
agencies, which increased 66 cents per pupil, and salaries of 
teachers which advanced 7 cents per pupil. (See Table 56.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The largest item in the current expense cost per pupil is 
always the salary of the teacher. In 1931 it amounted to $35.79 
per county white elementary school pupil, or less than one dollar 
a week. On the average this represented over 71 per cent of the 
current expense cost. It reflects in large measure the two main 
factors determining salary cost, which are size of class and 
salary schedule. Counties having small classes will in general 
have high salary costs per pupil and those having large classes 
will have low salary costs per pupil. A high salary schedule will 
tend to increase salary cost per pupil, unless this is counteracted 
by large classes, and a low schedule will tend to lower the salary 
cost per pupil, unless small classes raise the salary cost per pupil. 

The standing of a county in columns 2 and 10 of Table 56 will 
be the result of the interaction of the information shown in 
Charts 7 and 8, pages 64 and 67, which rank the counties in 
average size of class and salary. Salaiy costs per white ele- 
mentary pupil ranged from over $40 in three counties, Mont- 
gomery, (Barrett, and Kent, to amounts below $32 in three coun- 
ties, Talbot, Charles, and Frederick. (See columns 2 and 10 of 
Table 56.) 

Cost of Supervision per Pupil 

The amount spent for supervision per pupil, $1.38 in 1931, 
was 11 cents lower than in 1930. Expenditures ranged from less 
than one dollar per pupil in Baltimore and Washington Counties, 
which did not employ the full quota of supervisors for whom 
State aid is provided in the Stat€ school law, to amounts over $2 
in the smaller counties, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Kent, and 
Calvert, in which but one supervisor is employed, and Cecil and 



Analysis of Cost per White Elementary Pupil 



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74 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Garrett, the latter having the greatest area and the largest num- 
ber of one-teacher schools. Because of the progress of school 
consolidation, Garrett has decreased its supervisory staff by one 
this year. (See columns 1 and 9 of Table 56.) 

Books and Other Costs of Instruction Average S2.12 per Pupil 

The expenditure per pupil for books and other costs of instruc- 
tion, $2.12, was three cents lower in 1931 than for the year pre- 
ceding. For the purchase of textbooks and materials the coun- 
ties received 93 cents for each pupil enrolled in public school, 
regardless of color or type of school. The counties sharing in 
the Equalization Fund received not only this amount for each 
pupil, but more funds to be used toward improving the efficiency 
of instruction. The counties ranged in expenditure from less 
than $1.75 per pupil for books and materials and other costs of 
instruction in St. Mary's (which spent only 97 cents), Frederick, 
Wicomico, Caroline, Somerset, Howard, Charles, and Anne 
Arundel, to amounts over $2.50 per pupil in Carroll, Montgom- 
ery, Washington, Allegany, and Kent. 

The effect of good instruction may be nullified if children are 
not given a chance to use it by having books and materials with 
which to work. Certainly there is a minimum number of books 
for basic purposes which must be available and in addition sets 
of supplementary books. For reference and additional reading 
material the library of the county or of the IMaryland Public 
Library Commission may be called on, but these outside sources 
cannot supply the need for basic textbooks. 

Operation and Maintenance Costs Decline 

The average per pupil cost of heating and cleaning buildings 
used for county white elementary pupils ($3.79) was five cents 
lower in 1931 than in 1930. The only counties which showed 
marked increases were Charles, Talbot, and Worcester, while 
large decreases were found in Wicomico and Montgomery. The 
range in expense per pupil for cleaning and heating buildings 
was from less than $2.40 in St. Mary's, Calvert, and Wicomico, 
to over $5.00 per pupil in Kent, Talbot, and Montgomery. (See 
columns 4 and 12 in Table 56.) 

The expenditure per white elementary school pupil for repairs 
and rent ($1.74) was fifteen cents less in 1931 than in 1930. 
Anne Arundel, Charles, Prince George's, and Wicomico spent 
considerably under the amounts used the previous year, while 
Dorchester, Harford, Kent, and Talbot spent much more. Five 
counties, Somerset, Howard, Caroline, Queen Anne's, and 
Wicomico, spent less than $1.00 per pupil for repairs and rent, 
while Dorchester, Montgomery, and Charles spent over $3.00 per 
pupil for these purposes. (See column 5 and 13 in Table 56.) 



Analysis of Cost per White Elementary School Pupil 75 

Auxiliary Agencies' Expenses Increase 

With only two exceptions, Howard and Somerset, the expendi- 
ture per white elementary pupil for auxiliary agencies, which 
include transportation, health, and libraries, increased from 1930 
to 1931. The average amount spent per pupil in 1931 ($5.35) 
covered a range from less than $3.00 per pupil in Washington 
and Wicomico to over $10.00 per pupil in Anne Arundel, St. 
Mary's, Queen Anne's, Calvert, and Charles. (See columns 6 
and 14 in Table 56.) 

In Table 57, in which the counties are arranged in the order 
of their expenditure per pupil for auxiliary agencies, the highest 
county being at the top, expenditures for transportation, librai*- 
ies, and health are given. 

TABLE 57 

Expenditures and Cost Per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County ^Vh^te Elementary Schools — Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Total and Average . . 

Charles 

Calvert 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Kent 

Howard 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Allegany 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Washington 



* Includes 33 pupils transported to the elementary schools of Prince George's County, 
t Includes 4 pupils transported to the elementary schools of Allegany County. 

More White Elementary Pupils Transported 

Transportation is by far the largest item included under the 
classification of auxiliary agencies. With the decrease in the 
number of one-teacher schools through transportation of their 



Transportatiox 



LlBRARIES 



Health 



Pupils 
Trans- 
ported 

at 
*-ounty 
-.ipense 



. 0,593 

777 
235 
578 
317 
*2,551 
903 

1,451 
570 
928 
713 

2.262 
1544 
186 
308 
563 

1,016 

1,601 
406 
751 
342 

2,327 
434 
830 



Amount 
Spent 



$512,518.56 

20,167.21 
9,134.23 
16,564.39 
10,161.00 
54,450.56 
20,328.75 
40,692.77 
15,634.40 
22,759.34 
16,206.40 
53,472.36 
22,395.57 
7,669.66 
10,155.64 
12,370.01 
24,675.31 
40,029.94 
11,492.14 
20,427.01 
10,886.50 
41,213.29 
9,151.38 
22,480.70 



Cost 
per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 



Total Ex- 
penditures 

for 
Libraries 



$24.89 

25.96 
38.87 
28.66 
32.05 
21.34 
22.51 
28.04 
27.43 
24.53 
22.73 
23.64 
41.17 
41.23 
32.97 
21.97 
24.29 
25.00 
28.31 
27.20 
31.83 
17.71 
21.09 
27.09 



$14,230.91 
46.58 



520.60 
153.86 
610.48 
269.13 
537.75 
107.29 
117.14 
327.50 
310.50 
113.39 
748.11 
110.00 
190.00 

3,110.20 

1,436.32 
86.94 
525.35 
763.50 

2,170.00 
422.71 

1,553.56 



Amount per 



School 



$12.98 
3.88 



Teacher 



Total Ex- 
penditures 
for 
Health 



20.02i 
6.151 

18.50: 

12.23! 
7.17 
5.96 
2.86 

10.23 
5.01 
1.091 

24.94| 
3.33 
6.55| 

53.621 

19.951 
1.81! 
8.21' 

12.94i 

24.94 
8.81! 

16.02! 



S4.67 
1.16 



10.41 
4.27 
3.78 
4.17 
3.42 
2.08 
1.30 
4 . 65 
1.49 
.79 

14.96 
1.84 
2.68 

15.22 
4.32 
.95 
2.52 
6.05 
5 .51 
4.27 
4.98 



$17,463.18 

48.67 
19.81 
88.60 



2,042.00 
137.64 
2,085.38 



150.00 



2.34 



Amount 
per 
Pupil 



3,532.84 
1,688.59 

"i;587;63 
16.37! 

3,882.88; 
10.40! 

2,170.031 



S.17 

.03 
.02 
.06 



.34 
.06 

.43 



.05 



.57 
.14 



.22 



.25 



.20 



76 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



pupils to larger consolidated schools, the number of county white 
elementary pupils transported increased from 16,670 in 1930 to 
20,593 in 1931, a gain of 23.5 per cent. The counties spent over 
$512,000 for transportation of white elementary pupils, making 
the cost per pupil transported average $24.89. (See Table 57.) 

Every county, except St. Mary's, transported more white ele- 
mentary pupils in 1931 than in 1930, and in some counties the 
increases were very large. 

The lowest costs per white elementary pupil transported were 
found in Baltimore, Wicomico, Anne Arundel, and Somerset 
Counties, which had expenditures under $22, while the highest 
costs, over $38 per pupil, were found in Calvert, Garrett, and 
Kent Counties. (See Table 57.) 

The cost per pupil for auxiliary agencies, shown in columns 
6 and 14 of Table 56, would loom large in a county which carried 
a larger proportion of its pupils to school. In the 23 counties as 
a group, nearly one fifth of the white elementary school pupils 
are being transported at county expense, but the range in indi- 
vidual counties is from 54 per cent in Charles (which has elimi- 
nated all except one of its one-teacher schools) and close to 40 
per cent in Anne Arundel and Caroline, down to less than one 
eighth of the pupils in Washington, Harford, and Prince George's 
Counties. (See Table 58.) 

TABLE 58 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County White Elementary Pupils Transported to 
School at Public Expense Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



Total and Average 

Charles 

Anne Arundel 

Caroline 

Queen Anne's 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Calvert , 



20,593 

777 
2,551 
903 
578 
570 
713 
928 
317 
2,262 
1,451 
235 



19.5 

54.3 
41.7 
40.9 
36.5 
31.6 
31.1 
30.8 
30.3 
30.1 
29.0 
28.3 



Somerset 

Howard 

Montgomery. . . 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Allegany 

CecU 

Kent. 

Wicomico 

Prince George's 

Harford 

Washington 



563 
308 
,016 
,327 
544 
,601 
406 
186 
434 
751 
342 
830 



24.0 
16.4 
16.1 
14.5 
13.9 
13.5 
13.0 
12.8 
12.1 
10.4 
8.5 
7.6 



All of the counties, except Baltimore, which appear lowest on 
the list in Table 57, are those which are lowest on the list in 
Table 58. Baltimore County has the lowest cost per pupil trans- 
ported which brings it lower on the list in Table 57 than its posi- 
tion in Table 58 would warrant. Calvert, Garrett, and Kent be- 
cause of high costs per pupil transported, appear somewhat 
higher in Table 57 than the proportion of elementary pupils 
transported in Table 58 would seem to justify. (See Tables 57 
and 58.) 



Transportation and Library Costs in White Elementary Schools 77 



LIBRARY COSTS SHOW LITTLE CHANGE 

Although the expenditures for school libraries from public 
funds decreased slightly from 1930 to 1931, the total amount 
spent by the counties in the latter year being $14,231, the expen- 
diture per school mounted 24 cents to $12.98, while that per 
teacher decreased by 26 cents to $4.67. Expenditure per school 
ranged from nothing in Calvert to $54 in Montgomery, while 
that per teacher ranged from less than $2 in Calvert, Garrett, 
Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, and Howard to over $10 
in Queen Anne's, Kent, and Montgomery. The amounts shown 
in Table 57 exclude the funds raised by the schools themselves, 

TABLE 59 



Service of Maryland Library Commission to County White Elementary Schools 

School Year, 1930-31 



County 


Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Total 


12,022 


157 


196 


299 


89 


124 


393 




a943 


aklO 


a^-26 


aA;26 


a5 


a8 


ol8 


Anne Arundel . . . 


6cl65 


bc3 


bcS 


6e4 


6c4 


bc4 


fccll. 




1,819 


d20 


d29 


d33 


10 


30 


143 


Calvert 


30 


n 


/I 


/I 













350 


4 


8 


8 


5 


5 


20 


Carroll 


1,657 


26 


31 


43 


5 


5 


13 


Cecil 


497 


11 


11 


13 


7 


7 


13 


Charles 


c364 


ceS 


ce4 


cell 


cl 


cl 


. c2 




c266 


C4: 


c4 


c4 


cl2 


cl5 


c25 




6c540 


bell 


bell 


bcl6 


bcS 


bc3 


bc8 




943 


/15 


/1 6 


/21 


1 


1 


1 


Harford 


c670 


c/12 


c/12 


c/17 


c5 


c8 


c30 


Howard 


241 


/5 


fo 


fo 


5 


6 


27 


Kent 


5 











1 


1 


4 


Montgomery. . . . 


c392 


ce4 


ce4 


cel2 


c3 


c3 


c8 


Prince George's. . 


1,447 


e9 


el2 


e40 


5 


7 


20 


Queen Anne's . . . 


38 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


St. Mary's 


161 


/2 


/2 


/3 


6 


8 


24 




135 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 


6 


Talbot 


^844 


a 


Q 


!724 


1 


1 


1 


Washington 


hO 


h 


h 


hO 













bcl92 


bcfo 


bcfo 


bcfo 


6c2 


&c2 


bc8 


Worcester 


323 


7 


7 


8 


6 


7 


10 



a. The Cumberland Library supplied the Cumberland Schools with its own collection in 
addition to books borrowed from the Commission. 

b. Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c. Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to county seat on days 
when library is open. 

d. Includes three librarians and three teachers who distributed books to other teachers 
in the school. 

e. Includes two teachers who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

f. Includes one teacher who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

g. Talbot County Library in order to supplement its collection borrows books from the 
Commission and recirculates to all schools in the county requesting service. 

h. Washington's county-wide library service takes care of the book needs of the county 
without outside help. The library employs a visiting school librarian. 

k. Includes four librarians who distribute books to other teachers in the school. 



78 



1931 IcEPORT OF State Depart:\ient of Education 



which, according to law, are matched by the county when they 
reach a total of $10. (See Table 57.) 

In addition to the library facilities of the schools, many teach- 
ers took advantage of the opportunities for obtaining books from 
the libraries in individual counties and from the collections of 
the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission. The in- 
creasing use of the books of the Library Commission shows a 
growing appreciation of the value of its material assistance. The 
elementary school at Catonsville asked and received the assist- 
ance of the librarian of the Commission in the organization of 
its library, and its librarian, whose salary is paid by the P. T. A., 
received the benefit of the two weeks' course given under the 
auspices of the Commission at Hood College in July, 1931. (See 
Table 59.) 

Health Expenditures by Schools Lower 

The only County Boards of Education which are employing 
school nurses in the development of their school health programs 
are Montgomery, Carroll, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, and 
Washington. Baltimore and Allegany Counties used the Play- 
ground Athletic League in furthering the health of their pupils. 
In Montgomery where the largest amount was spent for health 
activities, 57 cents was the per pupil cost. Allegany spent 20 
cents per pupil for this purpose. (See Table 57, page 75.) 

In eight counties the Boards of Education spent nothing at all 
for the health program, while four more spent less than $20. 
These counties are probably relying on the aid they can secure 
through the activities of the State Department of Health. (See 
Table 57, page 75.) 

SCHOOL HEALTH ACTIVITIES OF THE MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF 

HEALTH* 

TABLE 60 

Full-Time County Health Officers in Service, September 30, 1931 



COUNTY 



Year 
Started 



Number of 



Nurses Clerks 



Total 
Budget 



Receipts from 



County 



State 



other 
Agencies 



Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Prince George's . 

Talbot 

Harford 

CecU 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Washington .... 
Anne Arundel . . 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Dorchester 



1922 
1923 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1924 
1927 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1929 
1930 
1930 
1930 
1931 
1931 
1931 



$26,309 
12,558 
39,017 

7,829 
13,448 
11,122 
11,035 

9,268 
12,546 
10,345 
11,111 
13.460 
22,787 
14,716 

9,779 
11,580 

8,321 



$13,719 
7,750 
28,100 
2,450 
5,000 
5,500 
4,500 
3,509 
5,828 
3,200 



000 
2,547 
3,500 
5,000 
2,000 
3,820 
1,400 



$9,745 
3,908 
5,782 
5,079 
7,498 
4,061 
6,535 
5,254 
3.388 
6,320 
5.661 
8.873 
6,807 
9.716 
7,779 
7,760 
6,921 



$2 , 845 
900 

5,135 
300 
950 

1,561 



505 
3,330 

825 
2,450 
2.040 
12,480 



* Report furnished through the courtesy of Dr. John H. Riley, Director, State Department 
of Health. 



Library and Health Activities in County Schools 



79 



Increase in Full-Time Caunty Health Service 

During the school year 1930-31 there were 15 counties having 
full-time county health officers, Washington, Anne Arundel, and 
Worcester Counties being added during the year. By December 
31, 1931, Garrett, Dorchester, and Queen Anne's Counties had 
been placed on the list. Charles and St. Mary's constitute a 
Sanitary District and are under a full-time Deputy State Health 
Officer. This leaves Caroline, Howard, and Somerset as the only 
counties without this service. (See Table 60.) 

Medical Examination of School Children 

Medical examination of school children, on the invitation of 
the school authorities, and the control of communicable diseases 
in the schools, are a part of the regular duties of the county 
health officers. The number of pupils examined during the 
school year 1930-31 was 75,930, an increase of 24 per cent over 
the year preceding. Baltimore County led with a total of 20,149 
pupils examined ; Allegany came next with 13,428 ; Carroll was 
third with 7,465; Anne Arundel, fourth with 4,521; and Fred- 
erick was fifth with 4,333. (See Table 61.) 

TABLE 61 

School Activities of the Maryland State Department of Health, 1930-31 



COUNTY 


No. of 
Public 
Health 
Nurses 
Working 
in 

Counties 


No. of 

Visits to 
Schools 

by 
Nurses 


No. of 
Pupils 

Ex- 
amined 


Total 


53 


6,435 


75,930 




7 


1,124 


13,428 




2 


463 


4,521 


Baltimore 


7 


658 


20,149 




2 


309 


2,764 




1 


72 


1,479 




2 


485 


7,465 


Cecil 


1 


159 


542 




1 


59 


1,144 




1 


37 


515 




3 


433 


4,333 




2 


154 


816 




2 


170 


1,826 


Howard 


2 




Wicomico 


2 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
3 
2 


430 
303 
317 
138 
127 
76 
155 
419 
168 
179 


797 
3,667 
2,476 
14 
1,119 

199 
30 
3,917 
2,892 
1,837 



Preschool Children Examined 
IN Spring and SrMMER, 1930 



NrMPER 



White Colored 



3,609 

914 
163 
23 
63 
95 
33 
132 
158 
69 
212 
188 
241 
74 
35 
91 
300 
98 
114 



40 
331 
127 
108 



771 



26 



61 



77 
23 
111 
81 
50 
20 
70 



96 



Per Cent! 



White Colored 



24.4 

48.7 
20.1 

1.0 
56.3 
34.8 

5.1 
27.8 
76.0 
18.1 
21.0 
33.9 
45.5 
23.8 
19.8 
10.1 
27.8 
49.5 
41.3 



19.0 
25.3 
29.1 
37.5 



21.8 



34.1 
2.1 



44.6 
26.5 



21.3 
25.6 



9.9 
27.3 
88.0 
26.5 

8.8 
47.6 



50.0 



Per Cent 
Examined 
Requiring 
Vaccination 



White Colored 



52.5 

12.4 
69.9 
91.3 
28.6 
95.8 
90.9 
62.9 
75.3 
87.0 
75.0 
69.7 
49.8 
94.6 

100.0 
5.5 
49.7 
94.9 

100.0 



55.0 
79.8 
11.8 
63.0 



t Based on the number of six-year children as reported in the November, 1930, school 
census. 



80 



1931 Report of State Depart.mext of Education 



Visits of Nurses to Schools 

During 1930-31, there were 53 nurses engaged in public health 
work in the counties, an increase of 7 over the preceding year. 
Every county had at least one nurse. Baltimore and Allegany 
had seven each; Washington came next with four; Frederick, 
Montgomery, and Wicomico had three each ; nine had two nurses 
each ; and eight, one each. The nurses assisted the health officers 
in the examination of the school children and in the follow-up 
visits to the parents. They also aided in the pre-school confer- 
ences, in the activities for the control of communicable diseases 
in the schools, in the immunization clinics and the dental clinics. 
Allegany had the largest number of visits of nurses to schools ; 
Baltimore County came next; Carroll, Anne Arundel, Frederick, 
and Kent Counties had third, fourth, fifth, and sixth places, re- 
spectively. (See Table 61.) 

Examination of Pre-school Children 

Special conferences for the examination of pre-school children 
in preparation for their admission to school were held during the 
spring and summer of 1931. Through the cooperation of the 
county superintendents of schools, many of the examinations 
were held in the school buildings. A series of conferences was 
also held, during the summer, in connection with the visits of 
the healthmobile to Southern Maryland and the Eastern Shore. 
The healthmobile staff included a physician with special training 
in child care, a dentist, a public health nurse, and the chauffeur 
who helped with the health movies that were shown in the 
evenings. 

Particular attention was paid in all of the pre-school confer- 
ences to the general health of the child ; to weight, as indicating 
good or faulty nutrition; to conditions of the nose and throat; 
to the chest — the heart and lungs; to posture; vision; hearing 
and the teeth. A detailed record was made of each examination 
and a copy of the findings was sent to the family physician. The 
mothers were directed to consult their family doctors and effort 
was made to persuade the parents to have any conditions that 
needed correction attended to during the summer, so that the 
children could start in to school as free as possible from physical 
handicaps. In connection with the pre-school examinations, a 
record was made of all children who had not been vaccinated 
against smallpox. This was brought to the attention of the 
family physician and also to the county health officer, so that 
arrangements for vaccination could be made, in accordance with 
the requirements of the school law, before the children were sent 
to school. 

Of the pre-school children examined, 3,609 were white and 771 
colored. This was an increase of 18 per cent for the white and 
57 per cent for the colored children over the number examined 



State Department of Health School Activities 



81 



the preceding year. It is estimated that one fourth of the white 
children and slightly over one fifth of the colored children who 
entered school in September and October, 1931, received the 
benefit of the pre-school examinations. (See Table 61.) 

TABLE 62 

Report of School Dental Clinics Conducted Under the Auspices of 
Maryland State Department of Health 
August 1, 1930- July 31, 1931 



county 


Number of 
Clinic 


Number of 
Children 


Number of 


Sponsorship 
of 
Clinics 


Ex- 

amined 
by 
Den- 
tists 


Treated 


Fill- 
ings 
In- 
serted 


Teeth 

Ex- 
tracted 


Clean- 
ings 


Treat- 
ments 


Total 
Opera- 
tions 




Full-time, 
year round 


2,826 


2,002 


1,006 


1,535 


198 


242 


5,807 


State, County, 
Cumberland 


Anne Arundel . . 


Approxi- 
mately one- 
half time 


1,701 


990 


1,129 


1,439 


167 


118 


4.554 


State, Local 
P. T. A."3 


Calvert 


20 Full-day 
Clinics 


532 


444 


495 


322 


46 


10 


1,405 


State, Local 
Group 


Caroline 


* 


1,185 


272 


416 


254 


117 


68 


2,040 


State, County, 
Bd. of Edu- 
cation 


Cecil 


Daily — ^Mar., 
Apr IVIav 
1931' 


639 


287 


634 


640 


263 


3 


2 , 179 


State, Board 
of EducEition 






1 ,387 


858 


1 ,866 


677 


648 


10 


4 , 588 


O to. LC, V^LILH.! xjy , 

Frederick 


Garrett 


Dec, 1930 
1931 


646 


536 


372 


689 


20 


20 


1,747 


State, Local 
Group 




5 Full-day 
Clinics 


48 


42 


31 


40 


14 


1 


134 


State, Local 
Group 


Kent 




1,170 


354 


593 


758 


250 


91 


2,862 


State, County 
Public Health 
Association 


Montgomery. . . 


? 


1,675 


617 


1,051 


487 


381 


47 


3,641 


State, Local 
Groups 


Prince George's 


One day per 
week in three 
schools 


357 


257 


717 


348 


169 





1,591 


P. T. A. 


Queen Anne's. . 




866 


252 


371 


196 


112 


93 


1,638 


State, County 


Talbot 


Half-time to 
Feb., 1931 


1,132 


247 


408 


59 


239 


475 


2,313 


State, County, 
Red Cross 


Healthmobile . . 


tFuU-time, 
May 18- 
July 31, 1931 


781 


448 


71 


1,071 


55 





1,978 


State 


Total 




14,945 


7,606 


9,160 


8,515 


2,679 


1,178 


36,477 











*Caroline, Kent and Queen Anne's together used the full-time services of a dental clinician, 
fin Charles, St. Mary's, Prince George's, Calvert and Queen Anne's. 



82 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Over 40 per cent of the white pupils were examined in Charles, 
Calvert, Queen Anne's, Allegany, Harford, and St. Mary's Coun- 
ties prior to their first entrance to school. This was the case for 
over one third of the colored entrants in Queen Anne's, Harford, 
Kent, Wicomico, Talbot, Calvert, and Allegany. It was found 
that 1,894 or 52 per cent of the white children and 533 or 69 per 
cent of the colored children examined needed vaccination against 
smallpox. (See Table 61.) 

Immunization Against Diphtheria 

Approximately 10,000 children under the age of 12 years were 
immunized against diphtheria at clinics held by the county health 
officers. 

Dental Clinics 

Dental clinics were a part of the regular school health service 
in thirteen counties. They were also held during the visits of the 
healthmobile to counties of Southern Maryland and the Eastern 
Shore. The total number of children examined at these clinics 
was 14,945 ; the number treated was 7,606. The number of chil- 
dren examined and treated in each county and the sponsorship 
of the clinics are indicated in Table 62. 

Instruction of Children in Personal Hygiene and in Measures for the 
Control of Communicable Diseases 

Measures used by the county health officers to give the children 
an understanding of the means of transmission and measures for 
the control of communicable diseases vary in the different coun- 
ties. The accompanying excerpts from material prepared by Dr. 
E. C. Kefauver, Health Officer, outlines the procedure in Fred- 
erick County. 

The school children in Frederick County are being trained to fight 
the germs responsible for coughs and colds and other diseases, with the 
following ammunition : 

Clean handkerchiefs 
Individual towels and cups 
Plenty of soap and water 

Incidentally, the warfare calls for regular drills in handling these 
materials, in order that their use may become a fixed habit. The fol- 
lowing rules are taken from the manual prepared for the teachers by 
Dr. Kefauver: 

1. Every child must bring a handkerchief to school, and be taught to 
use it to protect the mouth and nose wiienever he coughs or sneezes. 

2. Keep fingers out of the mouth, also pencils or anything else that 
does not belong there. Don't swap apples or chewing g*um. 

3. Do not use a common drinking cup or a common towel. 

4. Wash the hands with soap and water after visiting the toilet and 
before eating. 



State Department of Health Activities; Per Pupil Costs 83 



These rules were selected because they seem to protect the children 
from two types of communicable diseases which are most prevalent 
among school children — spit-borne and excreta-borne diseases. These 
two groups of diseases can be prevented if the secretions and excretions 
of pupils are destroyed or are prevented from getting to the mouths of 
others. 

All the Frederick County teachers supervise the enforcement of the 
rules during school hours. Teachers can do much to prevent disease, 
often more than doctors and health officers, because the latter deal only 
with sickness, and there are more well carriers of germs than sick ones. 
Much time is lost by pupils all over the country on account of diseases 
which could have been avoided if a proper health education program 
were maintained and enforced. 



ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS MOST EXPENSIVE 
TABLE 63 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging in White One-Teacher, Two Teacher and Graded Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1931, exclusive of Expenditures for General 
Control, Supervision and Fixed Charges 



One- Two- 
Teacher Teacher Graded 
County Schools County Schools County Schools 



County Average. . S53 . 31 



Montgomery 62.90 

Kent 61.98 

Charles 61.26 

Garrett 60.76 

Talbot 59.76 

Calvert 57.39 

Prince George's.. . 56.57 

Baltimore 55 . 16 

Queen Anne's .... 55 . 13 

Anne Arundel .... 54 . 88 

Worcester 54.60 

Allegany 53.91 

Washington 52 . 55 

Caroline 51.71 

Dorchester 5 1 . 40 

Cecil 50.64 

St. Mary's 50 . 47 

Carroll 50.26 

Somerset 49 . 56 

Harford 49.49 

Howard 47.91 

Frederick 44.71 

W^icomico 43.48 



County Average. . $50 . 43 



Montgomery 60.63 

Kent 59.33 

Carohne 56.95 

Baltimore 56.53 

Anne Arundel .... 55 . 82 

Talbot 54.90 

Prince George's. . . 54 . 63 

Howard 54.18 

Calvert 52.45 

St. Mary's 51.81 

Wicomico 51.34 

Carroll 49.97 

Queen Anne's .... 49 . 95 

Cecil 49.94 

Dorchester 49.44 

Somerset 46 . 54 

Harford 46.18 

Charles 45.79 

AUeganv 45.57 

Garrett^. 45.02 

Frederick 44.21 

Washington 43.22 

Worcester 41 . 64 



County Average . . S47.66 



St. Mary's 61.25 

Montgomerv 60.89 

Calvert 56.99 

Charles 56.05 

Kent 54.44 

Carroll 52.40 

Queen Anne's .... 52 . 14 

Anne Arundel .... 49 . 77 

Alleganv 49.54 

Worcester 48.79 

Garrett 48.72 

Talbot 48.29 

Dorchester 47 . 87 

Baltimore 47.61 

Caroline 45.98 

Harford 45.06 

Prince George's. . . 44 . 67 

Frederick 43.82 

Cecil 43.22 

Somerset 42.87 

Howard 42.80 

Washington 42.34 

Wicomico 37 . 52 



For expenditures in these types of schools, see Tables XXIX, XXX and XXXI, pages 
323 to 325. 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



iSiOSiFMililPillliF 



3 iiliiliaSileliSlisiSii 

1 Sis iiiigiiiisiisiggisg^ 



I SiiggiliiiiiSiiiiiii^ii 



I "1— 



"2 



ilslllllllllsiillsM" 



'32 







^ O to 00 LO -H 



riMIIIiSllIliMillPIP 



riiPIIPlIllslIIMMgli 




Capital Outlay, Size of White Elementary Schools 85 

The current expense cost per white elementary school pupil, 
excluding expenditures for general control, supervision, and fixed 
charges, was highest in one-teacher schools, $53.31, and lowest in 
graded schools, $47.66. Although the costs of transportation are 
chargeable in large part to the graded schools, they are offset by 
the larger classes found in these schools. In one-teacher schools 
the cost per pupil varied from $43 to $63, in two-teacher schools 
from $42 to $61, and in graded schools from $38 to $61. (See 
Table 63.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Capital outlay for county white elementary schools totalled 
$921,525 representing $8.89 per pupil belonging. Washington, 
Worcester, Charles, Allegany, and Baltimore Counties had the 
highest capital outlay per pupil. Dorchester, St. Mary's, Talbot, 
Queen Anne's, and Howard had a capital outlay of less than 
$1,000 for white elementary schools. (See columns 8 and 16 of 
Table 56, page 73, and Table 64.) 

In Table 64 the capital outlay for white elementary schools 
from 1920 to 1931 is shown separately for each year and a total 
shows the summary for the 12 year period. Baltimore County 
has invested $2,825,000, Montgomery $1,426,000, Allegany $1,- 
151,000, Washington $1,052,000, Prince George's $913,000, Anne 
Arundel $563,000, and Frederick $548,000 in white elementary 
school buildings for the 12 year period. These are the counties 
w^hich are growing most rapidly. No other county had a capital 
outlay over $150,000 for white elementary schools in this twelve 
year period. (See Table 64.) 

SIZE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Excluding the Greene Street Junior High School in Cumber- 
land, there were 1,095 county white elementary schools in opera- 
tion in 1930-31. Of these 585 schools had one teacher or less, 
205 had two teachers, and 232 had 4 or more teachers. There 
were 126 schools with 7 or more teachers. 

There was a decrease from the preceding year of 76 in the 
number of one-teacher schools and of 19 in the number of two- 
teacher schools, but there was an increase of 10 in the number 
of schools with 4 or more teachers. In schools with seven or 
more teachers the increase for 1931 over 1930 totalled 4. (See 
Table 65.) 

All of the counties, except 5 in which the number of schools 
remained the same, had fewer white elementary schools in 1931 
than they had in 1930. The greatest decreases occurred in Fred- 
erick, Charles and Garrett and were due to the closing of one- 
teacher schools. (See Table 65.) 



86 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 65 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of Teachers, 
School Year 1930-1931 



COUNTY 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



53 











o 






00 






<£> 




00 


OS 


o 


o 


CO 


I> 


00 

1 






1 




1 






1 






1 




1 

m 


1 




1 

00 


OS 


o 




<N 


M 




lO 


CD 




00 




Ovei 


18 


27 


22 


14 


20 


12 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


3 


2 


1 


J 


8 


2 


■ 7 


3 


1 


3 


4 


1 


1 








2 








1 


1 


2 


1 




1 


1 






1 






1 








1 


2 


3 


2 


2 


4 


2 






1 


i 








1 


1 


3 




























1 




1 


1 


























2 


' 2 


2 


1 


1 


























3 








1 




















1 






























2 


1 


1 
























1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 












1 






1 


























1 


1 














1 












1 


1 




1 




























"i 




























1 


2 


2 




3 


1 




1 




2 














1 




2 


' 2 


2 


2 








1 




















1 






























































1 




















1 








1 
















1 












3 


2 


1 


1 


2 






1 










1 






3 




2 


1 




1 






















"i 


1 






1 


1 


























• • • 



























Total 



*1,095 

71 
33 
87 
21 
22 
75 
48 
12 
41 
62 
104 
59 
33 
30 
58 
64 
26 
25 
29 
18 
97 
48 
32 



* Excludes Greene St. Junior High School. 

t Includes a one-teacher school with primary grades only. 

° Includes 2 two-teacher schools in which each teacher has but one or two grades to teach. 



Reduction of One-Teacher Schools from 1920 to 1931. 

From 1920 to the fall of 1931 the teachers serving in one- 
teacher county white elementary schools decreased in number 
from 1,171 to 498 and in per cent from 39.1 to 16.7. (See Table 
66.) 

For the school year 1930-31 the number and per cent of teach- 
ers and pupils in one-teacher schools varied considerably in the 
individual counties. Anne Arundel and Charles had 5 per cent 
or fewer of their white elementary teachers and fewer than 3 per 
cent of their children in one-teacher schools. At the opposite 
extreme, Calvert and Garrett had 57 and 60 per cent of their 
teachers and 46 and 47 per cent of their children, respectively, 
working in one-teacher school organizations. The counties which 
in 1930-31 had more than 800 children in one-teacher schools are 
Garrett, Washington, Carroll, Baltimore, Cecil, Wicomico, and 
Harford. (See Table 67.) 



Size of White Elementary Schools, One-Teacher Schools 87 



TABLE 66 



Decrease in Teachers Employed in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1931 





County White Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 




2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1 Q91 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 > 


3,070 


823 


26.8 


1929 


3,078 


739 


24.0 


1930 


3,050 


663 


21.7 


1931 


3,049 


586 


19.2 


Fall, 1931 


2,983 


498 


16.7 



TABLE 67 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1931 





Teachers in 


Pupils in 




Teachers in 


Pupils in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 








Num- 


Per 


Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 


Num- Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber Cent 


Total and Aver. 


586 


19.2 


14,609 


14.1 


















Harford 


32 


25.4 


822 20.6 


Anne Arundel. . 


4 


2.5 


106 


1.8 




26 


29.0 


619 21.2 


Charles 


2 


5.0 


37 


2.6 


Queen Anne's . . 


15 


30.0 


360 22.7 




29 


7.4 


951 


6.1 




31 


31.3 


899 26.3 


Allegany 


27 


8.1 


683 


5.9 


Carroll 


50 


31.8 


1,223 25.0 


PrincerGeorge's. 


21 


10.1 


528 


7.4 




23 


32.7 


511 22.8 


Montgomery. . . 


22 


10.8 


577 


9.3 




21 


35.1 


548 29.3 


Caroline 


7 


10.8 


169 


7.8 


Cecil 


33 


35.9 


902 29.0 


Frederick 


24 


11.5 


666 


9.0 


Kent 


21 


42.0 


455 31.6 




54 


17.3 


1,326 


12.3 


St. Mary's 


16 


44.4 


388 39.0 


Talbot 


10 


19.3 


247 


13.8 


Calvert 


16 


57.1 


368 45.8 




16 


22.5 


399 


17.4 


Garrett 


86 


59.9 


1,825 47.4 



A comparison of the change from 1920 to the fall of 1931 in 
the number of teachers in one-teacher schools and the number of 
pupils reported in one-teacher schools in the attendance reports 
of October 1931 for individual counties shows the situation with 
respect to one-teacher schools for the school year 1931-32. (See 
Table 68.) 



88 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 68 

Number of Schools and Pupils in White One- and Two-Teacher Elementary Schools 
in Maryland Counties, October, 1931, and Number of Schools in 1920 





One-Teacher Schools 


Two-Teacher Schools 


POTTlVrTV 


Number 


Pupils, 
Oct., 1931 


Number 


Pupils, 
Oct., 1931 




1920 


1931 


No. 


Cent* 


1920 


Opf 
1931 


No. 


Ppr 

Centf 




1 171 




12 764 


12.0 


255 


1Q4 


12 237 


11 .5 




44 


X 


17 


1.2 




3 


159 


11 .0 


Anno Afimri^il 


41 


5 


97 


1 .5 




« 
o 


494 


7 R 


1 Q 1 m o 




s 

o 


171 


8.0 


4 


5 


342 


16.0 


Tfllhot 


25 




221 


12.2 


10 


I 


42 


2.3 




32 


10 


265 


30.8 


2 


4 


262 


30.4 




33 


14 


338 


14.9 


8 


2 


132 


5^8 




111 


15 


444 


5.9 


16 


12 


827 


10.9 




33 


15 


304 


19.4 


8 


6 


397 


25.3 


(J\j. iVXctl y ft ... . 


48 


15 


384 


39.5 


5 


8 


430 


44.3 




24 


17 


374 


27.3 


5 


4 


247 


18.0 




28 


17 


440 


19.3 


11 


6 


307 


13.5 




40 


20 


666 


4.0 


43 


21 


1,536 


9.3 


Howard 


30 


21 


527 


28.4 


7 


6.5 


333 


18.0 


Montgomery . . 


39 


21 


537 


8.2 


12 


14 


732 


11.1 


Prince George's 


42 


21 


552 


7.4 


15 


13 


776 


10.5 


Allegany 


51 


22 


597 


5.0 


18 


14 


1,035 


8.6 


Dorchester. . . . 


57 


24 


558 


18.5 


9 


7 


401 


13.3 


Wicomico 


43 


26 


803 


22.8 


8 


5 


267 


7.6 


Harford 


51 


29 


771 


18.7 


12 


12 


662 


16.1 


Cecil 


57 


31 


860 


26.9 


5 


10 


666 


20.8 


CarroU 


97 


35 


820 


16.7 


12 


8 


480 


9.8 


Washington . . . 


81 


47 


1,188 


11.0 


16 


17 


1,118 


10.3 




126 


76 


1,830 


46.8 


11 


8 


592 


15.1 



* Per cent of number belonging in white elementary schools in one-teacher schools, 
t Per cent of number belonging in white elementary schools in two-teacher schools. 



SUPERVISION OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

During the school year 1930-31, there were 50 supervising and 
helping teachers working in the 23 counties to bring about im- 
provement in the instruction in the countj^ white elementary 
schools. The Assistant State Superintendent and the State Su- 
pervisor of Elementary Schools aided in increasing the effective- 
ness of the county programs of supervision through visiting 
teachers with the supervisors, discussing the work of teacher and 
supervisor, participating in and evaluating teachers' meetings 
held by the county supervisors, arranging for supervisors to see 
and evaluate work in other counties, conducting sectional and 
State-wide conferences of supervisors, and in preparing bulletins 
for the use of supervisors and teachers. 



Reduction of Small Schools; Supervision 



89 



There were few changes in the corps of county supervisors in 
the fall of 1931. Miss McGeady in Allegany took a position as 
principal of the Centre Street School in Cumberland, her position 
being filled by Miss Grace Shatzer, formerly supervisor in Gar- 
rett County. Miss Ruth Parker of Anne Arundel, who married, 
was succeeded by Miss Julia Wetherington. Miss A. Drucilla 
Worthington filled the vacant position in Frederick. Miss Kath- 
leen Saville was succeeded by Miss Pauline Blackford, a teacher 
in Washington County, and in Wicomico County Miss Bessie 
Brown was followed by Miss M. Jewell Swain. 

Several counties did not employ the number of supervisors to 
which they were entitled for the number of white elementary 
teachers employed in 1930-31. Harford employed 2, whereas it 
was entitled to 3; Frederick, Montgomery and Prince George's 
each employed 3 when they might have employed 4 ; Allegany and 
Washington, while each entitled to employ 6 supervisors, had 4.5 
and 4, respectively; Baltimore County, instead of employing 8 
supervisors, had 4, but in addition had supervising principals in 
several of the large elementary schools. Frederick filled its 
vacancy and Garrett employed only 3 supervisors, beginning in 
September, 1931. In Baltimore County State aid is being al- 
lowed for 5 supervisors for 1931-32. (See Table 69 and Chart 
10, which shows the number of supervisors in November, 1931.) 

TABLE 69 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers Required and Employed in Maryland 
Counties for Various Numbers of Teachers, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



SuPERVisiXG OR Helping Teachers 



Number of Number 
WTiite Elementary Number of Coun- Name of Counties 

Teachers Required ties 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, 

Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, Talbot, Worcester. 

80-119 2 3 Cecil, Dorchester, Wicomico. 

120-185 3 4 Anne Arundel, Carroll, Garrett (4), 

Harford (2). 

186-235 4 3 Frederick (3), Montgomery (3), Prince 

George's (3). 

236-285 5 

286-335 6 2 AUeganv (4.5), Washington (4). 

336-385 7 

386-435 8 1 Baltimore (4). 



( ) The number of super\'ising or helping teachers actually employed for the year ending in July, 
1931, is shown in parentheses when this number differs from the schedule. 



Supervision of White Elementaky Schools 



91 



The following supervisory bulletins grew out of the work of 
the supervisors in 1930-31 : 

Goals in Social Studies for the PHmary Grades I-III, a bulletin of 
236 pages, prepared by Miss Wiedefeld, is a revision and enlargement 
of Tentative Goals in Geography and History, Grades I-III published 
in January, 1928. 

A Cross Section of Supervision in Garrett County, Maryland is the 
report of a month's supervisory activities of Miss Flossie Skidmore, 
which was edited and prepared for publication by Miss Simpson, so 
that it would be available for study by other supervisors. 

The plan for interchange of visits among the supervisors used 
in 1931 was carried out again early in 1932 with excellent results. 

The only State-wide conference of supervisors during the 
school year 1930-31 was held at the Towson Normal School in 
October, 1930. In joint conference with the superintendents, the 
supervisors heard Miss Roxana Steele on ''The Problem of Su- 
pervising Activities in the Elementary School" and Dr. William 
H. Burton on 'The Objective Analysis of Classroom Teaching." 
The supervisors also listened to Mr. Leon J. Winslow, Director 
of Art Education in Baltimore City, present "Possibilities for 
Art Instruction in the Elementary Grades." 



WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
INCREASED COUNTY ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN WHITE 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

The continually mounting white high school enrollment re- 
corded each year since 1916 reached its height in 1931 when 
26,998 pupils were enrolled. This was an increase of 2,238 over 
corresponding figures for 1930 and was higher than that re- 
corded for any preceding year. The unusual increase in high 
school enrollment can probably be attributed to the lack of posi- 
tions open to boys and girls because of the economic depression. 
(See Table 70, and Chart 11.) 

CHART 11 

GROWTH IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



1914-1915 1 




1915-1916 i 


7,000 


1916-1917 


7,5Gr ■ 


1917-1918 


7,93G 1 



1918- 1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 

1928- 1929 

1929- 1930 

1930- 1931 



8,302 

10,900 
12,815 



14,888 

17,453 
19,003 



20.358 
21,811 

23,371 

24,760 



Although the 1931 increase of 2,238 in high school enrollment 
was 9 per cent more than the number enrolled in 1930, the in- 
crease in attendance of 2,098 was 9.6 per cent higher than the 
average number attending during the preceding year. (See 
Table 70.) Every county in the State contributed to the increased 



92 



White High School Enrollment and Attendance 



93 



TABLE 70 

Enrollment and Attendance in Approved White County High Schools of Maryland, 
School Years Ending June 1916 to 1931 



Year Ending 
July 31 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Attend- 
ance 


Annual Increase 


Per Cent of 
Increase 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
8fIlCG 


Enroll- 
ment 


A t.tpnH- 
ance 


1916 




7,000 


5,804 


787 


528 


12.6 


10.0 


1917 




7,567 


6,327 


567 


523 


8.1 


9.0 


1918 




7,936 


6,477 


369 


150 


4.9 


2.4 


1919 




8,302 


6,685 


366 


208 


4.6 


3.2 


1920 




^,392 


7,798 


1,090 


1,113 


13.1 


16.7 


1921 




10,900 


9,294 


1,508 


1,496 


16.1 


19.2 


1922 




12,815 


11,188 


1,915 


1,894 


17.6 


20.4 


1923 




14,888 


12,716 


2,073 


1,528 


16.2 


13.7 


1924 




16,026 


13,696 


1,138 


980 


7.6 


7.7 


1925 




17,453 


14,982 


1,427 


1,286 


8.9 


9.4 


1926 




19.003 


16,218 


1,550 


1,236 


8.9 


8.2 


1927 




20,358 


17,504 


1,355 


1,286 


7.1 


7.9 


1928 




21,811 


19,080 


1,453 


1,576 


7.1 


9.0 


1929 




23,371 


20,275 


1,560 


1,195 


7.2 


6.3 


1930 




24.760 


21,890 


1,389 


1,615 


5.9 


8.0 


♦1931 




26,998 


23,988 


2,238 


2.098 


9.0 


9.6 



* For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330-335. 



enrollment and attendance in the white high schools in 1931. The 
growth in high school enrollment in the individual counties is 
shown in Table 109, page 141. 

When the enrollment in parochial and private secondary 
schools, which is given in detail in Tables III to V on pages 296 
to 299, is added to the number enrolled in public high schools, a 
rather complete picture of the total high school enrollment in 
the Maryland counties is available. There w^ere 1,491 white 
children doing commercial and secondary work enrolled in the 
Catholic private and parochial schools in the counties. There 
were 1,686 white high school pupils enrolled in other private 
schools in the counties. The total enrollment, therefore, in Mary- 
land county public and private high schools numbered 30,175 
white pupils. (See Tables III-V, pages 296 to 299.) 

Per Cent of High School Attendance Slightly Higher Than in 1930 

The average per cent of attendance in the white high schools 
for 1931 was 94.5, just .1 per cent higher than in 1930. In indi- 
vidual counties the range was from 95.8 per cent to 91.3 per cent. 
The lowest county is now nearly as high as the average in 1923. 
(See Table 71.) 



94 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 71 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



ounty 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County Average . , 


91 


.9 


93. 


.0 


94. 


4 


94.5 




89.9 


92.9 


93.7 


93 


.9 
















Montgomery 


88.9 


92.6 


94.2 


93 


.8 




92 


.3 


95 


.1 


96. 


1 


95.8 


Kent 


90.2 


90.0 


90.4 


93 


.7 


Allegany 


94 


.8 


94, 


.6 


95. 


.9 


95.6 


Queen Anne's , , . . 


91.9 


92.1 


94.3 


93 


.6 




93 


.1 


93 


.9 


95. 


.2 


95.6 


Worcester 


91.7 


92.7 


93.9 


93 


.5 


Frederick 


91 


.5 


93 


.6 


95. 


,2 


95.5 


Carroll 


88.7 


90.8 


93.4 


93 


.4 


Somerset 


91 


.4 


91 


.9 


93 


.5 


95.1 




91.2 


91.2 


92.5 


93 


.3 


Calvert 


93 


.5 


93. 


,1 


95. 


,8 


94.8 • 




90.2 


90.5 


92.9 


93 


.2 


Anne Arundel 


92 


.1 


94 


.1 


95. 





94.6 




88.7 


91.7 


94.0 


92 


.6 




92 


.4 


93 


.2 


94 


.2 


94.6 


Cecil 


92.0 


91.5 


93.1 


92 


.4 




91 


.3 


93. 


.3 


94. 


6 


94.5 


St. Mary's 


86.8 


90.9 


92.9 


91 


.3 


Prince George's. . . 


, . 91 


.8 


93 


. 5 


94. 


. 5 


94.5 












Talbot 


93 


.2 


93. 


2 


94. 


1 


94.3 




91.5 


92.3 


93.1 


92 


.9 




91 


2 


92 


.6 


93 


,8 


94.0 






























91.6 


92.8 


93.9 


93 


.9 



For attendance in individual high schools in 1931, see Table XXXVI, pages 330-335. 



Growing Importance of the High School 

The ratio between high school attendance or enrollment, and 
attendance or enrollment in elementary and high schools com- 
bined is a valuable measure of the growing importance of the 
high school in the program of education. For every 100 white 
children attending county public high and elementary schools, 
slightly over one fifth were in high schools in 1931. This is an 
increase of 1.1 over the corresponding figure for the preceding 
year. For Baltimore City the per cent in high school increased 
.9 from 15.4 in 1930 to 16.3 in 1931. (See Chart 12.) 

TABLE 72 



Ratio of "Number Belonging" in White High Schools to "Number Belonging" in 
White Elementary and White High Schools Combined, by Counties 



County 


1924 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County 


1924 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County Average . . . 


. .13. 


3 


17.7 


18.4 


19.6 




.14.9 


18, 


,3 


19. 


5 


20.4 












Calveit 


15.5 


16. 


.2 


17. 


1 


20.0 


Talbot 


18. 


7 


25.4 


26.1 


27.5 


Montgomery 


13.9 


17. 


,1 


18. 


3 


19 . 6 




18. 


,8 


21.6 


22.9 


25.4 


Prince George's 


11.6 


17 


.3 


18, 


.1 


19.0 


Kent 


15. 


2 


24.6 


24.4 


25.3 


St. Mary's 


3.0 


14 


.1 


16, 


,2 
2 


18.8 


Worcester 


18. 


9 


23.0 


23.0 


25.1 


Howard 


12.7 


18 


.1 


19, 


18.6 


Wicomico 


19. 


9 


22.6 


22.5 


23.9 


Allegany 


13.5 


17 


.3 


17. 


6 


18.0 


Cecil 


14. 


3 


20.0 


21.7 


23.5 


Garrett 


8.4 


14 


.1 


15. 


,6 


17.7 






5 


20.0 


21.1 


23.2 


BaltimoiP 


11.0 


14 


,9 


15. 


1 


17.0 


Queen Anne's 


18, 


3 


20.2 


21.8 


22.6 


Washington 


11.1 


14 


.1 


15. 


6 


16.8 


Somerset 


15 


.2 


21.9 


22.4 


22.5 


Anne Arundel , . . 


10.2 


14 


.8 


15. 


4 


15.7 


Harford 


14 


.8 


19.6 


20.3 


21.6 


















16. 


.7 


20.7 


21.1 


21.6 


Baltimore City . . , 


... 9.7 


15 


.0 


15 


2 


16.1 


Carroll 


13 


.7 


18.8 


19.3 


21.1 


























State Average . . . 


11.8 


16 


,6 


17, 


1 


18.2 



In every county in the State, except Howard, which decreased 
slightly, the ratio of high school enrollment* to the combined ele- 
mentary and high school enrollment* was higher in 1931 than in 
1930 by from .1 to 2.9. The nine Eastern Shore counties, to- 



* Average number belonging. 



High Schools Reaching Larger Proportion of School Population 95 



CHART 12 



THE NUMBER OF PUPILS ATTENDING WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERT 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTENDING SCHOOLS 
IN, THE COUNTIES AND BALTIMORE CITI 
1917 - 1931 



Maryland Coimties 



Baltimore City ^/T^ 



1917 

1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 

1930 



1918 
1919 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 

1931 




l,..,vJJJ.JJJJJJJJJilF 



V//////////////////////////A 



^ 



V//////////////, 



15.4 



i 



16-3 



wmmrn. 



y/////////A 



gether with Charles, Harford, and Carroll, had 21 per cent or 
more of their children enrolled in high school, Talbot being at the 
top with 27.5 per cent. Calvert and St. Mary's showed the great- 
est increases from 1930 to 1931. (See Table 72.) 

If conditions permitted no retardation in any grade and four 
years of high school attendance by every elementary school grad- 
uate, the maximum percentage that could possibly be enrolled in 
the four years of high school would be 33.3 per cent in counties 
having the 8 — 4 or 6 — 3 — 3 plan, and 36.4 per cent in counties 
organized on the 7 — 4 plan. 



96 



1931 Eeport of State Department of Education 



More Boys Going to High School 

The steady increase in the ratio of boys to girls in high school 
noted since 1^22 continued, there being 86 boys for every 100 
girls, an increase of almost 4 boys over the year preceding, a 
larger increase than has previously been recorded. The counties 
ranged in the ratio of boys to 100 girls from over 90 in Cecil, 
Frederick, Prince George's, Baltimore, and Howard to less than 
75 in Kent and Queen Anne's. The ratio of boys to girls in- 
creased by 7 or more in Garrett, Prince George's, Montgomery, 
Talbot, and Caroline, whereas decreases occurred in St. Mary's, 
Charles, Carroll, Wicomico, and Queen Anne's. (See Table 73.) 

TABLE 73 

Number of Boys in High School for Every 100 Girls for School Years Ending in 
June 1922, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930 and 1931 



COUNTY 



Count}^ Average 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Prince George's . 

Frederick 

Cecil 



^Montgomery 

Charles 

Garrett 

Washington . 
Somerset .... 



St. Mary's. . . 

Calvert 

A'Hegany 

Anne Armidel 
Carroll 

Caroline 

Worcester. . . . 
Wicomico .... 

Harford 

Talbot 

Dorchester. . . 

. Kent 

Queen Anne's. 



1922 


1924 


1926 


1928 


1930 


1931 


74.3 


76.2 


78 


6 


79 


8 


82 


7 


86.2 


56.8 


63 1 


87 





89 


6 


98 


7 


99 2 


79*2 


87^4 


85 


2 


84 


3 


94 





97^1 


74.8 


77.8 


80 


2 


81 


5 


85 


2 


93.9 


85.5 


84.8 


89 


9 


84 


4 


85 


4 


91.3 


85.0 


74.2 


69 


4 


76 


8 


85 





90.3 


63.7 


76.7 


90 


9 


86 


2 


80 


6 


88.3 


82.8 


69.4 


89 


6 


80 


5 


88 





87.2 


76.5 


78.5 


75 


7 


72 


4 


78 


2 


87.2 


94.6 


87.6 


81 


2 


78 





84 


5 


87.1 


82.1 


86.1 


74 


2 


80 


5 


84 


5 


85.8 




96.6 


68 


5 


76 


2 


94 


5 


85.0 


77.6 


71.8 


59 


1 


62 





82 


3 


84.3 


61.9 


67.7 


75 


7 


71 


9 


82 


5 


83.8 


75.5 


60.1 


82 


6 


82 


7 


82 


7 


82.8 


72.0 


74.2 


83 


8 


84 


5 


82 


8 


82.3 


68.0 


69.4 


68 


2 


72 


5 


74 


5 


81.1 


63.4 


67.3 


69 


6 


80 


5 


77 


7 


80.7 


72.5 


68.6 


66 


3 


79 


9 


80 


9 


80.2 


66.2 


84.8 


72 


5 


80 


2 


76 


7 


79.3 


79.7 


78.0 


79 


5 


86 


1 


70 


7 


77.7 


78.6 


71.7 


74 


7 


80 


4 


72 


9 


77.3 


68.5 


75.7 


69 


4 


76 


4 


70 


9 


73.1 


61.8 


68.0 


63 





66 


9 


66 


7 


63.4 



Number of High School Graduates Increases 

There were 4,204 graduates from the four-year county white 
high schools in 1931, of whom 1,713 were boys and 2,491 were 
girls. The increase of 419 graduates over 1930 is larger than 



More Boys in and More Graduates from White High Schools 97 



TABLE 74 

Four- Year White High School Graduates in Maryland Counties, 1919 to 1931 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Annual 
Increase 


1919 


323 


681 


1,004 




1920 


378 


772 


1,150 


146 


1921 


470 


893 


1,363 


213 


1922 


599 


1,034 


1,633 


270 




D5D 




1 OKQ 

1 ,90o 


O^O 


1924 


813 


1,405 


2,218 


265 


1925 


929 


1.610 


2,539 


321 


1926 


1,045 ^ 


1,574 


2,619 


80 


1927 


1,071 


1,816 


2,887 


268 


1928 


1,142 


1,851 


2.993 


106 


1929 


1,339 


2,056 


3,395 


402 


1930 


1,534 


2,251 


3,785 


390 


1931 


1,713 


2.491 


4,204 


419 



CHART 13 



NUMBER OF BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATED FROM WHITS HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 


1930 


1931 


Baltimore 


407 


469 


Allegany 


432 


402 


Washington 


336 


381 


Fl-ederick 


326 


339 


Pr. George's 


217 


248 


Uontgonery 


196 


234 


Carroll 


190 


233 


Harford 


162 


194 


Wicomico 


144 


182 


Anne Arundel 


203 


179 


Cecil 


110 


173 


Garrett 


107 


141 


Worcester 


111 


136 


Dorchester 


138 


131 


Caroline 


120 


129 


Talbot 


120 


125 


Somerset 


110 


107 


Kent 


94 


99 


Charles 


56 


82 


Queen Anne's 


71 


77 


Howard 


72 


61 


Calvert 


34 


47 


St. Mary's 


29 


35 



1931 



Boys 



Girls 




283 



240 



■2ir 



193 



92 


■ 141 i 


re 


1 IIB 1 


87 


■ 95 1 


75 


104 1 


64 ■ 


109 1 


54 ■ 


67 1 




77 



80 



76 



M J 



66 



■a j6 I 

51 
39" 



For graduates in individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330-335. 



98 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



any annual increase reported in the period from 1919 to 1931. 
Although there was an increase in the number of boys and girls 
who graduated in 1931, the gain in the number of girl graduates 
was 61 higher than that for boys. (See Table 74.) 

All of the counties, except Allegany, Anne Arundel, Dorches- 
ter, Somerset, and Howard, which had decreases, contributed to 
the gain in the number of graduates reported in 1931. The coun- 
ties varied in the number of graduates from 35 in St. Mary's and 
47 in Calvert to 402 in Allegany and 469 in Baltimore County. 
In every county the number of girls graduated exceeded the num- 
ber of boys graduated. (See Chart 13.) 

Persistence to Hiffh School Graduation 

By comparing the number of graduates with the first year en- 
rollment of four years before, a rough estimate of the persistence 
to graduation of those who entered high school can be obtained. 
The percentage resulting from such a comparison is lower than 
the actual persistence, since the first year enrollment includes 
in addition to the high school entrants, all repeaters of the pre- 
ceding year who failed to accomplish sufficient work to be classi- 
fied as second-year pupils. On the other hand, the graduates in- 
clude any pupils who may have entered the school after the first 
year. 

The average persistence to high school graduation for 1931 
was 49.5 per cent which included 42.2 per cent for boys and 56.3 
per cent for girls. The percentages for both boys and girls were 
higher than those shown in any year since 1926, when similar 
figures were first available. (See Table 75.) 

TABLE 75 
Persistence to Graduation 

First Per Cent of Persistence to Graduation 

Year Year Four Years Later 



Enrollment Total Boys Girls 

1923 5,756 45.3 38.4 51.8 

1924 6,311 45.7 36.0 54.5 

1925 6,772 44.2 35.6 52.0 

1926 7,548 45.0 38.2 50.9 

1927 7,895 47.9 40.3 55.0 

1928 8,486 49.5 42.2 56.3 



The counties varied in persistence to graduation from over 75 
per cent in Calvert to approximately 40 per cent in Baltimore 
and Somerset. For boys the range in persistence was from 65 
per cent in Calvert to 30.6 per cent in Somerset, and for girls the 
percentages varied from 83.3 in Calvert to 48.8 in St. Mary's. 
(See Chart 14.) 



PersistExXce to High School Graduation Greater 99 
CHART 14 



County Fi^st ^^^^ 
Enrollment 
1928 1931 



Total and 
Co. Average 



Calvert 

Worcester 

Washington 



PER CEIir OF PER3ISrE!^CE TO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION 

Per Cent of Persistence to Gradioation 
IB Boys I 1 Girls 

49.5 156.5 ^^ 
75.8 




Decreases under the persistence reported in 1930 occurred in 
Charles, Talbot, Allegany, and Somerset for both boys and girls, 
m Howard, Garrett, Prince George's, and Montgomery for bovs, 
and m Washington, Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, Harford, and 
Dorchester for girls. The remaining counties together with 
Washmgton, Anne Arundel, Harford, and Prince George s, where 
slight decreases for either boys or girls were found, showed 
greater persistence to high school graduation. Charles was the 
only county which had a higher persistence for boys than for 
girls. (See Chart 14.) 



100 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

FEWER HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES ENTER NORMAL SCHOOLS IN 

1931 

Of the 1931 white girl graduates from county four-year high 
schools, 214 or 8.6 per cent entered the Maryland State normal 



CHART 15 



GIRL GRADUATES OF WHITE COON 11 HIGH SCHOOLS 
ENTERING MARYLAND NORMAL SCHOOLS 
1930 and 1931 



Count/ 


Number 


Per 


1950 


1931 


1930 


Co. Average 


268 


214 


11.9 


Calvert 


5 


6 


33.3 


Baltimore 




Al 

4 1 


17.4 


Harford 


10 


19 


9.9 


Howard 


4 


5 


10.8 


Cecil 


1 


12 


1.6 


Charles 


1 


5 


3.3 


Allegany 


38 


24 


14.4 


Dorchester 


19 


8 


20. 7 


St. Mary's 


3 


2 


16.7 


Garrett 


12 


8 


17.9 


Talbot 


9 


6 


12.2 


Anne Arundel 


12 


9 


10.0 


Wicomico 


13 


8 


15.1 


Caroline 


14 


5 


19.7 


Frederick 


16 


12 


8.6 


Montgomery 


9 


9 


8.6 


Somerset 


10 


4 


16.4 


Queen Anne's 


7 


3 


16.7 


Pr. George's 


6 


6 


4.5 


Worcester 


9 


3 


12»0 


Washington 


16 


8 


8.3 


Carroll 


7 


5 


6.4 


Kent 


2 




5.4 




For 1931 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pa«es 330-335. 



Fewer County Graduates Enter Normal Schools in 1931 101 

schools. This was a decrease of 54 in number and 3.3 in per cent 
under the 1930 normal school entrants. The number who en- 
tered normal schools from the individual counties varied from 2 
in St. Mary's and 3 each in Queen Anne's and Worcester, to 47 
in Baltimore County. In the per cent of girls entering normal 
schools, the counties ranged from 20 in Calvert to 4 per cent or 
less in Prince George's, Worcester, Washington, Carroll, and 
Kent. Kent was the only county which had no normal school 
entrants among its 1931 high school graduates. Harford, How- 
ard, Cecil, and Charles were the only counties which had an in- 
crease in the number and per cent of 1931 normal school en- 
trants over corresponding figures for 1930. The largest de- 
creases in per cent of girls entering normal school occurred in 
Calvert, Dorchester, Caroline, Somerset, and Queen Anne's. 
Lack of available teaching positions, the increasingly high stand- 
ards required of each normal school entrant, coupled with the 
necessity of standing well in a battery of entrance tests, are 
probably the chief factors in discouraging some high school 
graduates from entering the normal schools. (See Chart 15 and 
Table 207, page 279.) 

There were 13 boy high school graduates of 1931 who entered 
Towson and Frostburg Normal Schools. Baltimore sent 8, Anne 
Arundel 2, and Queen Anne's, Allegany, and Washington, 1 each. 
(See Table 76 and Table 207, page 279.) 



TABLE 76 

Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland 
Normal Schools, 1931 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 




Number 


Maryland Normal 


County 


White 


Schools 




Boy 








Graduates 










Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Coiintv Average 


1,713 


13 


.8 


Baltimore 


186 


8 


4.3 


Queen Anne's 


26 


1 


3.8 


Anne Arundel 


75 


2 


2.7 


Allegany 


162 


1 


.6 


Washington 


170 


1 


.6 



For 1931 data for individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330-335. 



OCCUPATIONS OF 1930 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Education Beyond High School 

On the high school subject reports, principals were asked to 
record the occupations of their 1930 graduates during 1930-31, 



102 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



the year after their graduation. There were 542 boys, or 35 per 
cent of the boys who graduated and 1,031 girls or 46 per cent of 
the girls who graduated in 1930 who continued their education 
in colleges, universities, schools of various kinds, and in hos- 
pitals. The number and percentage of girls who graduated and 
the percentage of boy graduates continuing their education be- 
yond graduation were lower than for the year preceding. (See 
Table 77.) 

TABLE 77 

Occupations of 1930 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County High 

Schools 



OCCUPATION 



Number 



Boys 



Girls 



Per Cent 



Boys 



Girls 



Continuing Education — 

Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities . . . 

Normal Schools 

Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law, 
Agriculture and Ministry 

Engineering Courses 

Art and Music Schools 

Physical Education, Home Economics, 
and Kindergarten Training Schools 

Army and Navy Academies 

Commercial Schools 

College Preparatory Schools 

Post-Graduate High School Courses 

Hospitals for Training 

Office Work and Banking 

Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Saleswomen, 

Business 

Staying at Home 

Working in Own or Others' Home 

Farming, Fishing, Forestry, Nurserymen, 

Surveyor 

Married 

Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 

Building, Mining 

Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 

Communication, Newspaper, Telephone 

and Telegraph Operators 

Teaching and Library Work 

Army, Navy, Aviation 

Miscellaneous and U^nknown 



Total . 



275 
12 

26 
35 
12 



7 

109 
46 
20 



111 

226 
105 
118 

170 



127 
29 

11 



6 
91 



1,536 



238 
260 



15 
12 



231 
27 
16 
230 
240 

156 
364 
203 

4 
127 

17 



18 

3 



89 



17.9 
.8 

1.7 
2.3 
.8 



.4 
7.1 
3.0 
1.3 



7.2 

14.7 
6.8 
7.7 

11.1 



8.3 
1.9 

.7 



.4 
5.9 



2,252 



100.0 



10.6 
11.5 



.5 



10.3 
1.2 
.7 
10.2 
10.7 

6.9 
16.2 
9.0 

.2 
5.6 



3.9 



100.0 



Liberal arts colleges and universities enrolled more Maryland 
county boys and girls who graduated in 1930 than they enrolled 
the year before, but the number enrolled represented a smaller 
percentage of the total number of graduates than for the pre- 
ceding year. The normal schools showed a distinct loss in num- 



Occupations of 1930 County White High School Graduates 103 

bers, as did schools of engineering, and commercial schools with 
respect to the enrollment of boys. (See Table 77.) 

Activities Outside or Inside the Home 

Office work and banking as a field of work drew fewer 1930 
graduates than they absorbed of the 1929 graduates, while more 
high school graduates in 1930 than in the previous year took 
positions as clerks in stores, as salesmen and women in the busi- 
ness field. The number doing work at home or staying at home, 
and girls who married showed considerable gains over the pre- 
ceding year. Boys who went into farming, fishing, forestry, 
nursery work, or surveying and into garages, factories, mining, 
or the building trades showed increases, while the number doing 
transportation work on railroads or as chauffeurs decreased. 
(See Table 77.) 

Higrher EMucation of Graduates from Individual Counties 

College or university education was the occupation of from 30 
to 48 per cent of the 1930 boy graduates in Queen Anne's, Cal- 
vert, Kent, Anne Arundel, Talbot, and Prince George's. At the 
opposite extreme less than 15 per cent of the 1930 boy graduates 
went to colleges or universities from St. Mary's, Charles, Dor- 
chester, Cecil, Howard, and Allegany. (See Table 78.) 

For girls the percentage going to colleges or universities was 
lower than for boys, since many more girls than boys chose to 
go to normal schools instead. Prince George's, Carroll, Balti- 
more, Kent, Montgomery, and Worcester had from 13 to '20 per 
cent of their 1930 girl graduates in colleges and universities, 
while this was the case for less than 8 per cent in Howard, 
Talbot, Caroline, Dorchester, Harford, and Washington. (See 
Table 78.) 

Approximately two-thirds of the 1930 boy and girl county 
graduates who entered colleges and universities went to institu- 
tions in Maryland. The University of Maryland attracted 88 
boys and 39 girls from the counties, the largest number coming 
from Prince George's, in which it is located. Western Maryland 
was chosen by 41 county boys and 44 girls, Carroll alone sending 
44 graduates. Washington College drew 35 county boys and 7 
girls as freshmen, 12 coming from Kent County. St. John's be- 
came the college of 30 boy graduates of 1930, 12 being graduates 
from Anne Arundel County. (See Table 79.) 

Johns Hopkins drew 23 county boys and 1 girl as students, of 
whom 11 came from Baltimore County. Blue Ridge College was 
chosen by 9 boys and 13 girls from the Maryland counties. 
Twenty county girls entered Hood College, one half coming from 
Frederick County. Goucher enrolled 18 county girl graduates of 
1930 as students of whom 12 came from Baltimore County and 



104 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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OOOUPATIONS OF 1930 CoUNTY WHITE HiGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 105 



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106 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

4 from Anne Arundel County. Eleven 1930 county graduates 
went to the Maryland Institute, 6 of them coming from Baltimore 
County. Seven county girls entered St. Joseph's College at Em- 
mitsburg, 5 went to the University of Baltimore, and 5 to the 
Peabody Conservatory. (See Table 79.) 

Commercial schools drew a large percentage of the 1930 grad- 
uates from Cecil and Queen Anne's, both of which counties 
offered little or nothing in the way of commercial work in the 
public high school course, except for the course at Elkton taken 
by a small portion of the enrollment. A fairly high percentage 
of boys and girls from Kent, Montgomery, and Caroline, 15 per 
cent of the Dorchester and Wicomico boys, and from 16 to 22 per 
cent of the St. Mary's, Charles, and Worcester girls went to com- 
mercial schools after graduation in 1930. On the other hand, 
very few or no boys went to commercial schools after graduating 
in 1930 from Calvert, Garrett, Howard, St. Mary's, Baltimore, 
Frederick, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Worcester high 
schools. Somerset was the only county from which no girls were 
reported as entering commercial schools. (See Table 78.) 

Nearly one-fourth of the 1930 girl graduates from Queen 
Anne's, 21 per cent from Calvert, 17 per cent from Frederick and 
between 13 and 15 per cent from Kent, Somerset, Cecil, and Har- 
ford went into training as nurses. Charles County was the only 
one from which no girls entered hospitals, and the per cent train- 
ing for nursing was less than 7 for Prince George's, St. Mary's, 
Baltimore, and Dorchester Counties. (See Table 78.) 

College preparatory and post graduate courses drew 45 per 
cent of the boys who graduated from St. Mary's County high 
schools in 1930. In other counties the percentage of boys who 
took such courses varied from to 10 and for girls from to 5. 
(See Table 78.) 

Work Outside and Inside the Home in Individual Counties 

Office work, banking, and communication were open to one- 
fifth of the Anne Arundel County 1930 graduates, to 27 per cent 
of the girls in Howard, while at the other extreme no graduates 
of Queen Anne's and St. Mary's had opportunities in these fields. 
Work as clerks or salespeople occupied over one-fifth of the boys 
in Charles, Prince George's, and Washington, while Calvert and 
Queen Anne's had no boys or 3 per cent, respectively, entering 
this type of work. Nineteen per cent of the Queen Anne's girls 
who graduated in 1930, 11 and 12 per cent of those in Talbot, 
Baltimore, and St. Mary's, went into clerical or sales work, while 
no girls went into this work in Charles, Garrett, Howard, and 
Queen Anne's. (See Table 78.) 



Occupations of 1930 Graduates; Subjects Offered in 1930-31 107 



Staying at Home or Working in Own or Others' Homes 

Howard County reported 20 per cent of its 1930 boy high 
school graduates as staying at home. For Worcester the per cent 
was 17, and for Allegany 12.5. In all of these counties, these 
percentages were far higher than they were for the preceding 
year, indicating an inability to obtain work. The percentage of 
girls staying at home is also higher than for the preceding year, 
it being 27 per cent or more in St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and 
Worcester. The per cent of boys working at home reached 24 
per cent in Dorchester, and for girls the highest percentage was 
27 in Charles. 

Over one-fifth of the 1930 boy graduates in Charles, Calvert, 
Cecil, Howard, Garrett, Caroline, and Worcester engaged in 
farming, fishing, forestry, surveying, and work as nurserymen. 

Kent and Charles reported the highest percentage of girls 
married. 

Baltimore, Allegany, Washington, Talbot, and Calvert Counties 
reported the highest percentage of boys entering factories or 
going into garages or the building trades. (See Table 78.) 

SUBJECTS OFFERED IN 1930-31 

The increased high school enrollment was reflected in the num- 
ber enrolled in all subjects, except Spanish and art. English was 
taken by almost the entire enrollment. The social studies came 
next in importance with 81 per cent of the county boys and 83 
per cent of the county girls enrolled. Three-fourths of the boys 
and two-thirds of the girls took courses in mathematics, while 73 
per cent of the boys and 65 per cent of the girls were enrolled for 
science. English and mathematics were offered in every high 
school, and the social studies and science in all high schools, 
except one. (See Table 80.) 

With 96 schools in which 82 per cent of all high school pupils 
were enrolled offering Latin, only one-fifth of all high school boys 
and one-fourth of all high school girls enrolled elected the sub- 
ject. Although French was offered in 121 high schools enrolling 
91 per cent of all high school pupils, it was elected by only one- 
eighth of all county high school boys and one fifth of the girls. 
Spanish was available in two schools but was taken by only 64 
pupils. (See Table 80.) 

Industrial arts courses were offered in 74 county high schools 
in which three-fourths of all the high school pupils were en- 
rolled. In most schools the courses were required in only one or 
two years and were elective thereafter. It was taken by 6,449 
boys or 52 per cent of all high school boys enrolled. The number 
of schools offering industrial arts increased by 9, while the en- 
rollment was 730 greater than in 1930. The boys taking voca- 
tional work in industry have been included with those taking 
general courses in industrial arts. (See Table 80.) 



108 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 80 

Distribution of Enrollment* in Maryland County White High Schools by Subjects 
Taken for Year Ending July 31, 1931 





Number 
Enrolled 


Per Cent 


Number 
of High 


Per Cent of 
Total Enroll- 


Subject 













Schools 


ment Enrolled 












Offering 


in Schools 














Subject 


which Offer 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Each Subject 


Total 


12,331 


14,264 






153 




English 


12,274 


14,176 


99 


5 


99.4 


153 


100.0 


Social Studies 


9,982 


11,841 


81 





83.0 


152 


99.6 


Mathematics 


9,279 


9,487 


75 


2 


66.5 


153 


100.0 


Science 


8,943 


9,220 


72 


5 


64.6 


152 


100.0 


Latin 


2 , 522 


3,645 


20 


5 


25.6 


96 


81.6 


French 


1,572 


2,748 


12 


7 


19.3 


121 


91.1 


Spanish 


37 


27 




3 


2 


2 


3.6 


Industrial Arts 


a6,449 


1 


52 


3 




74 


74.8 


Home Economics 






107 


89.1 


General 




7,753 






54.4 


92 


83.4 


V ocational 




566 




4.0 


23 


12.5 










42 


26.9 


All-Day Courses .... 


1,053 


1 


8 


5 




39 


26.0 


Unit Courses 


46 






4 




3 


.9 


Commercial Subjects . . 


2,410 


3 , 705 


19 


5 


26.0 


63 


72.8 


Physical Education. . . . 


3,594 


3,614 


29 


1 


25.3 


32 


44.5 


Music 


7,119 


8,645 


57 


7 


60.6 


121 


93.2 


Art 


315 


378 


2 


6 


2.7 


7 


7.6 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

a Includes 9 boys taking a part-time industrial course, 216 taking vocational machine work and 
117 taking courses in building trades. 



Courses in>home economics were available in 107 county high 
schools, in 23 of which the work was on a vocational basis. The 
total number of schools was 5 more than in 1930 and the number 
giving vocational work was larger by 7. The opportunity of 
being in a school where work in home economics was offered was 
open to 89 per cent of the girls and on a vocational basis it was 
available to one-eighth of the girls enrolled. Since the course in 
home economics is usually offered for only one or two years, only 
7,753 girls, or 54 per cent of all of the high school girls elected 
it, while 566 or 4 per cent took it on a vocational basis. (See 
Table 80.) 

Agriculture was offered in 42 high schools in which 27 per 
cent of all the high school boys and girls were enrolled. The 
number of boys taking all day courses was 1,053 or 8.5 per cent 
of all the county high school boys, while 46 or .4 per cent had 
unit courses. (See Table 80.) 



Subjects Offered in County White High Schools 



109 



Commercial courses were offered in 63 county high schools 
which enrolled 73 per cent of the total high school enrollment. 
About one-fifth of all the boys and one-fourth of all high school 
girls enrolled took the courses. (See Table 80.) 

Music was given in 121 high schools enrolling 93 per cent of 
all high school pupils. It \\cas a required subject in only the first 
two years, and if offered in the last two years was elective. It 
was taken by 7,119 or 58 per cent of all county high school boys 
enrolled, and by 8,645 girls, or 61 per cent of all county high 
school girls enrolled. Courses in art were available in 7 high 
schools and taken by less than 3 per cent of the county high 
school boys and girls enrolled. (See Table 80.) 

Subject Enrollment in Individual Counties 

Mathematics, Social Studies and Science 

The enrollment by subjects in individual counties is only com- 
mented on when it differs greatly from the averages just given. 
A larger percentage of high school pupils in St. Mary's, Calvert, 
Cecil, Harford, Baltimore, Kent, and Queen Anne's Counties 
were enrolled for mathematics than was the case for the counties 
as a group. On the other hand, Carroll, Frederick, Garrett, and 
Montgomery appeared to minimize the emphasis on mathematics 
in the high school course compared with the counties as a whole. 
(See Table 81.) 

The distribution of the high school enrollment among the vari- 
ous branches of mathematics in which instruction was offered 
indicates the varying practice among the counties with respect 
to general and vocational mathematics, trigonometry and solid 
geometry, and mathematics or arithmetic review. (See latter 
part of Table 82, page 111.) 

The social studies were considered of least importance in 
Queen Anne's, Howard, and Dorchester, if judged by the per- 
centage of pupils enrolled for them, whereas in Calvert, St. 
Mary's, Cecil, and Charles they were taken by from 95 to 100 per 
cent of the boys and girls enrolled. (See Table 81.) The de- 
scription of courses given in the social studies indicates the varia- 
tion in nomenclature by the different high school principals. 

(See Table 83, page 112.) 
• 

Science courses were taken by a small percentage of the en- 
rollment in Washington, Montgomery, and Queen Anne's, where- 
as the percentage was high in Calvert and Cecil. (See Table 81.) 
The distribution of the enrollment in each county among general 
science, biology, physics, and chemistry supplies information fre- 
quently requested. (See first part of Table 82, page 111.) 



110 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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County Enrollment Taking Various High School Subjects 111 



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112 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 83 , 

Enrollment* in the Various Branches of Social Studies in Maryland County White 
High Schools for Year 1930-1931 



COUNTY 



NUMBER OF PUPILS ENROLLED IN: 



§2 



EUROPEAN HISTORY 



o 2 



111 



w 

"5.2 



II 



Total ;3,379 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . 
St. Mary's.. 
Somerset . . . 

Talbot 

Washington . 
Wicomico . . . 
Worcester. . 



441 
120 



31 
115 
204 
368 

58 
179 

80 
137 
191 

74 

62 
307 
370 



95 
134 
182 
76 
17 
138 



796 

243 
95 
130 



3,090|2,188 
299' 256 



37 
335 
25 
55 



57 



272 
272 



'69 



513 



813 



53 



554 



167 



11 



124 



169 
43 
61 
571 
163 
177t 
931 
8' 
238| 
391 
161 



29 



40 
61 
171 



124 



163 
35' 
42, 
59; 
19| 

214 
96 



127 



2,621 

313 
85 

674 
29 
71 

124 
78 
85 
14 

177 
41 
81 



27 



123 



44 



37 
51 

123 
28 
25 



469 



64 



365 



297 



74 
101 
124 

71 
234 
119 



5,359 

577 
219 
542 
71 
173 
258 
223 
123 
201 
398 
156 
278 
104 
136 
253 
348 
42 
16 
135 
217 
444 
259 
186 



3,109 



Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, or death. 



Foreign Languages 

Latin was not offered in Cecil and was taken by a very small 
percentage of pupils in Calvert, Carroll, Garrett, and Charles, 
whereas in Queen Anne's, 56 per cent of the boys and girls were 
enrolled for it, and in Baltimore Countv 38 per cent. (See Table 
81, page 110.) 

French was not offered in St. Mary's. The largest percentage 
of the enrollment taking French appeared in Queen Anne's, 
which, it will be remembered, also had the largest percentage 
taking Latin. (See Table 81.) 



County Enrollment Taking Various High School Subjects 113 



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114 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Industrial and Home Arts, Agriculture and Commercial Courses 

Of the counties which gave no instruction in industrial arts, 
Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Garrett, and Howard, the three last 
named, offered agriculture. In the other counties the range of 
boys enrolled for industrial arts varied from one-fourth to all. 
Calvert and St. Mary's were the only counties with no work in 
home economics, general or vocational. In Charles, the girls in 
one of the smaller schools were the only ones exposed to courses 
in home economics. The policy advocated where general courses 
in industrial arts and home economics are offered is required 
courses five periods a week for first and (or) second year pupils, 
and elective courses for third and fourth year pupils desiring 
them. (See Table 81, page 110.) 

Agriculture was a subject of study in all except eight coun- 
ties: Calvert, Carroll, Cecil, Kent, St. Mary's, Talbot, and 
Wicomico. It was given greatest emphasis from the point of 
view of the proportion of bovs enrolled in Garrett and Howard. 
(See Table 81.) 

Courses in commercial work, not offered at all in Calvert, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's, and enrolling few in Cecil, inter- 
ested a large proportion of the enrollment in Garrett, Allegany, 
Anne Arundel, Carroll, Montgomeiy, Somerset, and Prince 
George's. (See Table 81.) 

The kind of courses in commercial work given in each of the 
counties is exhibited in Table 84. Only six counties offered 
junior business training. Commercial arithmetic, mostly for 
second year pupils, was available in 15 counties, while commer- 
cial geography was given in four counties. Two counties gave 
office practice. Second year pupils could have courses in typing 
in four counties. Spelling as a high school subject was taught in 
five and penmanship in three counties. Only one county offered 
a course in salesmanship. (See Table 84.) 

Physical Education and Music 

Only eleven counties reported work in physical education on a 
credit basis, and in these counties the percentage of pupils 
reached varied from less than a fourth to over three fourths. 
Baltimore, Calvert, Allegany, and Howard Counties showed the 
greatest interest in physical education. Instructors from the 
P. A. L. had charge of the physical education program in all of 
the Baltimore County high schools and also in Howard County 
schools. (See Table 81, page 110.) 

Music was taught in every county. Carroll and Howard 
reached the greatest proportion of pupils in the music courses. 
In Montgomery County, in which music was elective only, it was 
taken by only one-fifth of the total enrollment. (See last col- 
umns in Table 81, page 110.) 

Data regarding enrollment by subject in each high school are 
given in Table XXXVII, on pages 336 to 341.) 



County Enrollment Taking Various High School Subjects llo 



HIGH SCHOOL ENGLISH ENROLLMENT DISTRIBUTED BY YEARS 

Since practically the entire high school enrollment takes Eng- 
lish, a fair picture of the distribution of the white county, high 
school enrollment by years may be obtained. 

TABLE 85 

County White High School Enrollment in English 
Distributed by Year of English Taken 



Y'ear Number Per Cent 

Total Bovs Girls Total Boys Girls 

I 9,683 4,947 4,736 36.2 39.6 33.2 

II 7,039 3.280 3,759 26.3 26.3 26.4 

III 5,527 2,392 3,135 20.7 19.2 22.0 

IV 4,488 1,860 2,628 16.8 14.9 18.4 



Total 26,737 12,479 14,258 100.0 100.0 100.0 



Of the 26,737 county white high school boys and girls taking 
English, exclusive of those withdrawn for removal, transfer, or 
death, the first year enrollment in English included 36 per cent 
of the total, the second year enrollment 26 per cent, the third 
year enrollment 21 per cent, and the fourth year 17 per cent. 
With the constantly increasing number of high school entrants, 
the enrollment in the early years would always exceed that in the 
later years, but in addition, the losses of pupils from year to year 
due to inability to do the work, lack of interest, and other causes, 
also account for the decline in the figures from the first to the 
fourth year. (See Table 85.) 

TABLE 86 



Per Cent of Enrollment Taking English in Each Year of High School 



COUNTY 


Number 
Enrolled 

in 
English 


Per Cent Enrolled 


in English in Years 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


Total and Average 


26,737 


36.2 


26.3 


20.7 


16.8 


Allegany 


2,741 


35.0 


28.3 


20.9 


15.8 


Anne Arundel 


1,195 


35.5 


28.5 


19.8 


16.2 


Baltimore 


3,423 


40.6 


25.6 


19.7 


14.1 


Calvert 


207 


35.3 


24.6 


16.4 


23.7 


Caroline 


766 


33.9 


26.0 


22.3 


17.8 


Carroll 


1,371 


37.4 


24.6 


20.1 


17.9 


Cecil 


1,013 


36.7 


25.7 


20.5 


17.1 




448 


35.1 


25.4 


20.5 


19.0 


Dorchester 


831 


35.1 


24.8 


23.2 


16.9 


Frederick 


1,995 


32.5 


29.0 


20.6 


17.9 


Garrett 


893 


40.4 


26.2 


16.6 


16.8 


Harford 


1,146 


33.6 


25.9 


22.8 


17.7 


Howard 


463 


40.6 


25.7 


19.7 


14.0 


Kent 


513 


30.4 


27.1 


23.4 


19.1 


Montgomery 


1.577 


37.6 


25.7 


20.6 


16.1 


Prince George's 


1,795 


36.9 


27.2 


20.6 


15.3 


Queen Anne's 


470 


39.8 


24.7 


18.9 


16.6 


St. Mary's 


248 


37.1 


31.9 


15.7 


15.3 


Somerset 


703 


34.3 


28.2 


20.3 


17.2 


Talbot 


716 


34.2 


23.7 


22.5 


19.6 


Washington 


2,263 


35.2 


26.9 


20.3 


17.6 


Wicomico 


1,154 


37.0 


20.4 


22.1 


20.5 


Worcester 


806 


32.6 


25.9 


24.5 


17.0 



116 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The greater holding power of the high schools for the county 
girls is evident. Whereas 40 per cent of the boys are enrolled in 
the first year, this is the case for only 33 per cent of the girls. 
In the third year, only 19 per cent of the boys are enrolled as 
against 22 per cent for the girls, while in the fourth year the per- 
centage for boys is 15 versus 18 for girls. (See Table 85.) 

In the individual counties the percentage of all high school 
pupils enrolled for first year English varied from 30 to 41. In 
fourth year English the counties varied from having as many as 
24 per cent of all high school pupils enrolled to only 14 per cent. 
(See Table 86) 

FEWER WITHDRAWALS AND FAILURES IN COUNTY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of boys and girls withdrawn from 
the various high school subjects for causes other than removal, 
transfer, and death were lower in 1931 than in 1930. The per 
cent not promoted was higher for boys in English, mathematics, 
social studies, and science, while for girls it was higher in math- 
ematics and science in 1931 than in 1930. (See Table 87.) 



TABLE 87 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals* and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject, for Year Ending July, 1931 





NtTMBER 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Sf EJECT 




































* 








* 
















C! 




































i 










-d 




•d 






u 


9) 


u 




a 
u 




2 


a; 


u 




u 


o 






TJ 


O 




o 

C3 


TS 


o 


-d 


"o 


T) 




■Z5 


o 






Witl 


Not 
Pron 


Witl 


Not 
Pron 


Witl 


Not 
Pron 


Witl 


Not 
Pron 


Witl 


Not 
Pron 


Witl 






2 


,241 


1,963 


1,298 


1,398 


943 


565 


8.4 


7.3 


10.4 


11.2 


6.6 


4.0 


Mathematics 


1 


,644 


2,237 


988 


1,360 


656 


877 


8.2 


11.1 


9.9 


13.6 


6.5 


8.7 


Social Studies 


1 


,793 


1,578 


1,002 


938 


791 


640 


8.0 


7.0 


9.7 


9.1 


6.5 


5.3 


Science 


1 


,686 


1,344 


1,007 


823 


679 


521 


9.2 


7.3 


11.2 


9.1 


7.3 


5.6 


Latin 




332 


607 


160 


376 


172 


231 


5.3 


9.7 


6.3 


14.8 


4.7 


6.3 


French and Spanish 




191 


285 


100 


178 


91 


107 


4.3 


6.4 


6.1 


10.9 


3.2 


3.8 


Commercial Subjects 




,022 


1,009 


484 


513 


538 


496 


8.5 


8.4 


10.8 


11.4 


7.1 


6.6 


Agriculture (Vocational) 




152 


46 


152 


46 






13.8 


4.2 


13.8 


4.2 























* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



In the four major subjects, English, mathematics, social 
studies, and science, between 8 and 9 per cent of the total enroll- 
ment withdrew for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death, and approximately 7 per cent were not promoted, except 
in mathematics, in which the percentage of failure was 11. For 
boys withdrawals ranged between 10 and 11 per cent, while for 
girls the variation in percentage of withdrawals was from 6.5 to 
7.3 per cent. Of the boys 9 per cent were not promoted in social 



Withdrawals and Failures in County White High Schools 117 



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118 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



studies and science, while 11 per cent failed English and nearly 
14 per cent mathematics. Only 4 per cent of the girls failed in 
English, between 5 and 6 per cent in the social studies and sci- 
ence, and nearly 9 per cent in mathematics. Of the four major 
subjects mathematics seems to offer the greatest difficulty for 
both boys and girls. (See Table 87.) 

From the foreign languages, 6 per cent of the boys and be- 
tween 3 and 5 per cent of the girls withdrew. Failure in Latin 
was the record of nearly 15 per cent of the boys and 6 per cent of 
the girls. It had a higher percentage of failure for boys than 
mathematics. Failures in French and Spanish were given to 11 
per cent of the boys and to less than 4 per cent of the girls en- 
rolled for the subject. (See Table 87.) 

In the commercial subjects approximately 11 per cent of the 
boys enrolled withdrew and another 11 per cent failed, while but 
7 per cent of the girls withdrew and nearly 7 per cent failed. 
(See Table 87.) 

Nearly 14 per cent of the boys enrolled for agriculture with- 
drew for causes other than removal, transfer, or death, but 
among those boys who remained only 4 per cent failed. (See 
Table 87.) 

Withdrawals and Failures in Individual Counties 

In the Academic Subjects, exclusive of Foreign Languages 

In English, withdrawals of boys varied from 6 to 21 per cent 
while failures of boys ranged from 4 to 22 per cent in the 23 
counties. For girls the corresponding variations in withdrawals 
were from 4 to 13 per cent and in failures from less than 1 per 
cent to 10 per cent. (See Table 88.) 

Mathematics for boys had withdrawals distributed all the way 
from 4 per cent to 22 per cent, with non-promotions ranging 
from 6 to 29 per cent in the individual counties. The per cent of 
girls withdrawn varied from 2.6 to 9.6, while the per cent not 
promoted ranged between 2 and 16 per cent. (See Table 88.) 

In the social studies the per cent of boys withdrawn was the 
same as in English — from 6 to 21 per cent — while failures ranged 
from 4 to 19 per cent. For the girls, withdrawals from the social 
studies varied from 4 to 9 per cent, while the failures, like those 
in mathematics, ranged from 2 to 15 per cent. (See Table 88.) 

In science, withdrawals of boys for causes other than removal, 
transfer, and death ran from 5 to 22 per cent, with failures 
amounting to from 1 to 21 per cent in the different counties. For 
girls, withdrawals and also failures aggregated from 1 to 15 per 
cent. (See Table 88.) 



Withdrawals and Failures in County White High Schools 119 

In the Foreign Languages 

From Latin 2 per cent of the boys withdrew in one or two 
counties, while in another 17 per cent withdrew. Failures of 
boys in Latin showed greater, differences than for any other sub- 
ject, from 5 to 35 per cent. For girls, the per cent of with- 
drawals in Latin was from to 10, while the failures ranged 
from to 25 per cent. (See Table 88.) 

From French, the individual counties had from to 24 per 
cent of the boys withdrawn, and from 3 to 25 per cent not pro- 
moted. For girls, the withdrawal percentages totalled from to 
13, and the percentage of failure from to 10. (See Table 88.) 

In Commercial Subjects and Agriculture 

From the commercial subjects, no boys withdrew in one 
county, while 29 per cent withdrew in another, and no boys failed 
in one county where the percentage of withdrawal was highest 
as against a failure of nearly 19 per cent in another county. 
From 3 to 16 per cent of the girls dropped out of the commercial 
subjects, while from to 16 per cent were counted as failures. 
(See Table 88.) 

The percentage of boys who dropped vocational agriculture 
for causes other than removal, transfer, and death ranged from 
5 to 24, while the non promotions varied from to 17 per cent. 
(See Table 88.) 

PROMOTION BY SUBJECT VS. PROMOTION BY SECTION 

High school principals were asked to report on whether their 
schools had promotion by subject, which means that a pupil can 
go ahead in every subject in which he is promoted and only re- 
peat those subjects in which he has failed. In small schools it is 
sometimes difficult to arrange a schedule where promotion by 
subject is possible, although it is, of course, the more desirable 
plan. The making of a program which fits the needs of each in- 
dividual pupil is an important index of the professional skill of 
the principal. 

According to the reports submitted, 118 principals in schools 
enrolling 21,512 high school pupils promoted pupils by subject; 
while 35 schools enrolling 3,892 high school pupils indicated that 
they did not arrange for promotion by subject. 

The schools together with their enrollment which reported that 
they did not have promotion by subject are listed in Table 89. 
It will be noted that seven of the 35 schools included in the list 
offer only one or two years of high school work. This applies to 
the two schools listed in Allegany, to two schools included for 
Baltimore County, to one in Montgomery and to two in Prince 
George's County. Of the remaining four year schools included. 



120 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



23 have an enrollment under 185, the size of the school perhaps 
making the scheduling of conflicts difficult. The principals of 
three large high schools included, Brunswick, Bel Air, and Rock- 
ville, seem to have a sufficiently large enrollment so that a sched- 
ule to avoid conflicts should be possible. (See Table 89.) 



TABLE 89 

County High Schools Not Having Promotion by Subject 



School 
Allegany 
Greene St. 



No. Be- 
longing 



Junior (I) 329 

Midland 
Junior (I) 23 



Total - .- 352 

Baltimore 

Randallstown 133 

Dundalk (I) 125 

Fullerton (I) 103 



Total -.. 361 



Calvert 

Huntingtown 

Carroll 
Union Bridge. 
Manchester 

Total _ 

Cecil 
Calvert _ 



65 



80 
71 



151 



64 



Charles 
Hughesville 60 

Dorchester 

Vienna 61 

Crapo 54 



Total 115 



No. Be- 

School longing 

Frederick 

Brunswick 332 

Walkersville 110 



Total 442 

Garrett 

Grantsville 101 

Harford 
Bel Air „....„ 396 

Howard 

Savage _ 25 

Kent 

Galena _ 68 

Montgomery 

Rockville 352 

Germantown (I) 7 

Total 359 

Prince George's 
Mt. Rainier 

(I-ni) 73 

Bladensburg 

(I-H) _ 63 



Total 


136 


Queen Anne's 




Sudlersville _ 


87 


Stevensville _ 


77 


Church Hill 


71 


Total 


235 



No. Be- 
longing 



School 

St. Mary's 

Great Mills 115 

Mechanicsville ... 60 
River Springs 56 



Total 231 



Somerset 
Marion 



114 



Talbot 
Tilghman 51 

Washington 

Williamsport 184 

Clearspring 138 



Total 322 

Wicomico 

Delmar 112 

Mardela 67 

Hebron 65 



Total 

Grand Total 
35 Schools.. 



244 



...3.892 



( ) numbers in parenthesis indicate the year of high school work offered. 



RESULTS OF STATE-WIDE TESTS 

Tests were prepared by the State high school supervisors in 
Algebra I and Latin I, which were given in every county to the 
white pupils enrolled in these subjects. The distribution of the 



Promotion by Section; Results of State Wide Tests 121 

scores is shown in the first two columns of Table 90. Out of a 
total possible score of 100, the median score of 6,796 pupils in 
Algebra I was 42, and for 2,990 pupils in Latin I was 62. 

The Columbia Research Bureau Test in American History was 
given to 4,417 third year high school pupils taking United States 
History. The median score was 59.5. (See Table 90.) 

TABLE 90 



Distribution of County White High School Pupils Tested According to Scores 
in Algebra I, Latin I, and American History, May, 1931 



Score 


Number 
Algebra I 


Tested in 
Latin I 


Score 


]N umber 
Tested in 
American 

History 


100 




1 

25 
74 
159 






95-99 


I 
2 
18 


1 QO— nvpr 

180-189 

170-179 




90-94 




85-89 




80-84 


71 


257 


160-169 


2 


75-79 


125 


256 


150-159 


5 




189 


278 


140-149 


21 


65-69 


305 


289 


130-139 


33 


60-64 


428 


305 


120-129 


55 


55-59 


544 


273 


110-119 


110 


50-54 


580 


248 


100-109 


184 


45-49 


690 


215 


90-99 


250 


40-44 


780 


189 


80-89 


385 


35-39 


777 


159 


70-79 


527 


30-34 


762 


109 


60-69 


603 


25-29 


614 


71 


50-59 


734 


20-24 


436 


49 


40-49 


698 


15-19 


262 


19 


30-39 


536 


10-14 


132 


11 


20-29 


228 


5-9 


63 


2 


10-19 


43 


0-4 


17 


1 


0-9 


3 


Total 


6,796 


2,990 


Total 


4.417 




42.1 


62.4 


Median 


59.5 



It is the policy of the department to give tests in three of the 
high school subjects each year. These tests may either be stand- 
ardized tests or tests prepared by the State high school super- 
visors after conference with teachers. 

HIGH SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF GROWING IN ALL SUBJECTS 

In 1930-31, the county white high schools employed a teaching 
staff equivalent to the full time service of 1,158 teachers, an 
increase of 81 over the preceding year. Every subject, except 
art, which lost 5 teachers, had a larger teaching staff than it had 
the preceding year. (See Table 91.) 



122 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 91 

Number of Teachers Distributed by High School Subjects in 
White County High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



SUBJECTS 



Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis Dis- 
tributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 



Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 



Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 



Teachers 



Schools 



Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 



English 

Social Studies 

Mathematics 

Science 

Latin 

French and Spanish . 

Commercial Subjects 
Home Economics. . . 

Industrial Arts 

Music 

Agriculture 

Physical Education . 

Library 

Art . . 

Administration and 
Supervision 

Total 



201. 
165. 
150. 
149. 

55. 

49. 



91.6 
77.8 
ao5.0 
44.6 
26.5 
22.9 
9.3 
3.0 

55.6 

1,157.7 



153 
152 
153 
152 
96 
121 

63 
107 
74 
121 
42 
32 
15 
7 



19 
14 
623 
clO 
1 



42 
29 
57 
c22 
2 



108 
95 

a69 
89 
30 
31 
15 
7 



153 



a Includes 4 teachers of vocational industrial arts. 

6 Includes an orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools already having a 
regular music teacher. 

c Includes one teacher who instructs in both agriculture and industrial arts in two schools. 

The number of teachers of English on a full time basis was 
201, and of the social studies 165. These subjects had increases 
over the corresponding figures the preceding year of 12 and 13, 
respectively. Mathematics and science each required close to 
150 teachers, mathematics having increased by 7 teachers over 
the number the year before. Latin with 56 teachers had 4 more 
than the year before, while French and Spanish with 50 teachers 
had 2 more than in 1930. (See Table 91.) 

The commercial subjects on a full-time basis required 92 
teachers, 8 more than in 1930. Actually 108 different teachers 
gave instruction in the commercial subjects in 63 high schools. 
Home economics with 78 teachers on a full-time basis had 8 more 
than in 1930. However, actually there were 95 teachers who 
gave some instruction in home economics in 107 schools. Indus- 
trial arts and vocational work in industry with a full time staff 
of 55 teachers grew by nearly 13 teachers over the year before. 
There were 69 different teachers of industrial arts who gave 
instruction in 74 high schools. (See Table 91.) 



Number of White County High School Teachers for Each Subject 123 

Music with 45 teachers on a full-time basis gained 2 over the 
year preceding. It was taught in 121 schools by 89 different 
teachers. There were 30 teachers of agriculture working in 42 
schools, an increase of 4 teachers over 1930. Physical education, 
taught by 31 teachers in 32 schools, showed a gain of 5.6 in the 
number required on a full-time basis over 1930. The art courses 
given in 7 schools required 3 teachers on a full time basis. (See 
Table 91.) 

Fifteen schools reported having librarians or teacher-librar- 
ians, which on a full-time basis would have required the services 
of 9.3 persons. Administration and supervision would have re- 
quired the full-time service of 56 persons, an increase of 6 over 
1930. There were 9 principals in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Balti- 
more, Montgomery, Washington and Worcester Counties who did 
no classroom teaching. (See Table 91.) 

Seven counties employed clerks in 16 high schools, one giving 
only part time service. The salary paid is much lower than that 
paid a teacher, but the work done makes it possible to relieve a 
principal to do constructive professional supervisory work. (See 
Table 92.) 

TABLE 92 

Number of Clerks in County White High Schools, 1930-31 



Average 

No. of Total Annual 

County Clerks Salaries Salary 

Total 15.3 $9,122 $596 

Allegany 7 3,929 561 

Montgomery 3 2,100 700 

Baltimore 2 1,250 625 

Anne Arundel 1 900 900 

Frederick 1 500 500 

Washington _ 1 353 353 

Wicomico 3 90 300 



FEWER PROVISIONAL CERTIFICATES ISSUED TO HIGH SCHOOL 

TEACHERS 

Because the policy of issuing provisional certificates is defi- 
nitely discouraged, the number and per cent of provisional cer- 
tificates issued for white high school teachers in service in Octo- 
ber, 1931, was very much lower than for any year preceding. 
Only 62 or 5 per cent of the 1,241 white high school teachers held 
them, as compared with 79 or 6.6 in October, 1930. Three coun- 
ties, Calvert, St. Mary's, and Talbot, had no white high school 
teachers holding provisional certificates, while five counties had 
only one teacher with a provisional certificate. The maximum 
number was 10 in Allegany and 6 in Carroll, while four counties 
had 5 provisional teachers and one had 4. All the counties, ex- 
cept 5, either decreased the number of provisionally certificated 
teachers under the number the preceding year, or kept the num- 
ber stationary. (See Table 93.) 



124 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 93 



Number and Per Cent of Provisionally Certificated White High School 
Principals and Teachers 





Num- 








Num- 








ber 


Per Cent 




ber 


Per Cent 


COUNTY 








COUNTY 










Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 




1931 


1931 


1930 




1931 


1931 


1930 


Total and Average . 


. 62 


5.0 


6.6 


Kent 


1 


4.0 


8.3 








Wicomico 


2 


4.2 


6.4 


Calvert 










1 


4.3 


4.5 


St. Mary's 






io!6 


Montgomery 


5 


4.7 


6.1 


Talbot 






8.6 


Prince George's. . . 


5 


5.6 


7.6 


CecU 


1 


2^2 


4.2 


Carroll 


6 


6.8 


10.0 


Garrett 


1 


2.3 


2.6 




2 


8.0 


3.8 


Frederick 


2 


2.4 


1.2 




2 


8.3 


5.0 


Caroline 


1 


2.5 


12.5 
6.1 




. . . 10 


8.8 


6.5 


Washington 


2 


2.7 




3 


9.7 


12.9 


Anne Arundel 


2 


3.4 


7.0 


Dorchester 


4 


10.0 


9.8 


Baltimore 


5 


3.6 


2.6 


Worcester 


5 


12.2 


17.5 


Harford 


2 


3.8 


5.8 











Includes substitutes. 



MORE COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS ATTEND SUMMER 

SCHOOL 

The county white high school teachers in increasing number 
and proportion feel the desire to grow professionally and cul- 
turally by attending summer school. Of the 1,241 teachers in 
service in October, 1931, there were 448 or 36.1 per cent, who 
attended summer school in 1931. A comparison year by year 
from 1924 to 1931 shows the increasing number and per cent 
attending summer school. (See Table 94.) 

TABLE 94 



White High School Teachers Who Were 
Summer School Attendants 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1924 


232 


31.0 


1925 


280 


32.3 


1926 


281 


30.7 


1927 


319 


32.7 


1928 


296 


28.4 


1929 


367 


33.5 


1930 


410 


34.3 


1931 


448 


36.1 



Among the counties the per cent attending summer school was 
over 40 in Anne Arundel, Washington, Cecil, Allegany, St. 
Mary's, Harford, and Worcester, while in only two counties, 
Wicomico and Garrett, was it less than 25 per cent. 

The University of Maryland attracted the largest enrollment 
of county white high school teachers, 137 having attended there. 
Johns Hopkins University and Columbia were next in order with 
80 and 78 summer session students from Maryland county white 
high schools. (See Table 95.) 



High School Provisional Certificates; Summer School Attendance 125 

TABLE 95 

County White High School Teachers in Service in October, 1931, Reported by 
County Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1931 



County 



Total 

Anne ArundeL . 
Washington. . . 

Cecil 

Alleo^any 

St. Mar>-'s 

Harford 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's. . 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Dorchester. . . . 

Talbot 

Montgomery. . . 

Charles 

Carroll 

Howard 

Kent 

Somerset 

Garret 

Wicomico 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1931, Who 
Attended Summer 



School 


in 1931 


Number 


Per Cent 


t448 


36.1 


29 


50.0 


37 


50.0 


22 


48.9 


53 


46.9 


4 


44 .4 


22 


42.3 


17 


41.5 


9 


39.1 


3 


37.5 


30 


35.7 


32 


35.6 


46 


33.1 


13 


32.5 


al3 


32.5 


11 


32.4 


t33 


31.1 


7 


29.2 


25 


28.4 


7 


28.0 




28.0 


8 


25.8 


10 


22.7 


10 


20.8 



Summer Schools Attended 



Total . 



University of Maryland 

Johns Hopkins University 

Columbia University 

University of Virginia 

George Washington University 

Pennsylvania State College 

Indiana State College 

University of California 

University of Pennsylvania 

Temple L'niversity 

Cornell University 

University of Southern California .... 

University of West Virginia 

Catholic University 

Duke L'niversity 

Harrisonburg State Teachers' College 

College of William and Mary 

All Others 



Number 
of 
White 
High 
School 
Teachers 



t448 

137 

t78 
al7H 
14 

9 

8 

7 

6 

6 

5 

5 

5 

4 

3 

3 

3 
57 



t Excludes one supervisor. 

a Includes one taking courses at both .Johns Hopkins University and University of ^'irginia. 

FEWER RESIGN FROM COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

TABLE 96 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White High School Teachers from Maryland 
County Schools at End of or During 1926-27, 1927-28, 1928-29, 1929-30 



Causes of Resignation 



1926-27 1927-28 1928-29 



1929-30 
No. Per 
Cent 



Teaching in Baltimore City, Another 
State, or Private School 

Other School Positions in State 

Marriage 

Work Other than Teaching 

Dropped for Inefficiency 

Illness 

Moved Away 

Retirement 

Death. 

Provisional Certij&cate or Failure to 
Attend Summer School 

Other and Unknown 

Total 

Leave of Absence 

Transfer to Another County 

To Countv Elementarv or Junior High 
School.' ' 





43 


63 


53 


29.6 


f 


5 


11 


2 


1.1 


42 


42 


47 


46 


25.7 


23 


21 


21 


19 


10.6 


20 


21 


21 


21 


11.7 


5 


5 


3 


4 


2.2 


6 


3 


3 


4 


2 2 


3 


2 


5 


5 


2^8 


1 


2 




3 


1.7 


5 


2 


7 


6 


3.4 


14 


14 


6 


16 


9.0 


171 


160 


187 


179 


100.0 


13 


8 


18 


11 


6.1 


39 


38 


52 


37 


20.7 






1 


5 


2.8 



126 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



There were fewer resignations of white high school teachers 
during and at the end of the school year 1929-30 than for the 
year preceding. There were 179 who resigned or were dismissed, 
11 who took leave of absence, and 37 who took positions in other 
counties. Every one of these figures was lower than the cor- 
responding figure for the year preceding. (See Table 96.) 

The largest number of teachers (53) left the county high 
schools to take positions in the City of Baltimore, in other states, 
or in private schools. There were 46 teachers who resigned be- 
cause they married. The number dropped for inefficiency was 
21, and those who went into work other than teaching numbered 
19. (See Table 96.) 



TURNOVER OF COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The increase in the number of teaching positions from Octo- 
ber, 1929 to October, 1930, in county white high schools (102) 
was larger than for the three years preceding. One reason for 
this was the counting as high school teachers of the teachers in 
Montgomery seventh and eighth grades and Prince George's 
seventh grades who were in junior high schools and another was 
the increase in the high school teaching staff in Baltimore 
County. (See Table 97.) 

TABLE 97 
Turnover in White High Schools 

Number New to Counties 
Who were 

Experienced 

Teachers but not in 

New to Maryland Increase in Maryland 

Counties Number of Inex- County 

Per Teaching peri- High Schools 

October Number Cent Positions enced Preceding Year 

1926 260 28.4 116 166 94 

1927 240 24.6 64 153 87 

1928 231 22.3 61 147 84 

1929 255 23.3 54 157 98 

1930 297 24.9 102 197 100 

There were 297 teachers new to the Maryland counties as a 
group in the white high schools in October, 1930. This included 
one fourth of the entire group. Of this group of 297 teachers, 
197 were inexperienced college graduates and 100 were teachers 
of experience either in Maryland or elsewhere, who had not been 
in service in the Maryland county high schools the preceding 
year. (See Table 97.) 

Table 98 showing the turnover in individual counties is on a 
slightly different basis from the summary table for the counties 
as a whole described in the preceding paragraph. Since teachers 
who are transferred from one county to another are not new to 
the counties as a whole, they are excluded from Table 97, but 
because they are new to the counties to which they transfer, they 



Resignations and Turnov-er for County White High Schools 127 



TABLE 98 

Number and Per Cent of White High School Teachers New to Maryland Counties, 
October, 1930, Through June, 1931, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced, 
and from Other Counties 



New to 
County 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



Change in 
Number of 
Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1929 
Oct.. 1930 



Number 
Inexperi- 
enced 



Experi- 
enced 
but New 
to State 



Experi- 
enced 
in Counties 
but Out 
of Service 
1929-1930 



From 
Other 
Coun- 
ties 



Charles . . . 
Garrett . . . 
St. Marv's. 



360 



29.1 

12.5 
16.1 
16.4 
17.3 
19.1 

20.4 
22.2 
22.7 
25.0 
27.9 

28.8 
29.1 
29.8 
29.8 
33.9 

35.0 
35.7 
37.1 
38.8 
41.7 

45.5 
48.8 
50.0 



-f-102 



+ 1 
+ 1 
-1-4 
+2 



+ 1 
+2 

+7 
+15 
4-6 
+2 
+2S 

+ 1 
+9 
+2 
+15 
+5 

+2 
+S 



201 



31 



38 



are included in Table 98. In summary Table 97, the figure of 
297 includes all changes between October of one year and October 
of the following year. This means that persons who started 
teaching after October of one school year were reported as new 
teachers the following October, even though they might have 
taught from 1 to 9 months in the preceding school year. Table 
98 has been corrected to show only the changes from the close of 
one school year to the close of the following school year, so that 
the figures apply to all the changes ivithin one school year. As 
soon as sufficient data have been accumulated on this latter basis, 
the summary table will be reported in the same wav. (See 
Tables 97 and 98.) 

During the school year 1930-31, there were 360 white high 
school teachers new to the individual counties, 29.1 per cent of 
the entire staff. The number of teachers new to the counties was 
less than 9 in Calvert, Kent, Somerset, Queen Anne's, Howard, 
and St. Mary's, while it was 20 or more in Garrett, Cecil, Alle- 
gany, Washington, Carroll, Montgomery, Prince George's and 
Baltimore. The per cent of teachers new to the county was less 
than 20 in Kent, Somerset, Harford, Frederick, and Allegany. 
The new members of the high school teaching staff represented 
from a third to one half of the entire high school teaching staff 
in Baltimore, Worcester, Caroline, Talbot, Prince George's, Cecil, 
Charles, Garrett, and St. Mary's Counties. (See Table 98.) 

A part of the turnover is explained by increases in the teaching 
staff, which totalled 23 in Baltimore, 15 in Montgomery and also 
in Prince George's, 9 in Caroline, 7 in Anne Arundel, 6 in Carroll, 
and 5 in Cecil. St. Mary's had one fewer teacher in October, 



128 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



1930, than the number employed in October, 1929, while Kent, 
Howard, and Queen Anne's employed the same number of teach- 
ers. (See Table 98.) The large percentage of increase in high 
school enrollment which varied from 1 to 22 per cent explains 
the need for increasing the high school teaching staff in most of 
the counties. (See Table 109, page 141.) 

TABLE 99 

State of College Attended, and for Maryland, College Attended, by Inexperienced 
White High School Teachers; Also State of College Attended for Teachers With 
Teaching Experience in Other States, Who Were Employed in Maryland Counties 
for School Year, 1930-1931 









"o 
s 




























rge's 
















state of 






s 

3 


u 


























o 

V 


c 
c 








P 


o 




COLLEGE 




>> 




u 

o 




c 






CD 


aa 


« 






-3 




£ 

o 


O 


< 


*>> 


c 






_o 




ATTENDED 


Total 


Allegai 


Anne J 


Baltim 


Calver 


Oarolii 


Carroll 


Cecil 


Charlei 


Dorchf 


c 
hi 

&S4 


Garret 


o 

1 


Howar 


Kent 


bC 

3 


Prince 


Queen 


St. Ma 


Tj 

£ 
o 

GC 


o 

eS 
E- 


Waflhii 


Wicom 


Worccs 



Inexperienced Teachers Employed for School Year, 1930-1931 



Total 



10 


11 


16 


1 


8 


22 


15 


4 


7 


12 


11 


6 


6 


3 


12 


10 


2 


2 


3 


10 


13 


8 


9 


5 
2 


8 
7 


8 
2 


1 


4 
1 


20 
19 


7 

5 


3 


5 
1 


11 
4 


6 
2 


4 
3 


5 
3 


3 


6 
1 


7 
1 




2 


3 


9 
4 


7 
2 


7 
6 


4 
2 


3 


1 


1 




1 


1 


i 


1 


2 


4 








2 


6 






1 




2 




1 




1 

3 




2 




1 


2 
1 


5 




1 


1 


3 


1 






1 


2 


4 


1 

2 


i 


1 








1 








1 










1 






1 














1 




















1 








1 






















1 






































1 












1 
























1 


3 






2 


3 




1 


1 


2 


1 


1 
















4 




2 








2 












2 


2 


















1 


1 




1 




1 


































1 








1 




























1 




4 


1 


3 








4 


1 




2 


1 






3 




1 








1 


"2 






1 




1 










1 






1 


1 


1 






1 


1 




1 






























Experience in Other States Employed for School Year, 
1930-31 


4 


1 


12 




2 


1 


3 


1 






5 








8 


14 


2 


1 






10 


■ 


1 


2 








2 






1 








2 


1 


2 


1 






4 












1 






1 












2 








3 


1 








1 






i 














1 


4 










1 








3 






















1 
















1 




1 
























2 










































2 


2 




































3 




















1 






1 




7 




1 


1 










1 








2 


3 










1 




1 




1 

















































































Maryland. . . . 

West. Md . . 

Un. of Md.. 

Washington 

Hood 

Notre Dame 

Goucher. . . . 

J. H. U 

Others ..... 
Pennsylvania. . 
Wash.; D. C. . 
New York .... 
New Jersey . . . 
13 Other States 
Unknown 



135 
65 
27 
21 
12 
4 
3 
1 
2 
21 
6 
4 
3 
23 
9 



Total 


66 


Maryland. . . . 


15 


Pennsj'lvania. . 


8 


Virginia 


8 


New York .... 


4 


Tennessee. . . . 


4 


Wash., D. C... 


4 


West. Va 


4 


11 Other States 


18 


Unknown 


1 



Training of Inexperience^) and New Experienced Teachers 129 



During the school year 1930-31, there were 201 inexperienced 
high school teachers in the counties. The largest number of in- 
experienced teachers, 22, w^s employed in Carroll, while Balti- 
more County had 16, Cecil and Washington 13 each, Frederick 
and Montgomery 12 each, and Garrett and Anne Ainindel 11 
each. (See Table 98.) 

Prince George's, Baltimore, and Washington Counties em- 
ployed the largest number of experienced teachers from outside 
the State, and Prince George's, Baltimore, and Caroline Counties 
employed the largest number of teachers who were formerly 
teachers in the Maryland counties, but who were not teaching in 
1929-30. (See Table 98.) 

Baltimore County employed the largest number of teachers 
who transferred from other counties, 5, while seven other coun- 
ties employed 3 high school teachers who had previously taught 
in other counties. (See Table 98.) 

Location of Colleges Attended by High School Teachers Newly Appointed 

A distribution of the 201 inexperienced teachers employed in 
October, 1930, showed that 135 were graduates of colleges 
located in Maryland. Western Maryland College provided the 
county high schools with 65 of its graduates, the University of 
Maryland supplied 27, Washington College 21, Hood 12, Notre 
Dame 3, and (Voucher 3 graduates. Carroll County employed 19 
of the Western Maryland College graduates, Anne Arundel 7, 
and Wicomico 6. Prince George's added 6 graduates of the Uni- 
versity of Maryland to its high school teaching staff. Talbot and 
Kent employed 4 and 3 graduates, respectively, from Washington 
College. Frederick engaged 5 of the Hood College graduates. 
The county high schools employed 21 inexperienced teachers who 
had had their college education in the State of Pennsylvania. 
(See upper part of Table 99.) 

Of the teachers who came to Maryland in the school year 1930- 
31 after having had experience in other states, there were 15 
who had had their college education in Maryland, 8 in Pennsyl- 
vania, and 8 in Virginia. Prince George's, Baltimore, and Wash- 
ington employed 36 of the 66 high school teachers who entered 
the Maryland county high schools after experience in other 
states. (See lower part of Table 99.) 

There were 154 graduates from Maryland colleges and univer- 
sities in June, 1930, from the Maryland counties who met the 
requirements for certification. This was a decrease of 10 under 
the number the preceding June. The corresponding number 
from Baltimore City was 51. Of these, 133 took positions in the 
Maryland counties. (See Table 100 and also Table 99.) 



130 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 100 

Maryland Students Who Completed, in June, 1930, at Colleges Indicated, the 
Education Courses Necessary for Certification Compared with the Number of 
Graduates Who Took Positions in the County High Schools in the Fall of 1930 

Number of Graduates 
Who Met Requirements 

for Certification from Who Accepted 

Maryland Baltimore County High School 
College Counties City Positions 

Western Maryland 63 6 65 

Universitv of Maryland 35 .. 27 

Washington College 32 1 21 

Goucher College 8 21 3 

Johns Hopkins University 3 11 1 

Notre Dame College 1 11 4 

Hood College 10 .. 12 

St. Joseph's College 2 1 

Total 154 51 133 

EXPERIENCE OF MARYLAND COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 

TEACHERS 

Of the 1,241 county white high school teachers in service in 
October, 1931, the median teaching experience was 4.7 years, a 
gain of .2 years over the comparable figure in October, 1930. In 
October, 1931, the number of inexperienced teachers in service, 
152, was 39 fewer than the corresponding number in sei^ace in 
October, 1930. The largest number of county high school teach- 
ers who were employed in October, 1931, 169, had one year of 
experience. The number with two years of experience was 123 ; 
with three years, 116 ; and with four years, 85. (See Table 101.) 

The median years of experience among the individual counties 
ranged from 2 years in Charles and Caroline to 7 and 8 years in 
Queen Anne's and Kent, respectively. In five counties, Allegany, 
Baltimore, Caroline, Charles, and Talbot, the median experience 
was lower than in the year preceding. (See Table 101.) 

MORE MEN TEACHERS IN COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

Nearly 36 per cent of the county white high school teachers in 
service during 1930-31 were men. There were 416 men em- 
ploved, an increase of 51 over the number in 1929-30. (See 
Table 102.) 

TABLE 102 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1923 253 36.9 

1924 271 36.2 

1925 283 35 . 1 

1926 303 35 

1927 307 33.7 



Year Number Per Cent 

1928 333 34.3 

1929 348 34.4 

1930 365 34.0 

1931 416 35.9 



Experience and Sex of County White High School Teachers 131 



2 -= 
So 

c 
s 
o 



uo:>3uiqeBjy|^ j 




OS 

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CO 


U5 
C<5 


:>asjaraog 


M 
























Li 










: X X L-Lt c -.r X T — 




o 

Ci 






•>9< 




M — ro 


— M — M 1 o 


lO 
00 












CS 


pJOJJBH 


• X -.r — •-- 








o 



■ — C — M — ■ 



ja;saoaow^ 



! I 



ootmootji^ 



M M -CI 



rc — M M M 



1^ r. 



c: X ^^ :r m m ^^ rc — m — ^ — — 



I? I 



— M 



15 ! 



c s L." — n T M — • — ^^ i ic i x 



110JJB3 



M r; ci^ -r X ?c ^> M L-; m 



auipjt!3 



aJOUITJIBa 



»c o X 1- \z X •— 



X I o 



lapunjy auuy 



O X M r ' 



XuBSaiiv 



sauunoj icjox i 



'man u 

: :77^» 

o-"c^!00'»' 

O — M ^: Li r>. X c. — -< ^^ 



O Li I 



132 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The counties varied considerably in the proportion of men em- 
ployed in their white high schools in 1930-31. In Anne Arundel 
the percentage of men teachers was only 20; in Prince George's, 
25 ; and in Baltimore, 28 ; while in Somerset it was 42 ; in Wor- 
cester, 45; in Garrett, 52; and in Washington County, 60 per 
cent. (See Table 103.) 



TABLE 103 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County White High Schools 
for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Men Teachinq 



Number 


Per Cent 


28.7 


35.8 


16.8 


35.9 


14.6 


36.9 


3 


37.5 


30 


39.1 


15 


39.5 


8 


40.0 


4 


40.4 


13 


41.9 


18 


45.0 


20 


52.2 


47.8 


60.4 



Total and Average 

Anne Arundel .... 
Prince George's. . . 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Harford 

Queen Anne's .... 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Kent 

Howard 

Allegany 



415.5 

10.7 

21 

33 

10 

16 

7 
27 
16 

8 

9 

38.9 



35.9 

20.0 
25.4 
27.5 
30.5 
31.0 
32.9 
33.0 
33.3 
33.3 
35.6 
35.6 



Frederick . . . 
Wicomico. . 
Dorchester . 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Charles . . . . 
St. Mary's. 
Somerset . . . 
Worcester. . 

Garrett 

Washington 



For counties arranged in alphabetical order, see Table IX, page 303. 



*NUMBER OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

The number of county white high schools increased by 1 over 
1929-30. Of the schools, 144 were classified as first group schools 
and 9 as second group schools. There was a gain of 2 in the 
number of first group schools and a loss of 1 in second group 
schools. (See Table 104.) 

Allegany, Carroll, Montgomery, and Prince George's each had 
11 high schools, while Calvert and St. Mary's each had 3 schools. 
(See Table 104.) 

The schools w^hich changed their status v/ere Midland in Alle- 
gany, which became a junior high school ; Nanjemoy in Charles 
and Kempton in Garrett, which became first group schools; and 
Mt. Rainier and Bladensburg, new schools opened in Prince 
George's, which were classified during their first year as first and 
second group schools, respectively. The Southern High School 
in Baltimore City gave three years of work in 1930-31. (See 
Table 104 and Chart 16.) 



* For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330 to 385. 



Men in High Schools; Number of High Schools 



133 




134 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 104 

Number of Approved White High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



County 



Totel Counties 
1920 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore. . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 



Total 



82 

148 
150 
152 
153 
°151 
152 
153 

11 

4 
8 
3 
6 
11 
8 
5 



Group 



*69 

130 
136 
137 
141 
141 
142 
144 

9 
4 
6 
3 
6 
11 
8 
5 



§2 



tl3 

tl8 
tl4 
tl5 

12 
°10 

10 
9 

J2 



County 



Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

State 



Total 



6 
8 
6 
9 
6 
4 
11 
11 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 

6 

159 



Group 



6 
8 
6 
8 
5 
4 
9 
10 
5 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
5 

a6 

150 



§2 



J2 

n 



§ First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two teach- 
ers. They give a four-year course. 

Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12. They give a 
two-year course. Schools in Baltimore County giving a one-year course are classified as second-group 
schools. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2, prior to 1928. 
t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 

° Excludes one school approved for its work but not given state aid because of low enrollment. 
} .Jxmior high schools. 

o Southern High School did not have the last year of the high school course during 1930-31. 

RELATION OF ENROLLMENT AND TEACHING STAFF IN COUNTY 
WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 

The median high school in the Maryland counties had an aver- 
age enrollment for the year 1930-31 of just over 100 pupils. The 
schools varied in size from three having 15 pupils or fewer to 
one with nearly 1,400 pupils belonging on the average. There 
were only 10 high schools in the counties with over 500 pupils. 
(See Table 105.) 

The median county white high school had a staff of 5.6 teach- 
ers including the principal. The schools varied from 4 having 
but one teacher (second group schools) and 13 having but two 
teachers to 9 having twenty-two or more teachers. The largest 
high school in Hagerstown had 47 teachers. (See Table 105.) 

The seventeen schools having from 101 to 125 pupils belonging 
on the average had from 3 to 9 teachers depending on the variety 
of courses and subjects offered, the size of classes, and the num- 
ber of periods taught by the teachers. The two schools having 



Number of High Schools; Relation of Enrollment and Teachers 135 



7 and 9 teachers, respectively, are probably over-staffed, while 
the one having only 3 teachers is probably under-staffed. (See 
Table 105.) 

Likewise if one takes the group of 26 schools having 4 teach- 
ers, it will be seen that the average number belonging varies 
from 26 — 40 pupils in one school and 41 — 50 in two schools to 
101 — 125 pupils in three schools. Either the former group of 
schools is over-staffed or the latter group is under-staffed. (See 
Table 105.) 



TABLE 105 



Relation of Teaching Staflf and Size of Enrollment (Average Number Belonging) 
in Maryland County White High Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Number of Teachers Employed in White Approved 
High Schools 


Total 
No. 
Schools 




*2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22+ 


15 or less 


3 
1 












































3 
1 
9 
9 
35 
19 
17 
11 
9 
4 
4 
3 
5 
4 
1 
1 
2 
3 
3 


16- 25 












































26- 40 


8 
5 


2 
15 
3 
1 


2 
15 
5 
3 






































41- 50 








































51-75 




5 
8 
7 
2 




































76-100 






3 
4 
3 
1 


































101-125 






1 
5 
2 
1 


"i 

3 
1 
1 


1 




























126-150 
































151-175 










1 
2 
2 


2 


























176-200 




































201-225 














2 


























226-250 
















1 
1 
























251-275 




















3 
1 


1 
1 




















276-300 






















i 




2 














301-325 




































326-350 












































351-375 






























1 


1 












376-400 






























2 












401-425 






























2 




1 








426-450 








































451-475 
















































476-500 
















































Over 500 


































1 












10 


Total 










































4 


13 


21 


26 


22 


11 


9 


6 


6 


5 


2 


4 


3 




2 


4 


4 




1 






9 


153 





* Represents mid-point of interval. 

t Includes grades 7, 8 and 9 of Greene St. Junior High School. Details as follows for the nine 
schools: 



No. Belonging Total 23 26 27 28 32 33 35 47 

626-650 1 1 

651-675 3 .. 1 .. 2 

726-750 1 1 

851-875 1 1 

87&-900 1 1 

926-950 1 1 

1376-1400 1 1 



Total 9 1 1 .. 3 1 1 1 1 



BASIS OF ALLOWANCE OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL AID 

The size of the enrollment and attendance and the number of 
academic and special teachers employed determine the allotment 
of State aid to high schools. The maximum allowance possible, 



136 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



provided the salaries paid are at least double the amount avail- 
able for State aid, viz., $900 for the principal, $600 for each of 
the first two academic teachers, $450 for each of the first two 
special teachers and for the third academic teacher, and $150 for 
each additional teacher, up to a maximum of $5,000, is shown in 
Table 106. 

TABLE 106 



State Aid to High Schools — Section 197 of School Law 









Number of 




Maximum Amount 








Academic 


Number 


OF State Aid For 


Number of 


Average 


Teachers 


of 




Pupils 


Daily 


Including 


Special 


Academic Special 


Enrolled 


Attendance 


Principal 


Teachers 


Teachers Teachers 








First Group Schools 




30— 


54 


OK 4.7 


2 


.4 


^l,OUU <]t>loU 


55— 


89 


AQ 7Q 


3 


1 




90— 


124 


Sn IHQ 

ou — luy 


4 


2 


£i , oou you 


1 or: 




110—143 


5 




2,700 975 


1 an 
ioU — 




144—174 


6 


3 


2,850 1,050 


195— 


229 


1 7p: on ft 


7 


^ / i 


Q nnn i los; 
o , UUU 1 , izo 


230— 


264 


007 0^7 


8 


4 


Q 1 f;n 1 onn 


265— 


299 


OQC OAQ 

Zoo — zoy 


9 




Q Qnn 1 OQ7 Kf\ 


300— 


334 


270—300 


10 


4^ 


3,450 1,275 


335— 


369 


301—332 


11 


m . 


3,600 1,312.50 


370— 


404 


QQQ QAQ 
ooo — OUO 


12 


5 


«c; nnn 


405— 


439 


oD^r OVO 


13 


53^ 


^ nnn 

O , UUU 


440— 


474 


396—426 


14 


5^ 


5,000 


475— 


509 


427—458 


15 


5^ 


5,000 


510— 


544 


459—489 


16 


6 


5,000 


545— 


579 


490—521 


17 


6^ 


5,000 


580— 


614 


522—553 


18 


63^ 


5,000 


615— 


649 


554—584 


19 




^ nnn 

O , UUU 


650— 


684 


585—616 


20 


7 


5,000 


685— 


719 


617—647 


21 




5,000 


720— 


754 


648—679 


22 




5,000 


755— 


789 


680—710 


23 


m 


5,000 


790— 


824 


711—742 


24 


8 


5,000 


825— 


859 


743—773 


25 


8^ 


5,000 


860— 


894 


774—805 


26 


83^ 


5,000 


895— 


929 


806—836 


27 




5,000 


930— 


964 


837—868 


28 


9 


5,000 


965— 


999 


869—899 


29 




5,000 


1,000—1,035 


900—932 


30 


9^ 


5,000 


Baltimore City Senior High Schools 




6,000 








Second Group Schools 




15 




12 


1 




650 



State High School Aid; Pupils per High School Teacher 



137 



RATIO OF WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS TO TEACHERS HIGHER 
There were on the average 21.9 pupils for each teacher em- 
ployed in the county white high schools in 1930-31, an increase 
of .3 pupils over 1930. The counties varied in average number 
belonging per teacher from 16.8 pupils in Howard to 27.5 pupils 
per teacher in Washington County. In four of the counties, 
Washington, Allegany, St. Mary's, and Garrett, the average en- 
rollment per high school teacher increased by nearly two pupils 
over what it was the year before. There were eight counties 
with a decreased number of pupils per teacher on the average. 
In some cases this was due to the appointment of the maximum 
number of high school teachers for whom State aid could be 



CHART 17 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 


1929 


1930 


Co. Average 


21.5 


21.6 


Washington 


23.9 


25.6 


Baltimore 


27.0 


27.9 


Calvert 


22.4 


24.3 


Frederick 


23.0 


24.0 


Allegany 


21.5 


21.9 


Wicomico 


23.1 


22.9 


St. Mary's 


21.4 


20.0 


Queen Anne's 


19.8 


20.6 


Garrett 


18.0 


19.7 


Somerset 


23.0 


22.4 


Harford 


21.4 


20.3 


Charles 


22.1 


20.9 


Anne Arundel 


21.0 


22.0 


Talbot 


19.6 


20.2 


Kent 


22.4 


20.0 


Pr. George's 


20.9 


21.3 


Dorchester 


21.3 


19.9 


Cecil 


19.5 


19.9 


Caroline 


21.7 


20.0 


Worcester 


17.5 


17.6 


Montgomery 


20.7 


19.1 


Carroll 


16.6 


16.2 


Howard 


IT.l 


17.2 


Baltimore City 25.6 


24.9 


State 


22.7 


22.5 






For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XIV, page 308. 



138 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



allowed. Most of the counties at the bottom of the list offered a 
number of the special subjects in their program. The counties 
at the top of the chart organized sections of large size. (See 
Chart 17.) 

AVERAGE SALARY PER HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER 

In 1930-31, the average salary per white high school teacher 
and principal was $1,559, an increase of nine dollars over 1930 
and of two dollars over 1929. (See Table 107.) 



TABLE 107 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher, 1917-1931 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


AVhite 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


S 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 
1,436 
1,477 


1925 


$1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1,544 
1,557 
1,550 
1,559 


1918 


1926 


1919 


1927 


1920 


1928 


1921 


1929 


1922 


1930 


1923 


1931 


1924 





Among the counties the average salary ranged from $1,401 in 
Wicomico to $1,755 in Baltimore County. Eight counties, most 
of which appointed a large number of inexperienced teachers in 
1930-31, had a decrease in average salary — Baltimore, Anne 
Arundel, Frederick, Caroline, Charles, Cecil, Carroll and Somer- 
set. (See Chart 18.) 

The average salary per senior high school teacher and princi- 
pal in the City of Baltimore has shown a decrease each year since 
1928. In 1931 the average was $2,501 making the average for 
the State $1,811. (See Chart 18.) 

A distribution of the salaries of 1,094 county white high school 
assistant teachers in service in October, 1931, indicated that the 
median salary was the same as for October, 1930, i. e. $1,350. 
This is the maximum salary provided for in the State minimum 
salary schedule. The number of teachers was larger by 50 than 
for the preceding year. Salaries for full time teachers ranged 
from $1,000 to $3,000. Most of those receiving the highest sal- 
aries are teachers of vocational agriculture whose salaries are 
on a twelve-month basis, subsidized by federal funds, and many 
of which must cover the daily cost of travel between two schools. 
(See Table 108.) 



Average Salary per White High School Teacher 139 
CHART 18 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHte IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 1928 1929 1930 1931 
Co. Av,$1544 $1557 $1560 



Balto. 


1867 


1887 


1765 


All. 


1629 


1653 


1683 


Wash. 


1602 


1552 


1601 


Q. A. 


1590 


1598 


1585 


A. A. 


1598 


1640 


16U 


Fred. 


1579 


1592 


1595 


Garr. 


1467 


1486 


1527 


Harf. 


1524 


1517 


1534 


Talb. 


1476 


1484 


1506 


Mont. 


1567 


1619 


1541 


Calv. 


1481 


1467 


1480 


Howard 


1408 


1478 


1459 


Caro. 


1 


(0 




Dorch. 


1454 


1446 


1425 


Chas. 


1546 


1544 


1534 


Pr. G. 


1449 


1453 


1455 


Cecil 


1384 


1446 


1483 


Carr. 


1507 


1498 


1492 


Som. 


1419 


1424 


1450 


St.M. 


1427 


1464 


1412 


Wore. 


1422 


1432 


1422^ 


Kent 


1392 


1456 


1412 


Wico. 


1378 


1378 


1381 


Balto. 
City 


2580 


2579 


2553 


State 


1816 


1827 


'1817 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 309. 

A distribution of the salaries of 147 high school principals em- 
ployed in October, 1931, showed a median salary of $2,300, a 
gain of $50 over last year. The range in salaries was from 
$1,450 to $3,700, the maximum being the same amount as in 
October, 1930. (See Table 108.) 

Approximately 52 per cent of the high school teachers and 
principals are receiving salaries in excess of the amount provided 
for in the State minimum salary schedule. (See Table 108.) 



142 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



charges, debt service, and capital outlay, was almost $99 in 1931, 
an increase of nearly one dollar over 1930. Costs ranged from 
$75 in Washington, $80 in Wicomico, and $81 in Frederick to 
$115 or more in Montgomery, Carroll, Anne Arundel, and Cal- 
vert. (See ChaH 19.) 

CHART 19 



COST PER WHITE HIGfl SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



County 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Co. Average 


1 96 


1 96 


1 98 


Montgomery 


97 


111 


111 


Carroll 


125 


110 


115 


Anne Arundel 


88 


100 


110 


Calvert 


88 


108 


102 


Howard 


116 


107 


107 


Garrett 


105 


116 


124 


Worcester 


107 


112 


109 


St. Mary's 


88 


83 


104 1 


Charles 


79 


91 


117 1 


Dorchester 


98 


99 


104 1 


Kent 


95 


94 


102 1 


Queen Anne's 


U2 


UO 


104 1 


Caroline 


97 


84 


100 1 


Talbot 


102 


99 


101 1 


Cecil 


97 


99 


98 1 


Somerset 


87 


97 


92 1 


Allegany 


108 


104 


101 1 


Pr. George's 


93 


91 


89 1 


Baltimore 


94 


93 


93 1 


Harford 


82 


86 


95 1 


Frederick 


85 


84 


81 1 


Wicomico 


91 


83 


83 1 


Washington 


77 


81 


80 1 


Baltimore City 137 


127 


130 1 


State 


108 


105 


107 1 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 176. page 237. 



Cost per High School Pupil 



143 



Costs in 1931 were lower than in 1930 in Garrett, Charles, 
Talbot, Allegany, Harford, Wicomico, and Washington Counties. 
The five counties having the highest costs per pupil increased 
them by from $6 to $12 from 1930 to 1931. (See Chart 19.) 

An analysis of the elements which make up the current ex- 
pense of educating a county white high school pupil indicates 
that $71.52 out of the total of $98.54 provides for the salary of 
teachers, principals, and county high school supervisors. Sal- 
aries of the teaching staff, therefore, represent 72.5 per cent of 
the total cost of high school current expense. The salary cost 
per pupil of $71.52 was 67 cents lower than the amount the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 110.) 

In the counties as a group $6.71 was spent for each high school 
pupil for books, materials, and other costs of instruction. This 
was an increase of 29 cents per pupil over the amount spent for 
these purposes in 1930. Costs per pupil for operation and main- 
tenance, $6.66 and $4.16, respectively, were 17 cents lower than 
the corresponding costs in 1930. The element largely responsible 
for increased costs was that described as auxiliary agencies 
which is the term covering expenditures for transportation, 
health, and library activities. The increase was from $8 to $9.49 
for this item. One county which had not supplied transportation 
to high school at county expense put it on throughout the county 
and other counties extended transportation facilities to other 
parts of the county. (See Table 110.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The salary cost per pupil depends on several factors : the size 
of sections, the number of teaching periods assigned teachers, 
the salaries paid, and the number of electives and enrichment of 
the program offered. Salaries vary with experience, the schedule 
in effect, and, for principals, with the size of the school. Salary 
costs per pupil ranged from $89 in Howard, $85 in Carroll and 
Montgomery, all of which counties offer an enriched high school 
program, down to amounts close to $60 in Washington, Wicom- 
ico, Calvert, and St. Mary's. It will be noted that in Chart 17, 
page 137, the four counties last named ranked first, sixth, third, 
and seventh, respectively, in ratio of pupils per teacher. Also, 
in Chart 18, page 139, it may be seen that Wicomico ranked 
lowest in average salary per teacher, while St. Mary's stood 
fourth from the bottom. (See columns 1 and 8, Table 110.) 

Salary costs showed decreases of $3 or more per pupil in Alle- 
gany, Carroll, Charles, Garrett, St. Mary's, and Worcester. All 
of these counties increased the ratio of pupils to teachers. (See 

* Three counties, Allegany, Baltimore, and Montgomery, each had a full-time county high 
school supervisor. Anne Arundel had a part-time county high school supervisor. Cecil had 
a high school supervisor of music. 



144 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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Cost per White High School Pupil; Effect of Vocational Aid 145 



Chart 17, page 137.) On the oth^r hand, salary costs increased 
by $3 or more in Anne Arundel, Howard, Montgomery, and 
Prince George's. It will be remembered that these were the 
counties in which the ratio of pupils to teachers declined. (See 
Chart 11 y page 137, and columns 1 and 8, Table 110.) 

Effect of Federal Aid for Vocational Work on Salary Cost per Pupil 

There were sixteen counties in which reimbursement for one- 
half of the salaries spent for vocational work was made by the 
Federal Government. With the exception of Howard and Gar- 
rett, in which over one-third of the total high school enrollment 
took vocational courses, only from 3 to 13 per cent of the total 
county high school enrollment took advantage of the vocational 
courses offered in the remaining fourteen counties. In Howard 
and Garrett, the federal aid toward vocational salaries amounted 
to $9.11 and $8.47 per pupil, respectively, if all high school pupils 
are counted. In the remaining fourteen counties the federal 
vocational aid per county white high school pupil varied from 83 
cents in Baltimore County to $4.27 in Queen Anne's County. 
(See Table 111.) 

TABLE 111 

Comparison of 1931 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil, Inclusive and Exclusive 
of Federal Aid, for Counties Providing Vocational Education 



1931 Salary Cost per White High School Pupil 

Rank Among 23 Counties Federal 





Including 


Excluding 


Including Excluding 


Aid Per 


County 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


Federal 


H. S. 




Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Aid 


Pupil 


Average for 23 Counties 


$71.52 


$69 . 30 






$2.21 


Montgomery 


84.72 


81.91 


3 


2 


2.81 




88.79 


79.68 


1 


3 


9.11 


Anne Arundel 


77.15 


75.65 


4 


4 


1.50 




76.90 


74.70 


5 


6 


2.20 




76.10 


74.16 


6 


8 


1.94 




73.62 


71.35 


10 


9 


2.27 


Allegany 


73.08 


71.17 


11 


10 


1.91 


Queen Anne's 


74.66 


70.39 


8 


11 


.4.27 


Harford 


72.95 


69.61 


12 


13 


3.35 


Prince George's 


72.46 


69.16 


14 


14 


3.31 


Charles 


70.09 


68.37 


15 


15 


1.72 


Somerset 


67.15 


65.62 


17 


16 


1.53 


Bal timore 


65.83 


65.00 


19 


17 


.83 


Frederick 


67.04 


64.78 


18 


18 


2.26 


Garrett 


72.66 


64.19 


13 


19 


8.47 


Washington 


59.60 


55.18 


23 


23 


1.94 



By having the reimbursement per pupil from federal voca- 
tional funds, it is possible to show for each of the sixteen coun- 



146 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



ties giving vocational courses the salary cost per high school 
pupil including and excluding federal vocational aid. The four 
counties having the highest salary cost per white high school 
pupil, ''Carroll, Montgomery, Howard, and Anne Arundel, with 
slight changes in order remain the four highest whether federal 
aid is included or excluded. The federal aid affects the ranking 
of Garrett county more than any other. Without its federal 
vocational aid, Garrett would rank nineteenth in salary cost per 
high school pupil, instead of thirteenth when vocational aid is 
included. (See Table 111.) 

The expenditures for salaries of teachers of vocational agri- 
culture, home economics, and industries are made from three 
sources : county, state, and federal funds. The federal and State 
vocational funds represent specific aid paid towards the salaries 
of vocational teachers. The amounts shown as county funds and 
other State aid make up the difference between these amounts 
and the total salaries paid. In the counties sharing in the Equali- 
zation Fund and in the non-equalization fund counties, ''other 
State aid" is given through the equalization fund and State high 
school aid, respectively. The counties are ranked in Table 112 
according to the total salary expenditures for each type of work. 
(See Table 112.) 

Garrett has vocational agriculture in all high schools except 
one, and vocational home economics in all except two high 
schools. Frederick's program for vocational agriculture was 
nearly as large as that in Garrett. Baltimore County offered 
work in vocational agriculture after having been without it for a 
number of years. Dorchester increased the number of schools 
offering vocational agriculture and Caroline introduced it into 
its colored high school. (See Table 112.) 

Queen Anne's and Caroline introduced courses in vocational 
home economics into their high schools, Caroline also putting it 
into the colored high school. (See Table 112.) 

All day vocational classes in industry were introduced into 
Prince George's, Baltimore, and Caroline Counties, and the num- 
ber of courses offered was increased in Washington and Mont- 
gomery Counties. A part-time cooperative class was organized 
in Allegany County. Evening classes in industry were continued 
on much the same basis as for the preceding year. (See Table 
112.) 

Cost per Pupil for Books, Materials, and Other Instructional Items Increases 

The average expenditure for instructional costs other than sal- 
aries of teachers increased by 29 cents to $6.71 per pupil in 1931. 
The counties varied in the amount spent per high school pupil 
from less than $4.25 in Frederick, Charles, Queen Anne's, Somer- 



*Carroll did not have vocational courses. 



Financial Support of Vocational Work in Counties 147 
TABLE 112 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland Counties 
for Year Ending July 31, 1931 





Expenditures for 


Salaries of Count v 










Vocational Teachers from 






COUNTY 


County 


State 


Federal 
Funds 


i 




En- 
roll- 




Funds 
and Other 
State Aid 


Vocational 
Funds 


Total 

i 




ment 


Agriculture 








1 






Garrett 


$ 3,358.69 


S 712.32 


i$ 4,071.01 


$ 8.142 


.02 


180 


Frederick 


3,297.47 


696.25 


! 3,993.71 


7.987 


.43 


171 


Washington 


2,444.72 


513.53 


2.958.25 


! 5,916 


.50 


95 


Harford 


2,021.25 


428.75 


2,450.00 


4,900 


.00 


60 


Montgomery 


1,881.00 


399.00 


2,280.00 


i 4,560 


.00 


72 


Howard 


1 . 641 . 40 


348.02 


1.989.42 


3,978 


.84 


75 


*Prince Greorge's 


1,571.57 


333.41 


1,905.00 


3,809 


.98 


84 


Dorchester 


1 , 509 . 97 


315.60 


1 , 825 . 55 


3 , 651 


12 


64 


Allegany 


1 d.79 ft9 


Q1 9 QS 
OlZ . OO 


1 7Qc: nn 
i , / oO . UU 


Q ^7n 
, / u 


.00 


37 


Baltimore 


1 , 240 00 


ZOO . / O 


1 AOQ 7^ 

1 , 4yo . / o 


OQ7 

1 z , yo / 


..50 


119 


Worcester 


1 ' 1 Q6 25 


ZOO . / O 


1 , lOU . UU 


9 onn 
z , yuu 


.00 


33 


Queen Anne's 


1 051 88 


99Q 1 9 

ZZo . iz 


1 97 c; nn 
1 , z / . UU 


9 ^^n 

z , OOU 


.00 


50 


Anne Arundel 


841 .50 


1 / O . OO 


1 n9n nn 
1 , UZU . UU 


9 (\AC\ 
Z . U4U 


00 


16 


Somerset 


841 ! 50 




1 n9n nn 
1 , UZU . UU 


9 n^tn 
Z . U4U 


00 


42 


Charles 


598 95 


1 97 Of; 


79« nn 

/ ZD . UU 


1 A^O 


00 


12 


Caroline (Col.) 


190.22 


OO . yo 


99Q 1 A 

zzy . Id 


A 

400 


33 


23 


§Total 


$Jo. 158.99 


$ 5.312.88 


$30,471.85 


$ 60.943 


72 


1 . 133 


Home Economics 














Garrett 


$ 2,427.75 


$ 497 . 25 


$ z , 9zo . 00 


$ 5 . 850 


00 


143 




1 , J700 . ZD 


IZo . UU 


9 Ar\(K 9£; 

Z , 1UD . zo 


A CIO 
4 , OlZ 


50 


85 


Howard 


1 . 570 07 


Q91 

ozl . oo 


1 CQ1 (KX 

1 , oyi . Do 


Q 7CQ 
. / 00 


30 


72 


Allegany 


1 024 65 


917 Qt; 
Zl / . OO 


1 9A9 nn 
1 , Ziz . UU 


/I C 1 
Z . 4o4 


00 


58 


Harford 


1,021 13 


91 A Q7 


1 9Q7 c^n 

1 , Zo / . oU 


9 4.7^ 
Z . 4 / 


00 


66 


fCaroline 


871 .50 


1 7Q en 


1 , UOU . UU 


9 inn 

Z , iUU 


00 


95 


Queen Anne's 


581 ^00 


1 1 O C\[\ 


7nn nn 
/UU .UU 


1 /inn 
1 . 4mj 


00 


35 


Anne Arundel 


553 34 


1 1 Q OQ 
llO . OO 


ODD . d4 


1 000 
1 , 000 


31 


21 


Montgomery 


493 02 


1 fin QQ 
luu . yo 


^Qj. nn 


i . ioo 


00 


34 


Total 


d cos Ti 


$ 2,187.36 


$12,713 .04 


% 25.426 


11 


609 


Industries 














All-Day Classes 














Washington 


« ASIA OO 


$ 1 , 183 . 76 


$ 6.668.72 


$ 13.337 


47 


139 


Prince George's 




247 50 


1 440 00 


9 s»n 

Z . OOU 


00 


54 


Montgomery 


1,166.00 


209^00 


1,375 00 


2 . 750 


OOi 


36 


Baltimore 


996.00 


204.00 


1 , 200 . 00 


2. 400 


00 


25 


Caroline 


726 . 25 


148.75 


875 . 00 


1 . 750 


00; 


38 




353.93 


75.07 


429.00 


858 


nn 

UU| 


9A 
Z4 


Frederick 


249.00 


51 .00 


300.00 


600 


UOj 


01 

zl 


Total All-Day 


$10 168 67 


« 9 1 1 Q 08 


SRI 9 987 79 
^iz , zo/ . < z 


« 94 c;7=; 

•w Zt ,0/0 


47j 


337 


Part-Time Cooperative 














Allegany 


% 1,236.40 


$ 259 . 60 


$ 1,496.00 


$ 2 . 992 


00 


12 


Total Day 


$11,405.07 


$ 2.378.68 


$13,783.72 


$ 27.567 


47 


349 


Evening Classes 














Allegany 


% 1,582.25 


$ 380.25 


$ 1,962.50 


$ 3.925. 


nn 

UU 


9Qn 
zou 


t Allegany and Garrett 


al,500.00 


61,920.00 


3,420.00' 


6,840. 


OOi 


196 


Washington 


579.20 


144.80 


724.00 


1.448. 


ooi 


75 


**Anne Arundel (Col.). 


305.20 


76.30 


381.50 


763. 


001 


77 


12.60 


3.15 


15.75 


31. 


50 


3 


Total Evening .... 


% 3.979.25 


$ 2.524.50 


% 6.503.75i 


$ 13.007. 


50; 


581 


Grand Total 


$51,069.02 


$12,403.42 


$63,472.36; 


$126,944. 


80; 


2.672 



* Includes following for Marlboro Colored High School: County, $160.83; State, S34.16; Federal, 
$195; Enrollment, 26. 

t Includes following for Denton Colored High School: County, $249; State, $51; Federal, $300; 
Enrollment, 42. 

X Mining classes conducted by instructors cooperating with the Bureau of Mines, University of 
Maryland, and paid for through the University of Maryland and Allegany County. 
** Part-time general continuation work. 
° Discontinued because of low enrollment. 

(I Paid by Allegany County. h Paid by University of Maryland. 

5 Excludes expenditures for the McDonogh School as follows: County. $10; State. $40; Federal, $50. 



148 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



set, Calvert, and Wicomico to between $8 and $11 per pupil in 
Carroll, Allegany, Montgomery, Baltimore, and Kent. From the 
State fund for free textbooks and materials, 93 cents was avail- 
able for each pupil. In addition counties sharing in the Equaliza- 
tion Fund received sums from the State to be used for books and 
instructional materials. (See columns 2 and 9 in Table 110, page 
144.) 

All of the counties are increasing more or less rapidly in high 
school enrollment, and each additional pupil enrolled requires a 
complete new set of books for all subjects taken. The per cent of 
increase in high school enrollment from 1930 to 1931 varied 
among the counties from 1 to 22 per cent. (See Table 109, page 
141.) Also the addition of any new special subject to the curri- 
culum means a complete supply of new books and materials. A 
number of additional teachers of vocational work, industrial arts, 
home economics, commercial subjects, and music were appointed 
during the year in schools which had not before had such instruc- 
tion and their classrooms had to be supplied with the necessary 
instructional materials. (See Table 109, page 141, and Table 110, 
page 144.) 

Ten of the counties spent more per pupil for instructional ma- 
terials in the white high schools than they expended the year 
before. For the most part the counties which increased their 
costs were those having the largest percentage of increase in 
high school enrollment. (See Tables 109 and 110.) 

Costs per Pupil for Operation and Maintenance Decrease 

Operation costs per pupil, which cover heating and cleaning 
high school buildings, were 14 cents lower than in 1930, making 
the 1931 cost $6.66. Operation costs per pupil varied in the indi- 
vidual counties from under five dollars per high school pupil in 
Frederick, St. Mary's, Washington, and Anne Arundel, to over 
eight dollars per high school pupil in Worcester, Montgomery, 
Queen Anne's, and Howard. Costs were lower in 1931 than in 
1930 in every county, except Caroline, Kent, Prince George's, 
Queen Anne's, Somerset, Washington, and Worcester. The open- 
ing of new buildings in Prince George's, Washington, and Wor- 
cester probably accounted for the increased costs in these coun- 
ties. (See columns 3 and 10 in Table 110.) 

Although maintenance costs per high school pupil, which cover 
repairs to buildings and repair and replacement of equipment, 
decreased by 3 cents to $4.16 in 1931, over one half of the coun- 
ties spent more for this purpose in 1931 than they spent in 1930. 
Queen Anne's and Caroline spent less than one dollar per pupil 
for this purpose, while Harford spent eight dollars, Montgomery 
over nine dollars, and Anne Arundel nearly fifteen dollars. (See 
columns 4 and 11 in Table 110.) 



Cost per High School Pupil for Purposes Other than Salaries 149 

Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies Greater 

On the average each county white high school pupil had an 
expenditure of $9.49 for auxiliary agencies in 1931 compared 
with $8 in 1930. Auxiliary agencies is a term used to include 
transportation, libraries, and physical education activities. All 
except six of the counties had increases from 1930 to 1931 in 
cost of auxiliary agencies, and some of the increases were large. 
The counties varied in expenditure per pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies from less than four dollars in Harford, Prince George's, and 
Frederick, to over twenty dollars in Calvert, St. Mary's, Garrett, 
and Charles. (See columns 5 and 12 in Table 110, page 144.) 

The counties are listed in Table 113 from highest to lowest in 
accordance with their ranking in Table 110 in expenditure per 
pupil for auxiliary agencies. (See Table 113.) 

TABLE 113 



Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools for School Year 

Ending July 31, 1931 





Transportati 


on 




Libraries 


Health 














Amount per 








County 


iportcd 
Expen 


nt by 






diturcs 








ditures 


Pupil 






Is Trans 
County 




per Pu] 


ansporti 


1 Expen 








1 Expen 


Lint per 










X 

O 


H 




cho 






s 

o 


o 
S 








< 


U 












H 


< 




Total and Average 


7,720 


$214,228 




$28 


$8,395 


$55 


$7 


25 


$13,138 


$ 


52 


Calvert 


166 


7,579 




46 


60 


20 


7 


50 


13 




06 


St. Mary's 


200 


7,661 




38 


10 


3 


1 


01 






Garrett 


506 


18,399 




36 


172 


29 


4 


50 


151 


.18 


Charles 


297 


8,945 




30 


47 


9 


2 


33 




Somerset 


311 


11,743 




38 


206 


51 


6 


64 








256 


6,575 




26 


288 


58 


13 


52 


21 




05 


Dorchester 


373 


11,259 




30 


255 


43 


6 


45 


151 




19 




441 


13,597 




31 


608 


152 


11 


37 








411 


9,658 




23 


138 


28 


3 


44 


140 


.19 


Kent 


205 


6,438 




31 














360 


9,000 




25 


187 


31 


4 


91 


78 


.11 


Talbot 


278 


7,780 




28 


341 


57 


10 


41 




CarroU 


592 


15,523 




26 


213 


19 


2 


78 


559 




43 




1,064 


24,855 




23 


220 


28 


1 


84 


10,331 


3 


17 


Howard 


169 


4,179 




25 


20 


3 




79 










363 


8,797 




24 


300 


43 


6 


41 






CecO 


220 


7,137 




32 








Montgomery 


487 


6,960 




14 


2,949 


268 


36 


09 


857 




.57 


Washington 


352 


9,099 




26 


1,296 


216 


16 


37 


199 




.09 




267 


8,925 




33 


217 


20 


1 


98 


422 




.16 


166 


5,505 




33 


149 


19 


1 


87 








Prince George's 


236 


4,614 




20 


80 


7 


97 


200 




.12 












639 


71 


12 


38 


16 




.01 















7,720 Pupils Transported to County High Schools 

In 1931 the public expenditures for transportation of 7,720 
county high school pupils, totalling $214,228, showed an increase 
of 2,060 pupils and of nearly $55,000 over corresponding figures 



150 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



for 1930. Every county, except Harford, used public funds for 
the purpose of transporting pupils to county high schools. The 
number of white high school pupils transported at public expense 
increased in every county, except Somerset, Kent, and Harford, 
and the expense of high school transportation increased in every 
county, except Kent and Harford. The greatest increase in 
transportation occurred in Carroll which changed from a policy 
of transporting no high school pupils at public expense to free 
transportation for 592 high school pupils at a cost of over $15,- 
500. Baltimore County transported 1,064 high school pupils at 
some expense to the county, Carroll and Garrett came next in 
transporting between 500 and 600 high school pupils, and Mont- 
gomery, Anne Arundel, and Worcester carried between 400 and 
500 high school pupils. There were 200 or fewer high school 
pupils transported at public expense in St. Mary's, Howard, Cal- 
vert, Frederick, and Harford. The remaining twelve counties 
transported over 200 and fewer than 400 high school pupils at 
some expense to the public. (See Table 113.) 

Only 4 counties, Howard, Prince George's, Frederick, and Har- 
ford, spent less than $6,000 for transporting high school pupils, 
while 6 counties, Baltimore, Garrett, Carroll, Anne Arundel, 
Somerset, and Dorchester, spent more than $11,000 for this pur- 
pose. (See Table 113.) 

The amounts spent by the public for transporting pupils were 
supplemented by amounts varying from $1.50 to $4 per month 
paid by parents of high school pupils transported in Prince 
George's, Frederick, Washington, Montgomery, Howard, Balti- 
more, and Queen Anne's. In Harford, the entire cost of trans- 
portation was paid for by the parents of the high school pupils 
transported. In these counties a pupil who lives close enough to 
the small number of high schools, which it is desirable to have 
because of the possibility of offering a wide variety of courses at 
a justifiable expenditure of funds, labors under no handicap. 
Those who live at too great a distance to go to high school with- 
out being transported cannot go, if the funds to pay the trans- 
portation charge are not forthcoming. There is, therefore, dis- 
crimination against financially poor families living at a distance 
from the necessarily limited number of high schools. (See Table 
113.) 

Since expenditures for transportation form so large a part of 
auxiliary agencies, the two main factors determining the ranking 
of a county in the cost of its transportation program, namely, 
cost to public per pupil transported and per cent of white high 
school pupils transported are given in Tables 113 and 114. 

The cost per white high school pupil transported, which aver- 
aged $28, varied from $14 in Montgomery and $20 in Prince 
George's to $36 in Garrett, $38 in Somerset and St. Mary's, and 



The Transportation Program in County High Schools 151 

$46 in Calvert. A member of the staff of the State Department 
of Education is studying many phases of the transportation pro- 
gram and may be able to help work out plans for reducing costs 
in the counties where the cost per pupil transported seems high. 
(See Table 113.) 

The counties varied in the per cent of pupils transported to 
white high schools at some expense to the public from 81 per cent 
in St. Mary's, 80 per cent in Calvert, 66 per cent in Charles, 57 
per cent in Garrett, 54 per cent in Queen Anne's, and 52 per cent 
in Worcester, down to less than 22 per cent transported at public 
expense in Cecil, Washington, Prince George's, Allegany, Fred- 
erick, and Harford. The concentration or density of population 
in a county is probably one of the factors governing the per cent 
of pupils who require transportation. Another is the policy 
adopted by the county of paying all, part, or none of the costs of 
transporting white high school pupils. The setting of a definite 
distance limit within which pupils cannot be transported even if 
buses are not full is perhaps another factor. The number of 
small high schools maintained also affects the transportation re- 
quired. (See Table 114.) 

TABLE 114 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County White High School Pupils Transported to 
Maryland County High Schools at Public Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Pupils Transported 



Number 


Per Cent 


278 


39.4 


441 


37.9 


169 


37.1 


1,064 


31.3 


487 


31.0 


363 


30.1 


220 


21.9 


352 


15.7 


236 


13.4 


267 


9.8 


166 


8.4 



Total and Average 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 

Charles 

Garrett 

Queen Anne's 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Somerset 

Carroll 

Kent 



7,720 

200 
166 
297 
506 
256 
411 
360 
373 
311 
592 
205 



29.0 

81.0 
80.2 
66.3 
56.6 
54.4 
51 .5 
46.9 
44.5 
44.3 
43.2 
40.4 



Talbot 

Anne Arundel . . 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 

Wicomico 

Cecil • 

Washington .... 
Prince George's. 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Harford 



County Expenditures for High School Libraries 

Public expenditures for libraries in county white high schools 
totalled $8,395, an average of $55 per school and $7.25 per white 
high school teacher. Amounts raised by teachers, pupils or P. T. 
A.'s are excluded from these figures. Kent and Cecil invested no 
public funds in their high school libraries in 1931, and St. Mary's 
Howard, Charles, Calvert, and Prince George's spent less than 
$100. At the other extreme Anne Arundel and Harford spent 
over $600, Washington nearly $1,300, and Montgomery close to 



152 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



$3,000. Queen Anne's and Talbot spent over $10 per high school 
teacher for library books, while Calvert had so few teachers that 
the average spent per teacher amounted to $7.50. (See middle 
part of Table 113, page 149.) 

cooperation from the MARYLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY ADVISORY COMMISSION* 

The many demands for professional advice in establishing, 
reorganizing or conducting school libraries is an encouraging 
sign of the realization that the library which is a laboratory for 
all subjects and pupils should be in the school itself. High school 
libraries were organized during the year 1930-31 with the help 
of the Maryland Public Library Advisory Commission at Cris- 
field, Pittsville, Sparks, Prince Frederick, and Cambridge. Ac- 
cording to Miss Pratt's report, eleven county high schools have 
full-time trained school librarians. Four of these schools are in 
Allegany County, two in Baltimore County, and one each in Anne 
Arundel, Dorchester, Frederick, Washington, and Wicomico. In 
addition, there are eighteen teacher-librarians. Of these 4 are in 
Montgomery, 3 in Baltimore County, 2 in Wicomico, and one each 
in Calvert, Garrett, Harford, Kent, Prince George's, St. Mary's, 
Somerset, Talbot, and Worcester. Only six counties, Caroline, 
Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Howard, and Queen Anne's, are, there- 
fore, without the service of either a librarian or a teacher- 
librarian. 

In order to meet the need for trained librarians, the Maryland 
Public Library Advisory Commission conducted a ten-day library 
institute at Hood College in July 1931. Twenty-two library 
workers from many different parts of the State attended, of 
whom six were employed in five of the county high schools. An 
excellent program was offered at very little expense. It is hoped 
that the success of the experiment in its first year will warrant 
carrying it on in the future. - 

Certain standards for a model high school library have been 
set up, which are included here, so that the high schools may 
measure what they are doing against the ideal. 

STANDARDS FOR A MODEL HIGH SCHOOL LIBRARY 

Bmlding and Equipment 

A reading room which seats from 10 to 25 per cent of the enrollment. 
Running water in the workroom of the librarian. 
Standard equipment including adjustable shelving, comfortable tables 
and chairs, filing and display cases, a magazine case, and bulletin 
boards. 

A book collection approximating 6 books per pupil, including books 
for ready reference and for supplementing classroom assign- 
ments, and books and magazines for the leisure time at home 
and free periods at school. 

* Data furnishedl by Adelene T. Pratt, State Director of Public Libraries. 



The Library Program in County High Schools 



153 



Personnel 

A full-time librarian who is a college graduate and has completed at 
least one year in an accredited library school, or 

A part-time librarian who is a college graduate and has completed 
an accredited library science curriculum of at least 16 semester 
hours, and who divides her time between school library work and 
teaching, and devotes at least half of each school day to school 
library service. 

Expenditmres 

For books, $1 per year per pupil enrolled. 

For salaries, amounts equal to those paid teachers with equivalent 
professional training and experience. 

Services to he Rendered 

Systematic instruction in the use of books and libraries. 

An opportunity for each pupil to use the library for reference and 

general reading. 
Intelligent service to the members of the teaching staff. 

Outcomes 

Wider use of the public library. 
Desire to possess books. 

Development of habits of independent investigation 
Development of improved taste in reading. 
Stimulation of reading for pleasure and profit. 

Probably it will be some time before many of the high schools 
of the State reach these standards. Until the counties and high 
schools have developed their own libraries sufficiently to effec- 
tively meet the local book needs, the principals, teachers, and 
pupils should make use of the services of the Maryland Public 
Library Advisory Commission to supplement the limited mate- 
rial now available in schools and homes. The Commission is not 
prepared and does not desire to take the place of school, local, 
or county libraries, but rather to supplement such libraries as 
exist and encourage their establishment and growth where they 
do not exist. 

The increase in the number of books borrowed by the high 
schools from the Library Commission, 3,236 in 1931 as against 
2,661 the preceding year, shows a growing appreciation of the 
value of the material assistance available from the Commission. 
These figures do not include schools in Talbot and Washington 
Counties which are served by county libraries, nor those in Alle- 
gany, Harford, Anne Arundel, Frederick, and Wicomico, where 
limited library service is given to the schools through local and 
county libraries. Increases from 1930 to 1931 in the use of books 
from the Commission by high school teachers in Baltimore 
County, Calvert, Caroline, Dorchester, Garrett, Harford, How- 
ard, and Prince George's are evident. Many schools, however, 



154 



1^3 1 Report of State Department of Education 



do not take advantage of the library facilities which the State 
puts at their disposal through the Library Commission. The de- 
creases from 1930 to 1931 in volumes supplied to Carroll, Cecil, 
Charles, Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Somerset, and Worces- 
ter high schools are hard to understand. (See Table 115.) 

TABLE 115 



Service of Maryland Library Commission to County White High Schools 
School Year, 1930-31 



County 


Total 
No. of 
Volumes 
Supplied 


Traveling Libraries 
(30 to 35 books in each) 


Package Libraries 
(1 to 12 books in each) 


Number of 


Number of 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Traveling 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Schools 
Supplied 


Teachers 
Supplied 


Package 
Libraries 
Supplied 


Total 


3,236 


31 


47 


77 


27 


32 


125 




a2l 


nmO 


amO 


amO 


aS 


a5 


a9 


Anne Arundel . . . 


bco7 


bckl 


bckl 


bckl 


bc2 


6c2 


6c5 


Baltimore 


1,181 


d5 


d7 


d29 


5 


5 


28 


Calvert 


61 


/I 


/3 


f2 


1 


1 


1 


Caroline 


222 


2 


4 


4 


3 


4 


21 


Carroll 


97 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


Cecil 


257 


el 


e5 


e5 


3 


4 


16 


Charles 


c80 


eel 


eel 


cc2 


el 


el 


c3 




cl42 


cm 


eA;2 


cA;4 


el 


el 


el 


Frederick 


6c35 


bcfkl 


bcfkl 


bcfkl 


bcO 


5cO 


&eO 


Garrett 


235 


/4 


fo 


n 













c435 


c/4 


c/7 


c/lO 


el 


c2 


c7 


Howard 


90 


/2 


/2 


/2 


1 




12 


Kent 


10 











1 


1 


4 


Montgomery .... 


cO 


cnO 


enO 


cnO 


eO 


cO 


cO 


Prince George's. . 


219 


e3 


e6 


e6 


1 


1 


4 


Queen Anne's . . . 























St. Mary's 


23 


/o 


/o 


/o 


1 


1 


3 


Somerset 





/o 


/o 


/o 











Talbot 


gO 


fgO 


fgO 


fQQ 













hO 


hO 


hO 


hO 













bc32 


bcekO 


bcekO 


bcekO 


6c 1 


bcl 


6c8 


Worcester 


39 


n 


fl 


fl 




1 


1 



a. The Cumberland Library supplied the Cumberland schools with its own collection in addi- 
tion to books borrowed from the Commission. 

b. Limited library service given to schools by County Library. 

c. Library privileges extended to any who can conveniently go to county seat on days when 
library is open. 

d. Includes three librarians and three teachers who distributed books to other teachers in 
the school. 

e. Includes two teachers who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

f. Includes one teacher who distributed books to other teachers in the school. 

g. Talbot County Library in order to supplement its collection borrows books from the 
Commission and recirculates to all schools in the county requesting service. 

h. Washington's county-wide librai-y service takes care of the book needs of the county 
without outside help. The librai^y employs a visiting school librarian. 

k. Includes one librarian who distributes books to other teachers in the school, 
m. Includes four librarians who distribute books to other teachers in the school, 
n. Includes four teacher librarians who distribute books to other teachers in the school. 

Travelling school libraries are collections of books loaned for 
a period of four months, at the end of which time they may be re- 
turned and exchanged for another collection, or renewed for four 
more months. Thirty books are included in cases sent by parcel 
post ; thirty-five in those sent by express. A dollar must be sent 



Library and Health Activities, and Capital Outlay 155 

to cover part of the cost of transportation, and guarantee of re- 
imbursement for lost or damaged books is required. (See Table 
115.) 

The package libraries of from one to twelve books are made up 
to meet special requirements for school essays, debates, indi- 
vidual needs or professional reading of teachers. These are 
loaned to anyone living in Maryland who is without access to a 
public library. (See Table 115.) 

High School Expenditures for Health and Physical Education over $13,000 

A total of $13,138 or 52 cents per pupil was spent in 13 coun- 
ties in 1931 for health or physical education activities. This 
was an increase of $2,000 over 1930. Nearly 79 per cent of this 
amount, $10,331, was used in Baltimore County high schools to 
pay for the leadership furnished by the Playground Athletic 
League for the physical education program. The expenditure 
for each Baltimore County high school pupil belonging for this 
purpose was $3.17. Montgomery spent $857 or 43 cents a pupil. 
Amounts spent in the ten counties which had some health activi- 
ties were less than 20 cents per pupil. There were ten counties 
which spent nothing for this purpose. (See last two columns in 
Table 113, page 149.) 

CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS IN 1931 

The capital outlay of $1,086,000 for white high schools in 1931 
was exceeded in only two years preceding, 1925 and 1926. The 
summary of capital outlay from 1920 to 1931 inclusive shows an 
aggregate investment of $7,584,000 in school buildings used by 
white high school pupils. It is during this period that the high 
school enrollment tripled. The pupils who appeared for instruc- 
tion would have had to be turned away if school buildings had not 
been provided to house them. (See Table 109, page 141, and 
also Table 116.) 

Baltimore County's investment in high school buildings totalled 
nearly $600,000 in 1931, bringing the aggregate for the period 
from 1930 to 1931 to nearly $1,730,000. Washington and Car- 
roll Counties spent just over and just under $100,000 in 1931 for 
high school buildings, respectively, while Cecil and Prince 
George's spent just over and under $60,000 for this purpose, re- 
spectively. (See Table 116.) 

The expenditure per high school pupil belonging for capital 
outlay was nearly $43 on the average in the counties, an increase 
of $2 over 1930. Expenditure per pupil was over $183 in Balti- 
more County, was between $50 and $75 in Carroll, Cecil, and 
Worcester, between $25 and $50 in Washington, St. Mary's, Anne 
Arundel, and Prince George's, and was under $3 in seven coun- 
ties. (See columns 7 and 14 in Table 110, page 144.) 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



3 

o 








fe" -" 




i 


% lis'isiiiiisiiii 


553 
9,053 
2,266 
2,974 
108,590 
25,837 
37,745 

$855,600 


$1,942,055 


i 






8 






1 


1 


$890,750 

63,420 
14,500 
5,248 
100 
1,541 
5,087 
49,405 
15,140 
183,060 
92,325 
26,187 
0,239 
1,304 
874 
207,142 


275 
218 
6,111 
92,133 
52,901 

1,370 

$197,561 


$1,094,311 


i 


i iiiiiSSIiiiiSii 


1,986 

1,454 
18,955 
22,678 

2,958 
897 

3,015 

$1,449,346 


i 

i 


i 




403 
3,736 
2,866 
19,019 
37,162 
3,537 
4,543 

$2,476,281 


i 


i 






f 

i 


2 




1,278 
597 
36,000 
889 
55,016 
6,554 

$224,291 


i 


1 


517 

188 
,036 
,913 
,666 
,441 
,757 
,791 
,434 
,945 
,607 
,432 
,753 
,248 

637 
,985 










s 

1— 1 


2 


$521,428 

182,442 
4,049 
101,084 
3 257 
61991 
12,998 
3,4041 
461 
144 
125,383 
18,184 
3,945 
2,856 
482 
17,317 


6,316 
2,407 
609 
661 
10,734 
1,995 
15,551 
158 

$883,482 




r 




II :ii§ii s 


i 






i 


i 






•(- 


1 


g III ;§p :?i|||Si| 




•)- 


COUNTY 


Total Counties 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 


Total State 



Capital Outlay and Supervision in County High Schools 157 

SUPERVISION OF COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS 

Each of the three State high school supervisors has responsi- 
bility for supervising the high schools in the Western, Central, 
and Eastern part of the State. These supervisors work directly 
with the 919 principals and teachers of the languages, mathe- 
matics, social studies, science, and commercial subjects, and to 
a limited extent only with the teachers of agriculture, home eco- 
nomics, industrial arts, music, and physical education. Each of 
the latter subjects has a special supervisor on the staff of the 
State Department of Education. (See Table 117.) 



TABLE 117 
Supervision of High Schools 



Section 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of 
Public High 
Schools 


Number of Teachers 


Academic 


Special 


Western 


5 
8 
10 


42 
56 
55 


270.4 
280.2 
276.4 


118.1 
113.9 
98.7 


Central 


Eastern 





*The State high school supervisors observe the classroom work 
of each beginning and inexperienced teacher as early in the year 
as possible, and with their observations as a basis of discussion 
follow this with a personal conference with the teacher and her 
high school principal. These teachers can very often be given 
aid in overcoming the mechanical errors of classroom technique 
which are apparent, and the high school principal follows up the 
suggestions made at the conference. 

* Considerable time is given to planning and conducting pro- 
fessional meetings of various types and in holding conferences 
with groups of teachers at stated times for definite purposes. 
Many of these conferences are held with small subject matter 
groups of experienced and capable teachers for the purpose of 
working out courses of study in the various high school fields ; or 
of formulating in some detail large units of instruction ; or of dis- 
cussing underlying principles of organization of subject matter; 
or of determining and formulating minimum essentials, objec- 
tives or goals for the various high school courses and for the 
larger units into which the course has been divided ; or finally of 
devising tests covering these minimum essentials. 

*An annual meeting of all the teachers of each county is con- 
ducted by the supervisor. The program for this meeting is care- 
fully planned in advance by the supervisor who assigns and talks 
over with teachers of experience and ability who have something 
to contribute to the success of the meeting the topics they are 



* Excerpts from "The Evolution of State Higrh School Supervision in Maryland" by E. 
Clarke Fontaine. State Supei-visor of High Schools. 



158 1931 Report OF State Department of Education 

to treat. These meetings are partly inspirational in character 
and point to the cultural needs as well as to the professional 
growth of the teachers. 

To meet these needs and supplement the work of the State 
high school supervisors, three of the largest counties, Baltimore, 
Allegany and Montgomery, employ county high school super- 
visors. One of the high school principals in Anne Arundel 
County spends part of his time each week in supervising the 
other high schools in the county. In these counties and the re- 
maining counties without county supervision, the high school 
principals must give the guidance and leadership their teachers 
need through constructive classroom visits and conferences and 
well organized faculty meetings. 

The general topic of the annual regional conferences of prin- 
cipals held by the State high school supervisors in five sections of 
the State was ''Education, A Long-Term Investment by the 
State." Dr. Thomas H. Briggs' The Great Investment, the 1930 
Inglis Lecture, published by the Harvard University Press, was 
used as the reference and was the source for the questions dis- 
cussed by selected principals. 

ADDITIONAL NEW CERTIFICATE REGULATIONS FOR HIGH 
SCHOOL TEACHERS 
Provisional Certificates Not to Be Issued 

No provisional high school principals' certificates shall be 
authorized for white applicants after the current year 1931-32. 

No provisional high school academic certificates shall here- 
after be issued. (Not to be applied to pending cases.) 

Limited High School Certificates to Be No Longer Issued 

Beginning with the school year 1932-33, limited high school 
principals' certificates, based on two or three summer terms be- 
yond the bachelor's degree, will no longer be issued. Every 
new principal of a first group high school will have to meet the 
requirement for the full certificate, which calls for at least four 
summer terms of graduate work (twenty-four to thirty-two sem- 
ester hours), about two-thirds of which must be in secondary 
school methods, supervision, and administration. 

Beginning with the school year 1932-33, one-year high school 
teachers' certificates, based on half the amount of work in Edu- 
cation which is required for a full certificate, will no longer be 
issued. Sixteen semester hours in Secondary Education will be 
necessary for the regular high school teacher's certificate. 

Teaching Experience in Lieu of Practice Teaching 

Two years of successful teaching experience may be accepted 
in lieu of the practice teaching otherwise required for a Mary- 
land high school teacher's certificate. 



SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN 



1930 COLORED SCHOOL CENSUS SHOWS DECREASE 

The biennial school census taken in November, 1930, enumer- 
ated 41,494 colored children 5 to 18 years of age in the Mary- 
land counties, a decrease of 564 under the previous census of 
1928. Decreases appeared for both boys and girls aged 5, 8, 12, 
13, 16, and 18 years. In the remaining age groups an increase or 
decrease in one sex seemed to compensate the excess or reduc- 
tion in the other, leaving the totals very similar to those shown 
in the 1928 census. Although there was an excess of colored boys 
over girls in only one half of the age groups enumerated, the 
total number of colored boys of ages 5 to 18 years was 440 
greater than the number of colored girls of corresponding ages. 
The decrease in the number of colored children enumerated of 
ages 5 to 18 years is due to the actual reduction of the colored 
population in the counties resulting from the continued migration 
from rural to urban centers. (See Table 118.) 



TABLE 118 

Census of Colored Children Under 19 Years of Age in 23 Maryland Counties 

November, 1930 



Ag-e Total Boys Girls 

Total 1930 41,494 20,967 20,527 

1^28 42,058 21,219 20,839 

18 1,849 1,018 831 

17 2,181 1,086 1,095 

16 2,518 1,324 1,194 

15 2,746 1,371 1,375 

14 2,965 1,560 1,405 

13 2,888 1,421 1,467 

12 3,089 1,537 1,552 

11 3,065 1,532 1,533 

10 3,485 1,743 1,742 

9 3,504 1,780 1,724 

8 3,447 1,726 1,721 

7 3,391 1,674 1,717 

6 3,541 1,766 1,775 

5 2,825 1,429 1,396 



The 1930 school census showed that there were 31,098 colored 
children of compulsory school ages (7 to 16 years) in the Mary- 
land counties. Of these 82.3 per cent were enrolled in public 
schools, 2.4 per cent in parochial and private schools, and 4,772, 
or 15.3 per cent, attending no school. (See Table 119 and Chart 
20.) 



159 



160 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 20 



PER CEWT OP COLORED CHILDRIU OF AGES 7-16 lEARS, INCLUSIVE 

ENUMERATED NOVDffiER, 1930 
IN PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS, AND IN NO SCHOOL 



Total 

CoxmtT No, of In 

Colored Public In No 
Children Schools School] 

Total and^ 

Co. Av. 31,098* 82.5 



In Private 
and Parochial 
Schools I I 




Among the 4,772 colored children attending no school are ele- 
mentary school graduates who are excused from school if they 
are fifteen and sixteen years old, and physically and mentally 
defective children. Of the non-school attendants 135 were re- 
ported as physically defective and 71 as mentally defective. 



1930 School Census of Colored Children 



161 



Queen Anne's, Allegany, Talbot, Washington, and Baltimore 
led the State in having fewer than 12 per cent of their colored 
children of ages 7 to 16 years as non-school attendants. These 
counties likewise had the largest proportion of their colored chil- 
dren in public schools. The private and parochial school enroll- 
ment of colored children was small, and in only St. Mary's, How- 
ard, and Charles did it comprise more than 5 per cent of the 
county colored children. In St. Mary's not quite two thirds of 
the colored children were in public schools, but nearly 14 per 
cent were in parochial schools. (See Table 119 and Chart 20.) 

TABLE 119 

Number and Per Cent of Colored Children Enumerated of Ages 7-16 Years, 
Inclusive, in Public, Private and Parochial, and No School, 
November, 1930 







NUMBER 






PERCENT 


COUNTY 


In 
Public 
School 


In Private 

and In No 
Parochial School 
School 


Total 


In 
Public 
School 


In Private 

and In No 
Parochial School 
School 



Total and Average: 






1930 


, , 25,586* 


740 


1928 


25,780* 


762 




854 






286 




Talbot 


1,009 


■ 'i 




298 


5 




1,859 


13 




662 


4 




1,447 


8 




827 


4 


Anne Arundel 


2,581 


106 


Prince George's 


3,157 


127 




1,606 


15 


Cecil 


457 




Frederick 


854 


16 




1,459 


4 


Kent 


795 






613 


54 




1,392 


1 




1,576 


12 


Carroll 


300 


4 




1,415 


122 


St. Mary's 


1,135 


237 


Calvert 


1,002 





4,772 


31,098* 


82.3 


2.4 


15.3 


4,653 


31,195* 


82.6 


2.5 


14.9 


66 


920 


92.8 




7.2 


30 


316 


90.5 




9.5 


110 


1,126 


89.6 


■ ' ^6 


9.8 


36 


339 


87.9 


1.5 


10.6 


231 


2,103 


88.4 


.6 


11.0 


92 


758 


87.4 


.5 


12.1 


205 


1,660 


87.2 


.5 


12.3 


118 


949 


87.2 


.4 


12.4 


409 


3,096 


83.4 


3.4 


13.2 


502 


3,786 


83.4 


3.4 


13.2 


261 


1,882 


85.3 


.8 


13.9 


79 


537 


85.1 


.2 


14.7 


176 


1,046 


81.7 


1.5 


16.8 


300 


1,763 


82.8 


.2 


17.0 


166 


961 


82.7 




17.3 


146 


813 


75.4 


6.6 


18.0 


334 


1,727 


80.6 


.1 


19.3 


383 


1,971 • 


80.0 


.6 


19.4 


74 


378 


79.4 


1.0 


19.6 


386 


1,923 


73.6 


6.3 


20.1 


364 


1,736 


65.4 


13.6 


21.0 


304 


1,306 


76.7 




23.3 



* Includes 2 in Garrett. 

Comparison of 1930 School and Federal Census 

Even though the Federal census was taken in April, 1930, 
seven months before the November school census, it is possi- 
ble to get a fair estimate of the accuracy of each census by 
comparing the figures. The age groups used for comparison 
are those for 6 years, 7-13 years, and 14-15 years. For the 
counties as a whole the school census was higher than the Fed- 



162 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



eral census of these age groups, except the 14-15 year old 
group, which was lower by 112. In this latter age group the 
school census was lower than the Federal figures in 10 coun- 
ties, the largest differences appearing in Charles and Somerset. 
In Charles, the school census was lower than the Federal census 
for all of the age groups compared, and in Talbot the 7-13 age 
group for the school census was below the Federal census. For 
the majority of the counties, however, the school census for 
ages 7 to 13 years appears to be more complete than the Fed- 
eral census. (See Table 120.) 

TABLE 120 

Comparison of 1930 Federal and School Census for Colored Children 
of Ages 6-15 Years, Inclusive, in Maryland Counties 



Ages for Census 



County 


6-15 Years 


6 Years 


7-13 Years 


14-15 Years 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Federal 


School 


Total 


t3 1,328 


°32,121 


3,392 


*3,541 


t22,113 


t22,869 


5,823 


5,711 


AUeganj' 


320 


333 


33 


41 


237 


238 


50 


54 




3,180 


3,216 


363 


341 


2,251 


2,357 


566 


518 


Baltimore 


2,113 


2,230 


251 


278 


1,506 


1,607 


356 


345 


Calvert 


1,285 


1,353 


141 


148 


913 


977 


231 


228 


Caroline 


878 


960 


92 


98 


623 


663 


163 


199 


Carroll 


369 


390 


38 


46 


270 


276 


61 


68 


Cecil 


529 


565 


65 


61 


378 


412 


86 


92 


Charles 


2,174 


1,999 


249 


219 


1,528 


1,446 


397 


334 


Dorchester 


1,769 


1,736 


189 


167 


1,195 


1,229 


385 


340 




1,052 


1.066 


126 


111 


720 


756 


206 


199 




772 


784 


87 


88 


550 


570 


135 


126 


Howard 


772 


869 


81 


121 


535 


582 


156 


166 


Kent 


938 


998 


111 


112 


662 


705 


165 


181 




1,893 


2,023 


216 


233 


1.348 


1,429 


329 


361 




3,641 


3,858 


346 


407 


2,595 


2,744 


700 


707 


Queen Anne's 


964 


925 


96 


92 


680 


684 


188 


149 


St. Mary's 


1,609 


1,776 


177 


189 


1,152 


1,258 


280 


329 


Somerset 


2,015 


1,965 


226 


227 


1,390 


1,400 


399 


338 


Talbot 


1,309 


1,182 


136 


147 


917 


807 


256 


228 


Washington 


349 


341 


27 


25 


247 


248 


75 


68 




1,638 


1,716 


155 


192 


1,171 


1,170 


312 


354 




1,757 


1,833 


187 


197 


1,243 


1,309 


327 


327 



* Includes one from Garret County, 
t Includes two from Garret County. 
° Includes three from Garret County 



26,680 ENROLLED IN COLORED COUNTY ELEMENTARY 

SCHOOLS 

There were 26,680 children enrolled in the county colored 
public elementary schools for the year ending July 31, 1931, a 
loss of only 79 children from the 1930 enrollment, but one of 
4,390 from the 1923 enrollment. One half of the counties 
showed slight increases and the other half slight decreases in 
enrollment from 1930 to 1931. Prince George's, Baltimore, 
and Allegany were the only counties which enrolled more col- 
ored children in their elementaiy schools in 1931 than in 1923. 
(See Table 121.) 



1930 Federal and School Censusj School Enrollment 



163 



TABLE 121 

Total Enrollment in Maryland Colored Elementary Schools, Excluding Duplicates, 
for Year Ending July 31, 1923, 1930, and 1931 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1931 



1930 



1923 



County 



Number Enrolled in 
Colored Elementary 
Schools 



1931 


1930 


1923 


903 


898 


1,188 


899 


919 


I.I.tO 


861 


910 


1,188 


801 


812 


1,093 


748 


763 


916 


599 


604 


848 


464 


449 


548 


346 


344 


440 


335 


335 


377 


283 


273 


267 


t21,129 


t20,829 


tl5,675 


t47,809 


t47,588 


t46,745 



Total Counties . 

Anne Arundel . . 
Prince George's 

Baltimore 

Somerset 

Montgomery . . 

Charles 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

Dorchester .... 

Calvert 

St. Mary's .... 
Talbot 



t26,680 

2,828 
2,810 
2,084 
1,792 
1,752 
1,598 
1,542 
1,466 
1,413 
1,195 
1,184 
1,107 



t26,759 t3 1,070 



2,749 
2,792 
2,078 
1,799 
1,785 
1,561 
1,570 
1,446 
1,522 
1,176 
1,149 
1,107 



2,853 
2,781 
1,942 
2,255 
1,898 
1,803 
2,088 
1,675 
1,947 
1,343 
1,405 
1.373 



Caroline 

Frederick .... 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. 

Harford 

Howard 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Washington. . 
Allegany 



Baltimore City 



t Total excludes duplicates. 

For enrollment in counties arranged alphabetically, see Table II, page 295. 



The increase of 300 in the colored elementary school enroll- 
ment in Baltimore City in 1931 over the preceding year, making 
the total 21,129, more than compensated for the decreased en- 
rollment in the counties. The increase of 5,454 in the colored 
enrollment in Baltimore City since 1923 shows very plainly 
the shift of the negro population from the counties to the city. 
(See Table 121.) 

The colored enrollment in 9 Catholic parochial schools in 
6 counties totalled 653, of whom 62 were doing work of sec- 
ondary grade. In Baltimore City the corresponding figures were 
9 schools with an enrollment of 1,254 pupils, of whom 20 were 
doing secondary school work. In addition, 68 colored pupils 
were doing high school work at Princess Anne Academy, 36 
were having elementary work in Salisbury and 70 were in a 
Lutheran school in Baltimore. (See Tables III-V, pages 296 
to 299.) 

LENGTH OF THE SCHOOL YEAR 1930-31 

All the counties, except Baltimore, which employed very few 
new teachers, held a meeting for the colored teaching staff pre- 
ceding the opening of the schools. These meetings are possibly 
of greatest value to the inexperienced and new teachers, but 
they also provide a time for setting up the objectives for the 
year, and furnish a means of distributing supplies and blanks, 
so that school can begin promptly on the opening day with all 
administrative details properly provided for in advance. (See 
Table 122.) 



164 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 122 

Length of Session in Colored Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



County 



School Year, 1930-31 



Number 
of 

Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day of 
School 



Last 
Day of 
School 



Average Days in Session 



County 



Colored 

High 
Schools 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's , 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Baltimore City. 



9/2 
9/9 
9/2 
9/1 
9/22 
9/1 
9/4 
9/29 
9/22 
9/2 
9/15 
9/29 
*9/29 
9/9 
9/10 
9/24 
9/30 
9/15 
tlO/1 
9/2 
9/11 
9/15 

9/4 



6/19 
5/15 
6/19 

5/8 
5/29 

6/5 
6/12 
5/29 
5/29 
°5/8 
5/29 

6/3 
*5/29 
5/15 
5/29 
5/29 

6/4 
5/15 
16/3 

6/5 
5/15 
5/15 

6/18 



County Average . 



Allegany 

Baltimore 

Washington ... 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Prince George's, 

Harford 

Caroline 

Dorchester .... 
Queen Anne's. . 

Frederick 

Howard 

Anne Arundel . . 

St. Mary's 

Talbot 

Calvert 

Montgomery. . . 

Wicomico 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Charles 

Kent 



Baltimore City. 
State Average . . 



173.0 
192.8 



184.2 
188.1 
185.3 
174.7 
172.7 
166.0 
180.8 
164.2 
186.0 



184.0 



176.0 
161.9 
163.1 
161.5 
161.0 
159.3 
180.0 
179.1 

188.4 

181.1 



High school, 9/8. t High schools, 9/20; 6/5. ° High school, 6/9. JHigh school, 6/12. 

For average days in session for counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VII, page 301. 



The average session for the colored elementary schools of the 
Maryland counties was 166.8 days; for Baltimore City, 195.3 
days; and for the entire State, 179.8 days. (See Table 122.) 

Because one of the Worcester County colored high schools 
was open only 156 days and since 18 of the colored elementary 
schools in Kent were open fewer than 160 days, the average ses- 
sion for the high schools of Worcester and for the elementary 
schools of Kent were lower than the minimum number of days 
required by law. On the other hand, the colored elementary 
schools in Allegany, Baltimore, Washington, Cecil, and Carroll 
were open more than 180 days. 

In 1931, 34 of the 534 county colored schools were open fewer 
than 160 days, the minimum number of days required for col- 
ored schools. Of these 34 schools, only 1 school in Calvert, 
which opened late, had sessions for less than 140 days. Fig- 
ures for 1930 and 1929 showed 41 and 53 schools, respectively, 
open less than 160 days, and 3 and 4 schools, respectively, open 
fewer than 140 days. Charles, Wicomico, and Caroline, all of 
which had schools with too short sessions in 1930, had every 
school meet the legal requirement in 1931. All the counties, 



Length of School Year; Per Cent of Attendance 



165 



except Kent which showed an increase of 14 schools, had fewer 
schools with short sessions than in 1930. (See Table 123.) 

TABLE 123 



Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Less Than the Number of 
Days Required by Law, Year Ending July 31, 1931 





Colored Schools Open 




Colored Schools Open 






Less Than 




Less 


i Than 






160 


140 




160 


140 


County- 




Days 


Days 


Covinty 


Days 


Days 




1931 


34 


1 • 




1 




Total 


.1930 


41 


3 




2 






1929 


53 


4 


Calvert 


2 


*1 












2 








1 




St. Mary's 


2 








1 




Montgomery 


4 




Somerset 




1 






18 





* Opened late. 

INCREASE IN ATTENDANCE 

The improvement in per cent of attendance in the colored 
elementary schools is a definite evidence of the increasing hold- 
ing power and efficiency of the colored schools. The average 
percentage of attendance in the colored elementary schools was 
85.6 in 1931, a gain of 1.1 per cent over 1930. The colored 
schools in 15 counties had an attendance of 85 per cent or more, 
while in only one county did the percentage fall below 80. The 
percentages ranged from 74 in Calvert County to almost 91 
per cent in Frederick and Washington. All except five of the 
counties had a higher attendance in 1931 than in 1930. (See 
Table 124.) 

TABLE 124 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools for School Years Ending in, 
June 1923, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 




76. 


2 


82, 


,7 


84.5 


85, 


.6 


Frederick 


84. 


6 


90. 


3 


89.3 


90 


.8 


Washington 


, 81. 


,7 


89, 


,6 


89.0 


90 


.8 




84. 


,8 


88. 


,1 


90.8 


89, 


,5 




80. 


8 


84. 


,4 


86.9 


89, 


,1 


Talbot 


84. 


3 


90. 


,5 


88.8 


88 






80, 


, 5 


84. 


.7 


87.9 


88 


'.7 




. . . 79 , 


.9 


86 


.0 


85.3 


88 


. 7 


Allegany 


87 


.4 


86 


.0 


89.1 


87 


.0 




73 


.1 


80 


.1 


83.3 


86 


.8 




73 


.4 


82 


.3 


85.1 


86 


.5 




76 


.4 


84 


.4 


85.2 


86 


.1 




75 


.4 


84 


.8 


85.9 


85 


.9 



County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 




71.2 


84 


.8 


85 


.3 


85, 


.8 


Cecil 


74.4 


79 


.4 


83, 


.8 


85, 


,8 




76.4 


83 


.0 


85, 


.0 


85, 


.6 




. . ,80.1 


82 


.1 


86, 





84 


.6 


Carroll 


72.0 


76 


.6 


76, 


.2 


84 


.0 




71.0 


79 


.3 


80, 


,5 


82, 


.5 




74.2 


78 


.6 


82, 


.2 


82, 


.4 


St. Mary's 


, 62.9 


78 


.0 


81 


.4 


81, 


.8 


Charles 


66.8 


76 


.7 


75 


.5 


81 


.3 


Calvert 


65.3 


66 


.6 


72 


.0 


74 


.2 


Baltimore City . . . , 


87.0 


87 


.6 


87 


.4 


87 


.5 




, , 79.9 


84 


.8 


85 


.8 


86 


.5 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VI, page 300. 

The enrollment in the colored elementary and high schools 
reached its maximum in January and February, after which it 



166 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

gradually decreased. The monthly per cent of attendance varied 
greatly, from 94.4 in September, when the smallest enrollment 
was found, to 81.5 in March in elementary schools, and 91 per 
cent in high schools in March and April. Colds, and contagious 
diseases, bad weather and roads, probably had the greatest effect 
in keeping the children out of school in the winter and early 
spring. (See Table 125.) 



TABLE 125 

Number Belonging and Per Cent of Attendance in Maryland County Colored 
Schools, by Months, for School Year Ending in June, 1931 



MONTH 


Average No. Belonging 


Per Cent of Attendance 


Elementary 


High 


Elementary 


High 


September 


16,970 


1,660 


94.4 


94.4 


October 


23,709 


2,062 


90.3 


94.4 




25,126 


2,145 


87.4 


93.0 


December 


25,159 


2,124 


85.2 


91.3 


January 


25.410 


2,074 


84.2 


92.4 


February 


25,490 


2,012 


83.9 


91.6 


March 


25,272 


1,980 


81.5 


90.9 


April 


24,944 


1,909 


82.9 


90.8 


May 


24,688 


1,802 


85.8 


93.5 


June 


*2,893 


t681 


89.5 


95.6 




24,679 


2,001 


85.6 


92.0 



* Elementary schools were open in June in Allegany, Baltimore, Carroll and Cecil Counties only, 
t High schools were open in June in Allegany, Anne Arundel, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Frederick, 
Kent and Talbot Counties only. 



Decrease In Pupils Present Under 100 and 120 Days 

In 1931 there were 4,342 or 16.7 per cent of the colored ele- 
mentary pupils who attended school under 100 days, a decrease 
of 595 or 2.6 per cent under the preceding year. The 7,039 
colored children or 27.1 per cent who were present less than 120 
days are 803 fewer and 3.5 per cent lower than corresponding 
figures for 1930. (See Table 126.) 

In 7 counties less than 20 per cent of the colored elementary 
pupils were present at school less than 120 days. Calvert, which 
shows almost 54 per cent of its children in school under 120 
days is the only county in which more than 40 per cent of the 
pupils were present less than 6 months of the eight-month school 
year. (See Table 126.) 

Attendance for less than 100 or 120 days is probably due to 
long absences because of illness, and indifference to the im- 
portance and value of regular attendance. It is certainly a seri- 
ous condition when three eighths or from a fourth to a fifth of 
the pupils attend school less than 5 months of the year, as is 
the case with the counties appearing last in Table 126. 



Monthly Attendance; Pupils Present Less than 100 and 120 Days 167 



TABLE 126 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 
120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1931 





Number 


Present 


Per Cent Present 




Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 


County 


100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Day 


X u tell diiu. .rvv ci or^c . 










1931 


4,342 


7,039 


Ifi 7 


27 1 


1930 


4.937 


7,842 


19.3 


30.6 


1929 


5.987 


9,045 


22 9 


34 6 


1928 


6,610 


9,563 


24^8 


35^9 


1927 


7,643 


10,836 


29.0 


41.1 


1926 


8 078 


11,295 




41 '\ 
■iX . o 


1925 


9,463 


13.195 




46.3 


Alleganv 


12 


25 


4 5 


9 4 


Washington 


29 


38 


9^2 


12!0 


Frederick 


75 


134 


8.5 


15.1 


Cecil 


45 


66 


10 4 


1*^ 3 

Xt> . «J 


Baltimore 


204 


301 




1 T 4 
X.J . "I 


Harford 


85 


131 




18 1 


Carroll 


43 


64 


12.8 


19^0 


Prince George's 


306 


598 


11.4 


22.2 




194 


340 


\'\ 7 

XO . 1 


24.0 




271 


406 


16. 1 


24. 1 


Kent 


102 


203 


12.1 


24.1 


Somerset 


260 


423 


15.0 


24.4 


Talbot 


174 


276 


16.3 


25.9 


Caroline 


145 


228 


17.1 


26.9 


Anne Arundel 


453 


753 


16.6 


27.6 


Queen Anne's 


153 


231 


20.2 


30.5 


Howard 


117 


190 


20.3 


32.9 


Dorchester 


297 


475 


21.8 


34.9 


Worcester 


332 


511 


22.7 


35.0 


St. Mary's 


223 


412 


19.0 


35.1 


Charles 


378 


603 


24.4 


38.9 


Calvert 


444 


631 


37.8 


53.7 



LATE ENTRANTS 

The number and per cent of late entrants to the colored ele- 
mentary schools because of employment, negligence, and in- 
difference, has decreased more than 50 per cent in the past six 
years, from 5,393 or 18.1 per cent in 1926 to 2,505 or 9 per 
cent in 1931. There were fewer late entrants for all causes in 
1931 than in 1930, the percentage in 1931 being 2.4 below 1930. 
As in the preceding years, more than half of the late entrance 
of colored elementary children was attributed by teachers to 
neglect or indifference. 



168 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



In all but 5 counties, less than 10 per cent of the colored ele- 
mentary school enrollment were late entrants, and in only 
Charles County did the late entrants for employment, indiffer- 
ence, and neglect exceed 20 per cent of the enrollment. All 
except three counties reported late entrance as due to illegal 
employment of children under 13 years of age, and it affected 
4 per cent of the pupils in Dorchester. The average per cent 
of late entrance in 1931 because of illegal employment (.9) is a 
decrease of .2 under 1.1 per cent in 1930. (See Table 127.) 

TABLE 127 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering School 
after the First Month, Because of Employment, IndiflFerence or Neglect, for 
School Year Ending July 31, 1931 



KALI l/jr 


Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


County Average 
193i 


2,505 
3,148 
3,280 
4,739 
5,204 
5,393 

2 


9.0 


3.1 


5.0 


.9 








1930 


11.4 


4.5 


5.8 


1.1 








1929 


11.6 


5.1 


5.3 


1.2 








1928 


16.5 


6.5 


7.8 


2.2 








1927 


17.8 


7.9 


7.5 


2.4 








1926 


18.1 


8.3 


6.9 


2.9 










.7 


.4 


.3 




2 


1 


1 


Washington .... 
Somerset 


7 


2.1 


.3 


1.8 




1 


6 


3 


65 


3.6 


1.9 


1.3 


.4 


6 


3 


12 


Baltimore 


78 


3.6 


1.6 


1.9 


.1 


4 


8 


5 


Carroll 


15 


4.1 


1.9 


1.9 


.3 


8 


9 


9 


Frederick 


50 


5.4 


3.7 


1.6 


.1 


12 


5 


4 




52 


5.4 


4.4 


.8 


.2 


16 


2 


7 


Wicomico 


86 


5.7 


2.0 


3.2 


.5 


10 


11 


13 


Kent 


53 


5.9 


4.5 


1.4 


18 


4 


2 


St. Mary's 


84 


6.8 


2.3 


4.0 


.5 


11 


12 


14 


Prince George's . 
Howard 


199 
43 
88 


6.9 
7.0 


1.4 
1.9 


4.4 
4.9 


1.1 
.2 


3 
9 


14 

16 


J6 
6 


Talbot 


7.5 


4.4 


2.4 


.7 


17 


10 


15 


Montgomery. . . 
Queen Anne's . . . 


163 
80 


9.1 
9.6 


3.7 
6.1 


4.0 
1.8 


1.4 
1.7 


13 
21 


13 
7 


19 
20 


Anne Arundel. . 


285 
76 


9.8 
9.9 


1.8 
3.9 


7.6 
5.6 


.4 
.4 


5 
15 


19 
17 


11 
10 


Cecil 


49 


10.4 


1.9 


8.3 


.2 


7 


20 


8 


Worcester 


177 


11.2 


5.0 


4.8 


1.4 


19 


15 


18 


Dorchester 


270 


17.9 


6.4 


7.5 


4.0 


22 


18 


22 


Calvert 


222 


17.9 


5.3 


10.5 


2.1 


20 


21 


21 


Charles 


361 


21.9 


3.8 


17.0 


1.1 


14 


22 


17 











WITHDRAWALS FROM SCHOOL 

Withdrawals for removal, transfer, or death, over which there 
can be little control and which have constituted a fairly constant 
portion of the enrollment in the past 7 years, dropped from 7.6 
in 1930 to 6.8 in 1931, a decrease of only .8 per cent, but the 



Late Entrance and Withdrawal from Colored Elementary Schools 169 

largest reduction in any one year since 1925. Percentages for 
these withdrawals ranged from 6 per cent or less in 13 counties 
to 11.5 per cent in Caroline County. (See Table 128.) 

TABLE 128 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary Schools for Year 

Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer or Death 


WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING 


CAUSES 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


XT U 

Number 


jrer vyeni 


■c 1 

Himploy- 


Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


Other 
Causes 


Total and Av, 






















1 ,ooo 


o.o 


1 ,405 


5.0 


2 2 


Q 


. O 


1 .u 


Q 
.O 




2 100 


7 6 


1,717 


6.2 


2 9 


1.0 


g 


1 2 


.3 


1QOO 


2,' 109 


7!5 


2,171 


7.6 


3^7 


1.1 


!9 


1.5 


.4 


1928 


2,130 


7.4 


2,231 


7.8 


4.1 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


.4 


1927 




o . \J 


2,489 


8.5 


4 3 


1 2 






A 
. * 




2,446 


8.2 


2,697 


9.9 


4.9 


i!o 


1.5 


1.9 


.6 




2,459 


8.6 


3,515 


12.3 


6.4 


1.1 


1.7 


2.6 


.5 


All 


16 


5.7 


7 


2.5 


.7 


1.4 


.4 






Carroll 


31 


8.5 


10 


2.7 


.3 


.5 


1.4 




.5 


Anne Arundel . . 


178 


6.1 


86 


3.0 


1.2 


.9 


.5 


.2 


.2 


Prince George's. 


179 


6.2 


89 


3.1 


1.5 


.5 


.7 


.3 


.1 




182 


8.5 


72 


3.4 


1.7 


.9 


.2 


.4 


.2 




87 


4.8 


80 


4.4 


2.9 


.9 


.3 


.2 


.1 


Frederick 


43 


4.6 


42 


4.5 


1.5 


1.1 


.5 


1.3 


.1 




110 


11.5 


47 


4.9 


2.4 


.8 


1.0 


.7 






84 


5.6 


74 


4.9 


1.8 


1.5 


.3 


1.2 


.1 


St. Mary's 


70 


5.6 


63 


5.1 


1.6 


1.3 


1.2 


.3 


.7 


Cecil 


42 


8.9 


25 
80 


5.3 


1.5 


.8 


1.1 


1.9 




Dorchester. . . . 


146 


9.7 


5.3 


2.3 


1.0 


.5 


1.2 


.3 


Talbot 


100 


8.6 


63 


5.4 


3.2 


.2 


.4 


1.4 


.2 


Kent 


58 


6.5 


52 


5.8 


3.4 


.7 


.9 


.7 


.1 


Montgomery. . . 


99 


5.5 


113 


6.3 


1.6 


1.0 


1.0 


1.8 


.9 


Harford 


42 


5.5 


49 


6.4 


1.7 


1.8 


.7 


1.8 


.4 


Calvert 


63 


5.1 


83 


6.7 


4.1 


1.1 


.2 


1.0 


.3 




125 


7.9 


107 


6.7 


2.8 


.9 


.7 


2.2 


.1 


Washington 


19 


5.7 


23 


6.9 


3.0 


1.5 


1.2 


.9 


.3 


Queen Anne's . . 


72 


8.7 


59 


7.1 


5.4 


.8 


.6 


.3 






100 


6.1 


129 


7.8 


2.7 


1.1 


.3 


3.5 


.2 




37 


6.0 


52 


8.5 


3.6 


.8 


1.0 


1.6 


1.5 



In 1931 there were 1,405 or 5 per cent of the colored ele- 
mentary school pupils who withdrew from school for causes 
other than removal, transfer, or death. This group includes 
2.2 per cent who withdrew for employment, 1 per cent for pov- 
erty, .9 per cent because of physical or mental incapacity, .6 
who were either over or under the compulsory attendance age, 
and .3 per cent for all other causes. As the colored population 
grows in its appreciation of the value of education, the num- 
ber of withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, and 
death will gradually decrease, the reduction of 2,110 or 7.3 per 
cent since 1925 being most gratifying. 



170 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The percentage of withdrawals for causes other than removal, 
transfer, or death exceeded 6 per cent of the colored elementary 
school enrollment in 8 counties, the maximum being 8.5 per 
cent in Howard County. (See Table 128.) 

ENROLLMENT BY GRADES 

The colored school enrollment of 5,648 in the first grade in 
1931 was lower than that for the year preceding. The first 
grade was the only one which did not have a larger enrollment 
in 1931 than in 1930. As noted in previous years, there is a loss 
in enrollment apparent in each succeeding grade, the elementary 
school enrollment reaching its lowest point at 2,394 in the 
seventh grade. The high school enrollment decreased from 989 
in the first year to 222 in the fourth year, a difference of 767. 
(See Table 129.) 



TABLE 129 

Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools, School Year Ending in 

June, 1931 





Number in Each Grade, 


Per Cent in Each Grade Based on 






1931 




Average in Grades 2, 3 and 4 


GRADE 


















Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1931 


1929 


1927 


1925 


1 


2,914 


2,734 


5,648 


142 


148 


166 


187 


2 


2,103 


1,995 


4,098 


103 


107 


104 


102 


3 


2,046 


1,889 


3,935 


99 


99 


100 


102 


4 


2,002 


1,881 


3,883 


98 


95 


95 


96 


5 


1,642 


1,630 


3,272 


82 


82 


78 


74 


6 


1,301 


1,422 


2,723 


69 


67 


60 


51 


7 


1,119 


1,275 


2,394 


60 


57 


45 


37 


8 


18 


11 


29 


1 


1 


5 


3 


I 


416 


573 


989 


25 


20 


13 


11 


II 


244 


340 


584 


15 


10 


7 


5 


III 


164 


223 


387 


10 


6 


4 


3 


IV 


88 


134 


222 


6 


3 


3 


1 


Grand Total . . . 


14,057 


14,107 


28,164 



















By assuming that the average enrollment in grades 2, 3, and 
4 is a rather fair estimate of the number of children entering 
school each year for the first time and using this figure as a base, 
we can get some idea of the number of repeaters in the lower 
grades and the survival of the pupils through the higher grades. 
With 142 in the first grade, we assume that 42 out of the 142 or 
30 per cent repeated the first grade work, while only 60 per 
cent of those who entered the first grade remained to reach the 
seventh grade. Just one fourth of those who entered the first 
grade reached the first year of high school, and only 6 per cent 



Distribution of Colored Enrollment by Grades 



171 



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172 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



reached the fourth year. Although the loss of pupils from the 
upper elementary grades and from high school is still very large, 
there has been a marked gain in holding power in 1931 over 
corresponding figures for previous years. (See Table 129.) 

The colored enrollment by grades in each county, following 
the general tendency of the counties as a whole, decreased in each 
succeeding grade above the first. Slight de\iations from this 
are noted, however, in a number of the counties which show in- 
creased enrollments in the third and fourth grades. (See Table 
130.) 

COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GRADUATES 

There were 1,985 colored elementary school graduates in 1931, 
who represented 7.6 per cent of the elementary school enrollment, 
an increase of 264 over 1930. The 1931 graduates included 884 
boys and 1,101 girls. The number of boy graduates comprised 
6.7 per cent of the elementary enrollment of boys, an increase of 
1.1 over the preceding year, and the number of girl graduates — 
8.6 per cent of all elementary girls enrolled — .7 per cent more 
than in 1930. (See Table 131.) 

TABLE 131 
Colored County Elementary School Graduates* 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 350 637 

1924 427 706 

1925 487 705 

1926 483 820 

1927 542 909 

1928 542 984 

1929 733 1.077 

1930 728 993 

1931 884 1,101 







Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


987 


2.3 


4.3 


3.3 


1,133 


2.9 


4.9 


3.9 


1.192 


3.4 


5.0 


4.2 


1.303 


3.5 


6.1 


4.8 


1.451 


4.0 


6.8 


5.4 


1.526 


4.0 


7.5 


5.7 


1,810 


5.5 


8.4 


6.9 


1.721 


5.6 


7.9 


6.7 


1.985 


6.7 


8.6 


7.6 



* Exclusive of w-ithdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 



The per cent of elementary school graduates in the total ele- 
mentary enrollment varied from 5 per cent in Calvert to over 10 
per cent in Caroline and Dorchester. Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, 
Caroline, Montgomery, Harford, Prince George's and Queen 
Anne's had the largest increases in number and per cent of grad- 
uates from 1930 to 1931. In every county except Caroline, 
Howard, Somerset, and Washington the number and percent- 
age of girl graduates was higher than that for boys. (See Char-t 
21.) 



Graduates of Colored Elementary Schools 
CHART 21 



173 



Co. Average 



PER CENT OF GRADUArES 
m TOTAL COUNPY COLORED ELK^ENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
1931 



County Number 

Boys Girls 

rotal and 



884 1,101 



Caroline 54 
Dorchester 72 
Queen Anne's 32 
Wicomico 50 
Cecil 
Frederick 
Allegany 
Harford 
Somerset 



18 
32 
5 
29 
74 



Ft. George's 93 



32 
35 
58 
10 
22 



Kent 

St. Mary's 
Worcester 
Carroll 
Howard 
Anne Arundel 93 
Montgomery 58 
Baltimore 
Washington 
Talbot 
Charles 
Calvert 



47 
79 
38 
77 
20 
46 
18 



|Per Cent Boys UV//1 Per Cent Girls 



7.0 



^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ 

n!S:&^W////////////// /////////////////A 

65 
119 



\//////////////A 



34 
57 
71 
14 
18 
94 
55 
73 



. 4 y////////////////// //^ 

Q ////////////////A 




174 



1931 Eeport of State Department of Education 



FEWER FAILURES IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

The reduction of non-promotions for both boys and girls in re- 
cent years is very encouraging. In 1923 there were 38.3 per 
cent of boys not promoted compared with 22.3 per cent in 1931, 
and in 1923, 31.1 per cent of the girls were retarded in compari- 
son with 15.8 for 1931. (See Table 132.) 

TABLE 132 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary Schools* 



Year Number 
Ending in 

June Boys Girls 

1923 5.722 4,616 

1924 5,173 4,104 

1925 4,800 3.700 

1926 4,359 3.334 

1927 4,015 3,091 

1928 3,647 2,657 

1929 3,230 2,361 

1930 3,311 2,343 

1931 2,929 2,022 







Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32.0 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


7,106 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 


5,591 


24.2 


18.5 


21.4 


5,654 


25.4 


18.6 


22.0 


4,951 


22.3 


15.8 


19.1 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

The 4,951 county colored elementary school pupils who were 
not promoted in 1931 comprised 19.1 per cent of the elementary 
school enrollment. The reduction in non-promotions of 703 or 
2.9 from the number and per cent for 1930 is the greatest de- 
crease recorded since 1923. Of the boys enrolled there were 
2,929 or 22.3 per cent, and of the girls enrolled 2,022 or 15.8 per 
cent who were considered by their teachers incapable of carrying 
on the work of the next grade the following year. (See Table 
132.) 

In the counties the per cent of colored elementary school boys 
who were counted as failures varied from under 15 in Carroll 
and Caroline to more than 28 in Howard, Worcester, Talbot and 
Calvert Counties. The percentage of failures for girls ranged 
from 9 in Washington to 26 in Calvert. Carroll was the only 
county in which the percentage of failures for boys was lower 
than that for girls. In comparing the number and per cent of 
non-promotions for 1931 with 1930, 14 counties showed a de- 
crease for both boys and girls, while increases for both boys and 
girls were found in Allegany and Talbot, for boys only in Wash- 
ington, Kent and Howard, and for girls only in Caroline, Prince 
George's and Calvert. The regularity of attendance is an im- 
portant factor determining promotion. A high percentage of 
non-promotions is likely to accompany a low percentage of at- 
tendance. (See Chart 22.) 



NoN Promotions in Colored Elementary Schools 
CHART 22 



175 



County 





Boys 


uirxs 


Total and 


2929 




Co, Average 


2022 


Washington 


25 


14 


Caroline 


61 


49 


Carroll 


24 


24 


Somerset 


146 


103 


Harford 


D f 


39 




74 




Q. Anne's 


42 


Cecil 


36 


31 


Charles 


150 


93 


Dorchester 


131 


94 


A. Arundel 


260 


203 


Pr, Geo. 


272 


185 


Montgomery 


187 


140 


Kent 


110 


55 


Frederick 


104 


71 


Wicomico 


182 


103 


Howard 


84 


37 


Allegany 


36 


20 


Baltimore 


261 


195 


St. Mary's 


169 


108 


Worcester 


214 




142 


Talbot 


153 


116 


Calvert 


183 


158 



NUMBER AND PER CENT OF CODNri COLORED 
ELBJENTARI PUPILS NOT PROMOTED 
1931 

Number 

■■1 Per Cent Boys 



20 nrs . 2 ^V//////////A 



Per Cent 

^ Girls 





176 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



In 1931 there was a decrease in the number and per cent of 
non-promotions in every grade in comparison with correspond- 
ing figures for the preceding year, except for second grade girls 
where the percentage increased slightly. The largest per cent of 
failures was found in the first grade, affecting one third of the 
boys and 30 per cent of the girls. Poor attendance due to con- 
tagious diseases and a lack of appreciation of the importance of 
regular school attendance, as well as the fact that many first 
grade children do not have the mental maturity of average 6 
year old children, in many cases prevent successful completion of 
the first grade work in one year. 

The percentage of failures was also high in the fourth and 
seventh grades, and lowest in" grades 3 and 5. (See Chart 23.) 

CHART 23 



1931 NON-PROMOTIONS BY GRADES 
COUNTY colored ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Number 

Grade Boys Girls ■■iPez' Cent Boys rTTTl Per Cent Girls 



982 

339 
366 
446 

5 292 

6 266 

7 234 



811^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
233 ^^^^^^^^^ 

206 n^^^^^^ 

270 

174 US^^^^^ 



153 



170 1 \'h.^Y/////////////A 



; NUMBER OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS INCREASES 

In 1931 the number of county colored high schools included 
21 first group and 5 second group schools, a total of 26 high 
schools, 1 more than in 1930. The additional school, opened in 
Harford county, offered 3 years of high school work, the fourth 
year to be first offered in the fall of 1931. There was also an 
increase of 4 first group schools and a decrease of three second 
group schools. Two more years of high school work were added 
to the course given at the St. Michaels high school in Talbot and 
a fourth year was added to the course at the Nanticoke High 
School in Wicomico and at Snow Hill in Worcester County. Since 



Colored Non Promotions by Grade; Colored High Schools 



177 



Baltimore County paid tuition for its elementary graduates who 
attended the colored junior-senior high school in Baltimore City, 
Howard and St. Mary's were the only counties in which none of 
the advantages of a high school were available to eligible colored 
elementary school graduates. (See Table 133.) 



TABLE 133 

Number of Approved Colored High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 



1931 



County 



Total 



Group 



County 



Total 



Total Counties: 
1920 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Calvert 

CaroUne 

Carroll 

Cecil 



Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore CUy . 

State 



t First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and two teachers. 
They give a four-year course. 

Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and one teacher. 
They give a two-year course. 

* Includes the schools classified as group 1 and group 2 prior to 1928. 

t Classified as group 3 prior to 1928. 
For individual schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330 to 335. 

GROWTH IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT AND 
ATTENDANCE 

TABLE 134 

Enrollment, Attendance, Average Number Belonging and Graduates in Approved 
Colored County High Schools of Maryland, School Years Ending in 
June 1921 to 1931 Inclusive 







Average 




Four- Year 


Year Ending 


Enrollment 


Number 


Average 


High School 


July 31 




Belonging 


Attendance 


Graduates 


1921 


251 


* 


189 




1922 


368 


* 


292 


'*5 


1923 


447 


400 


357 


30 


1924 


620 


541 


480 


30 


1925 


862 


741 


662 


32 


1926 


974 


850 


769 


58 


1927 


1,157 


1,000 


907 


97 


1928 


1,332 


1,137 


1,046 


117 


1929 


1,610 


1,451 


1,344 


121 


1930 


1,953 


1,725 


1,609 


169 


1931 


2,230 


2,001 


1,842 


192 



Average number belonging not available before 1923. 

For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330-335. 



1931 



Report 



OF State Department of Education 



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Growth in Colored High School Enrollment, Teachers, Salaries 179 

The county colored high schools, which have been showing 
steady growth each year reached their maximum in 1931 with 
an enrollment of 2,230, an average number belonging of 2,001, 
and an average attendance of 1,842. (See Table 134.) 

There were 192 four-year graduates from the colored high 
schools in 1931, an increase of 23 over the 169 who graduated in 
1930. The number of graduates is comparatively small, but 
since several of the high schools which formerly offered only a 
two- or three-year high school course are now offering the fourth 
year, a greater increase in the number of four-year high school 
graduates within the next few years may be expected. It is 
from this group, of course, that the Bowie Normal School must 
draw its student body. (See Table 134.) 

(For graduates by counties, see Table 138, page 181.) 

A comparison of the colored high school enrollment, high school 
teachers and salary expenditures for 1931 with corresponding 
figures for 1920, 1925 and 1930 shows the great strides made in 
the development of the county colored high schools. In 1920 a 
high school education was available in only 4 counties to less 
than 200 colored pupils for whom 13 teachers were employed at 
a salary cost of less than $10,000. By 1925 there were high 
schools open in 15 counties offering their advantages to 862 col- 
ored children, with 43 teachers employed and salary expenditures 
of $33,500. By 1931 the high school enrollment had increased 
twelve times since 1920 and there were 80 teachers employed at 
a salary expense of $70,000, nearly 8 times the amount in 1920. 
The growth in high school population, teaching staff and salary 
cost is, of course, more marked in counties which have a large 
negro population than in the other counties, but commendable 
growth in the development of high school opportunities is ap- 
parent in all of the counties, except Howard and St. Mary's. (See 
Table 135.) 

TABLE 136 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number Belonging 
in Colored Elementary and High Schools, Combined for School Years Ending in 
June 1924, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



County 1924 1929 1930 1931 

County Average 2.0 5.6 6.6 7.5 

Allegany 11.9 13.9 17.8 22.2 

Wicomico 6.0 11.9 13.3 15.3 

Talbot 3.0 11.1 12.6 12.8 

Washington 10.9 12.0 12.6 

Caroline 2.3 5.6 7.8 10.8 

Dorchester 4.7 5.9 7.7 10.1 

Somerset 1.6 8.1 9.9 9.8 

Frederick 6.7 9.8 10.4 8.9 

Cecil 7.2 8.8 8.7 

Kent 3.0 8.5 9.3 8.7 



County 1924 1929 1930 1931 

Prince George's 1.5 5.9 6.9 8.5 

Worcester 6.3 8.0 8.3 

Charles 1.8 4.1 5.0 6.7 

Motgomery 4.0 5.4 6.4 

Anne Arundel 2.5 6.4 6.3 6.1 

Carroll 4.0 4.2 4.9 5.9 

Queen Anne's 2.0 1.9 3.4 4.3 

Harford 4.2 

Calvert 2.4 4.1 

Baltimore City 9.2 *10.2 *10.0 *10.1 

State 4.7 7.6 8.2 8.7 



* Includes Baltimore County pupils attending high school in Baltimore City, whose tuition is paid 
by the Baltimore County Board of Education. 



180 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Another way of evaluating the importance of the high school 
is to find the ratio between the number of pupils in high schools 
and the number of pupils in high and elementary schools com- 
bined. The ratio for colored children in the Maryland counties 
is 7.5 per cent, .9 more than in 1930, and in Baltimore City 10.1, 
a .1 per cent increase over last year. Since 78 pupils from Balti- 
more County are included in the Baltimore City junior and senior 
high schools which they attend, the county ratios appear slightly 
lower and those for Baltimore City higher than they actually 
should be. (See Table 136.) 

Of the total colored enrollment, from 22 to 10 per cent was 
found in high schools in Allegany, Wicomico, Talbot, Washing- 
ton, Caroline and Dorchester Counties, while in Queen Anne^s, 
Harford, and Calvert, which did not have four-year schools, the 
corresponding percentages were less than 5. All but 5 counties 
with high schools showed a greater proportion in high school in 
1931 than in 1930, and in only Frederick, which decreased from 
10.4 to 8.9, and in Kent where the reduction was .6 per cent, was 
the decrease large enough to be worth noting. (See Table 136.) 

DECREASE IN PER CENT OF HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

Since the percentage of attendance in the county colored high 
schools was over 93 in 1930, a decrease in the 1931 attendance 
was perhaps to be expected. The per cent of attendance in 1931 
(92) was a decrease of 1.3 per cent under 1930. The percentages 
ranged from under 90 per cent in Somerset, Queen Anne's, Cal- 
vert and Dorchester to over 95 per cent in Anne Arundel. Only 
5 counties showed improvement in the per cent of high school 
attendance over 1930, the most marked instances being in Mont- 
gomery and Carroll, which showed increases of 4.2 and 6.5 per 
cent, respectively. (See Table 137.) 

TABLE 137 

Per Cent of Attendance in County Colored High Schools, for School Years Ending in 
June 1923, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County 


1923 


1929 


1930 


1931 


County Average . . 


89. 


3 


92. 


6 


93.3 


92. 









91.4 


93.3 


92.3 
















Talbot 


87.3 


94.7 


93.8 


91.9 


Anne Arundel .... 


88. 


9 


91. 


5 


94.7 


95, 


4 


Charles 


, , , 88.4 


89.2 


91.9 


90.6 




90. 


5 


93. 


6 

,9 


94.0 


94. 


9 










90.6 




90 


.5 


93. 


94.1 


94. 


,6 




, 85.6 


87.3 


92.2 


90.4 


Allegany 


93 


. 5 


94 


.5 


95.6 


94 


.1 






94.6 


91.3 


89.6 


Kent 


86 


.3 


91 


,2 


95.5 


93 


. 5 


Queen Anne's .... 




92.1 


87.2 


87.4 


Prince George's . . . 






90 


.3 


94.4 


93. 


4 


Calvert 




90.7 


85.6 


Washington 






97 


.4 


94.2 


93 


.0 


Dorchester 


■ "s7'a 


94^8 


94.6 


85.5 


Cecil 






90 


.9 


94.0 


92 


.8 


















93. 


.5 


88.4 


92 


.6 


Baltimore City. . . 


88.8 


90.3 


91.3 


91.1 


Carroll 






85 


.9 


86.1 


92 


,6 




























State Average 


, ,88.9 


91.3 


92.0 


91.5 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table VI, page 300. 



Importance of High School; % of Attendance; Graduates 181 



INCREASE IN FOUR- YEAR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

There were 192 graduates, 77 boys and 115 girls, who com- 
pleted the work of the four-year county colored high schools in 
1931, an increase of 23 over the corresponding figure of 169 
shown in 1930. Anne Arundel, Wicomico and Talbot counties 
had the largest number of graduates with 27, 24, and 21, respec- 
tively. While Anne Arundel showed a decrease of 13 under the 
40 graduates reported in 1930, Talbot had 12 more graduates 
than in the preceding year. Increases in number of high school 

TABLE 138 

1931 Colored County Four- Year High School Graduates and Those Who Entered 
Bowie Normal School in September, 1931 



County 

Carroll 

Prince George's 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Charles 

Worcester 

Anne Arundel 

Frederick 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Allegany 

Montgomery 

Washington 

Caroline 

Total 

Per Cent 

Baltimore City 

Princess Anne Academy 

Washington, D, C 

Graduates of preceding years: 

Kent 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 

Bowie High 

Baltimore City 

Princess Anne Academy 

Ocean City, N. J 

Experienced Teacher 

Completing First Quarter of Junior 

Work 

Grand Total 



1931 Four- Year Junior Enrollment 
Graduates Bowie Normal School 

1931 



Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


2 


2 


5 


12 


i 


6 


15 


6 


5 


2 


4 


2 


2 






6 




2 




4 




1 


'8 


19 


3 


3 


5 


7 


1 


1 


2 


6 




1 


8 


9 


*i 


1 


8 


10 


1 


1 


9 


15 






3 


6 






4 


5 






5 


3 






1 


3 






77 


115 


14 


20 






18.2 


17.4 



4 
2 
2 



1 

1 

2 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 1 
1 1 

18 37 



For individual high schools, see Table XXXVI, pages 330 to 335. 



182 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



graduates occurred in 6 counties, 2 counties showed no change 
from the 1930 .figures, and 5 counties had decreases under the 
preceding year. Graduates from Montgomery and Worcester ap- 
peared for the first time in 1931. The county figures naturally 
exclude the Baltimore county high school pupils who graduated 
from the colored high school in Baltimore City. (See Table 
138.) 

COURSES AND SUBJECTS OFFERED IN COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

The academic course was offered in 17 of the 26 county col- 
ored high schools. The 8 high schools in Calvert, Harford, Kent, 
Talbot and Worcester gave the general course. The Caroline Col- 
ored high school was the only one which offered its students both 
the academic and general course. (See Table XXXVI, pages 
330-335.) 

Practically every colored high school pupil received instruction 
in English, 96 per cent were enrolled in classes in mathematics 
and 94 per cent took a course in the social studies. In only '6 
counties, Anne Arundel, Cecil, and Montgomery, did less than 90 
per cent of the high school pupils enroll in courses in mathe- 
matics, and in all the counties except Anne Arundel, Cecil and 
Montgomery, over 95 per cent of the pupils were enrolled for the 
social studies. Courses in science were taken by 77 per cent of 
the colored high school pupils, in all of the high schools except the 
one in Washington County, which offers work in the social 
studies, and science in alternate years. Just over one-fifth of 
the high school pupils received instruction in Latin, which was 
offered in the colored high schools of 11 counties, and about 5 per 
cent were enrolled in French classes which were available in 
Allegany, Frederick, and Montgomery County colored high 
schools. (See Table XXXVII, pages 336-341.) 

Courses in manual training were given to the boys in 11 of 
the 26 high schools. These schools enrolled 42 per cent of the 
colored high school boys. Home Economics was taken by 70 per 
cent of the colored high school girls. It was available in 16 high 
schools and in 14 of these schools every girl was enrolled for 
home economics instruction. A class in vocational agriculture for 
27 boys was started at the Denton High School, and one at the 
Marlboro High School was continued for 26 boys. Only 5 col- 
ored high schools enrolling 167 boys and 210 girls, or less than 
20 per cent of the total colored high school enrollment, gave in- 
struction in music for which credit could be offered. (See Table 
XXXVII, pages 336-341.) 



High School Courses and Subjects; Occupations of Graduates 183 



OCCUPATIONS OF 1930 HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Of the 63 boys who graduated from the county colored high 
schools in June, 1930, 18 entered colleges or universities and 11 
registered at normal schools in the fall of 1930. Five of these 
boys went to Morgan College and 2 to Princess Anne Junior Col- 
lege. These 29 boys comprised 46 per cent of the boy graduates, 
a slightly smaller percentage than that shown for the preceding 
year. Of the 106 girls who completed the high school course in 
1930, 13 enrolled at colleges, 32 entered normal schools, 3 were 
studying nursing, 3 took commercial courses and 1 returned to 
high school as a post-graduate. Of the girls going to colleges, 8 
went to Morgan College. These 52 girls included 49 per cent of 
the girls graduated, an increase of 12 per cent over the 37 per 
cent continuing their education during 1929-30. Other occupa- 
tions reported by principals showed 10 girls married, 11 boys and 
34 girls either staying or working at home, and the remaining 23 
boys and 10 girls working on farms, in factories, or at various 
other jobs. 

SUMMER SCHOOLS AND EVENING SCHOOLS FOR ADULTS 

Baltimore City had summer schools for pupils who wished to 
review work or do advanced work, and had a program of evening 
school work for adults. Anne Arundel was the only county which 
had work for colored adults. This consisted of evening continua- 
tion classes at the Stanton High School for cooks, waiters and 
waitresses, at the Naval Academy. (See Table 112, page 147.) 

THE BALTIMORE CITY COLORED SCHOOLS 

There were 23,452 pupils enrolled in the colored public schools 
of Baltimore City during the school year 1930-31. Of this num- 
ber, 18,725 attended the elementary schools, 3,218 were enrolled 
in the junior high schools (grades 7, 8, and 9), and 1,509 were 
in senior high schools. The schools were open approximately 195 
days, with 87.5 per cent of attendance in the elementary schools 
and 91.1 per cent in the high schools. In addition to the regular 
elementary and junior high schools, there was a colored voca- 
tional school for boys and one for girls, which enrolled 181 boys 
and 97 girls, respectively. These schools offered courses in trades 
and industries to the boys, and conducted classes in tea-room 
service, sewing and cooking for the girls. Baltimore City also 
organized 8 special classes for 202 physically handicapped col- 
ored children and had 10 centers for 197 mentally defective col- 
ored children. (See Table 39, page 52.) 

Seven schools in which 56 teachers were employed were open 
during the summer of 1931 for the instruction of 3,249 colored 
children. Of these 2,665 completed the work they set out to do, 
2,437 having taken review work, and 228 having done advanced 
work. (See Table 167, page 223.) 



184 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The Baltimore City evening schools enabled those who were 
employed during the day to continue their education after work- 
ing hours. The colored evening school enrollment of 3,190 in- 
cluded 1,478 in elementary classes, 535 taking high school courses, 
and 1,177 receiving vocational training in commercial, industrial 
and home economics classes. (See Table 168, page 224.) 

BETTER TRAINED TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

Well-equipped buildings with large classrooms have no effect 
in educating children unless capable, well-trained teachers are 
employed who can effectively utilize them. Since the teacher has 
the greatest influence on the efficiency of a school, it is most im- 
portant to fill all vacancies with teachers who have been care- 
fully trained in their profession, and to see that the experienced 
teachers already in the school take advantage of the summer 
school courses offered each year. 

The minimum requirements for a first grade certificate in 
Maryland, the only certificate now issued to a prospective ele- 
mentary teacher, are graduation from a two-year normal school, 
or the equivalent, and attendance at summer school once in every 
four years for the renewal of the certificate after it has first been 
issued. In October, 1931, 687 colored elementary school teachers 
or 94.5 per cent of the colored teachers employed held regular 
first grade certificates. This is not only an increase of 3.5 per 
cent over the 91 per cent of the colored teachers who met the re- 
quirements for first grade certification in October, 1930, but is 
exactly the same proportion of trained teachers that was shown 
in the white elementary schools in October, 1930. In 1931 no 
provisional or emergency certificates were issued to colored ele- 
mentary school teachers. There were only 33 teachers with sec- 
ond grade regular certificates and 6 teachers with third grade 
certificates. (See Table X, page 304.) 

Every colored elementary school teacher in Allegany, Carroll, 
Dorchester, Kent and Montgomery counties held a regular first 
grade certificate and in only 5 counties did less than 90 per cent 
of the colored elementary teachers fail to meet the requirements 
for first grade certification. (See Table X, page 304.) 

Of the 90 high school teachers employed, all but 9 held regular 
high school certificates. (See Table X, page 304.) 

SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 

There were 272 summer school attendants in 1931, or 33.4 per 
cent of the county colored teaching staff in service in October, 
1931, an increase of 5.2 over the 28.2 per cent reported as sum- 
mer school attendants in 1930. The percentage of summer school 
attendants varied from 20 per cent or below in Allegany, Queen 
Anne's, Cecil and St. Mary's to one-half or more of the colored 
teachers in Caroline and Frederick. Carroll was the only county 



Certification and Summer School Attendance of Colored Teachers 185 



in which no teacher took a summer school course in 1931. In- 
creases in the per cent attending summer school over 1930 were 
found in all but 8 counties. (See Table 139.) 



TABLE 139 

County Colored Teachers in Service in October, 1931, Reported by County 
Superintendents as Summer School Attendants in 1931 



County 



Teachers Employed 
Oct., 1931, Who 
Attended Summer 
School. 1931 



Number 



Per Cent 



Summer Schools Attended 



Number 
of County 
Colored 
Teachers 



Total 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Kent 

Howard 

Charles 

Prince George's 

Wicomico 

Dorchester .... 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Montgomery. . . 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel . . 

Harford 

Washington . . . 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Queen Anne's . . 

Cecil 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 



n272 

19 
a*15 
aU 
8 

?>*19 
a*34 
18 
b*19 
15 
al7 
*9 
*15 
16 
c*21 
o7 
3 

a*8 

2 
a4 

3 
6 



33.4 

57.6 
50.0 
45.2 
44.4 
41.3 
40.0 
39.1 
38.8 
35.7 
34.0 
33.3 
31.3 
28.6 
26.9 
26.9 
21.4 
20.5 
20.0 
19.0 
18.8 
17.1 



Total 

Hampton Institute 

Morgan College 

Columbia University 

St. Paul Normal School 

Howard University 

University of Pennsylvania 

Temple University 

Petersburg State College 

University of Pittsburgh 

Shippensburg State Teachers' College 

West Virginia State College 

Virginia State College 

All Others 



tt272 

def 165}i 
bf* *60}4 
*12 
e4H 

4 

4 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

9 



t Excludes nine supervisors. 

* Excludes a supervisor. 

X Fifteen took a twelve weeks' course. 

a Includes one who took a twelve weeks' course. 

b Includes two who took a twelve weeks' course. 

c Includes four who took a twelve weeks' course. 

d Excludes sLx supervisors. 

e Thirteen took a twelve weeks' course. 

/ One took courses at both Hampton Institute and Morgan College. 

g One took courses at both Virginia State Teachers College and St. Paul Normal School. 

Hampton Institute attracted the largest number of summer 
school attendants among the Maryland county colored teachers — 
166. Morgan College drew the next largest number, 61, and 
Columbia ranked third with 12. Fifteen of the teachers at- 
tended summer school for 12 weeks. In addition to the teach- 
ers included in Table 139, there were 9 colored supervisors who 
took courses at Hampton Institute and Morgan College. (See 
Table 139.) 

RESIGNATIONS AND TEACHER TURNOVER IN COLORED 

SCHOOLS 

Between the end of the school year 1929-30 and the end of the 
year 1930-31, there were 170 teachers who were dismissed or who 



186 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



resigned from the county colored elementary schools and 16 who 
left the colored high schools. These figures exclude teachers on 
leave of absence during 1930-31, or teachers who transferred to 
another county. (See Table 140.) 



TABLE 140 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of County Colored Teachers from Maryland County 
Schools, June, 1929, to June, 1930, and June, 1930, to June, 1931 





Elementary School 


High School 


Causes of Resignation 


1930 


1931 


1930 


1931 




Number 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Number 


Inefficiency 


65 


74 


43 


5 


6 


9 


Illness 


17 


19 


11 


2 




1 


Teaching in another state 


19 


17 


10 





2 


Marriage 


9 


12 


7 


1 


2 


2 


Work other than teaching 


2 


12 


7 









Dropped for low certificate or 










failure to attend summer school . . 


16 


9 


5 


3 


1 


2 


Death 


4 


7 


4 


1 


2 




Retirement 


6 
8 


2 


1 


2 






Teaching in Baltimore Citv 


1 




6 




1 






1 




6 








22 


16 


9 


4 


1 


1 


Total 


168 


170 


100 





14 


16 


Leave of absence 


9 


12 


7 


1 




1 


Transfer to another county 


28 


27 


15 


9 


12 


6 



Inefficiency, the principal cause for the dismissal of teachers 
from the colored schools, was given for 74 elementary and 9 high 
school teachers. This included those who were incapable of meet- 
ing the standard of work required and also those whose personal 
conduct was unethical. Nineteen teachers resigned froni the ele- 
mentary schools because of illness, 17 left to take positions in 
other states, and 12 left for marriage or to do work other than 
teaching. The number of resignations from the colored schools 
in 1931 showed little change from the number reported in 1930. 
(See Table 140.) 

Throughout the school year 1930-31, there were 227 colored 
teachers new to the county colored schools. These, together with 
33 teachers who transferred from one Maryland county to an- 
other and therefore were new to the county to which they trans- 
ferred, comprised 30.8 per cent of the entire colored teaching 
staff. The number and per cent of turnover indicated scarcely 
any variation from the figures shown in 1930. The turnover in 
the counties ranged from under 10 per cent in Queen Anne's and 
Allegany to nearly one half in Somerset, Caroline, and St. Mary's, 
and 75 per cent in Carroll. 



Resignations and Turnover of Colored Teachers 



187 



Of the 260 teachers new to the counties in which they were 
teaching in 1931, 176, or more than two-thirds, were inexperi- 
enced, 33 had had prior experience in Maryland schools but were 
not in service in 1929-30, 14 had had experience in other states, 
33 teachers left one county to take positions in other counties, 
and 4 were substitutes. Baltimore, Frederick, Cecil, and Wicom- 
ico were the only counties which added to their staffs more expe- 
rienced than inexperienced teachers. (See Table 141.) 

TABLE 141 



Number and Per Cent of County Colored Teachers New to Maryland Counties, 
October, 1930, Through June, 1931, Showing Those Inexperienced, Experienced 
and from Other Counties 



County 


New to 
County 


Change 
in 

Number 
of 

Teaching 
Positions 
Oct., 1929 
to 


New to County who were 


Num- 
ber 


Per 

cent 


Inexperi- 
enced 


Experi- 
enced 
but New 
to 
State 


Experi- 
enced in 
Maryland 
Counties 
but not 
Teaching 
1929-1930 


From 
Other 
Counties 


Substi- 
tutes 


Total and Av., 1931 


t260 


30.8 


+13 


176 


14 


33 


33 


4 


Total and Av., 1930 


*259 


30.7 


+4 


174 


4 


5 


40 






2 


8.7 


-1 


2 










Allegany 


1 


9.1 
















7 


13.5 


+i 


"i 




"i 


5 




Frederick 


5 


14.7 


-1 


2 




1 


2 




Prince George's. . . . 


dl6 


18.6 




clO 


o2 


2 


1 




Kent 


6 


18.8 


+1 


4 




1 


1 




Cecil 


4 


23.5 






3 


1 






el2 


24.5 


+2 


dk 


i 


2 


1 




Harford 


o7 


25.9 


+1 


2 


ol 


1 


2 




Anne Arundel 


a21 


27.6 


+1 


14 


1 


4 


a2 




Washington 


a4 


28.6 




2 






a2 




Charles 


ol4 


30.4 


+i 


alO 


2 


i 


1 






615 


30.6 


+1 


rt9 


a2 


3 


1 






6 


31.6 


+1 


4 




1 


1 




Talbot 


bio 


38.5 


al2 




2 


al 




Worcester 


619 


41.3 


+1 


all 


2 


1 


ab 




Dorchester 


d22 


41.5 


+3 


cl6 


2 




a4 




Calvert 


12 


44.4 




olO 




i 








c27 


47.4 


+2 


621 




3 


a2 






cl5 


48.4 


-1 


cl5 










St. Mary's 


18 


48.6 




14 




4 






Carroll 


612 


75.0 


+i 


69 




2 


i 





a Includes one high school teacher. 6 Includes two high school teachers, 
c Includes three high school teachers, d Includes four high school teachers, 
c Includes five high school teachers, 
t Includes 32 high school teachers. 
* Includes 38 high school teachers. 



NORMAL SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ATTENDED BY NEWLY 
APPOINTED COLORED TEACHERS 

Of the 154 inexperienced teachers appointed in the county col- 
ored schools for the school year 1930-31, 60 received their train- 
ing at the Bowie State Normal School and 11 at the Fanny Cop- 
pin Normal School in Baltimore City. These 71 teachers com- 



188 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

prised only one half of those employed; the other 50 per cent 
were teachers who were trained at schools outside of Maryland. 
Cheyney Normal School in Pennsylvania trained 20, Miner Nor- 
mal School at Washington, D. C, trained 18, Wilberforce Normal 
School and Dayton Senior Teachers' College in Ohio prepared 11 
and 5 for the Maryland counties, respectively. These, together 
with schools in New Jersey, Indiana, Virginia, Delaware and 
other states contributed the remaining 25 inexperienced teachers 
appointed in the elementary schools. All but one of the experi- 
enced teachers added to the colored teaching staff for the year 
1930-31 were trained in schools outside of Maryland, and in gen- 
eral were graduates of the same schools in which the inexperi- 
enced teachers were trained. (See Table 142.) 



TABLE 142 

Normal School or College Attended by Inexperienced County Colored School 
Teachers and Those with Previous Experience in Other States Who Were New in 
Maryland Counties at the Beginning of or During the Year 1930-31 



School or College 
Attended 



Elementary 
Teachers 
who were 



In- 
experi- 
enced 



Experi 
enced 
but New 
in 
Mary- 
land 
1930-31 



School or College 
Attended 



High School 
Teachers 
who were 



In- 
experi- 
enced 



Experi- 
enced 
but New 
in 
Mary- 
land 
1930-31 



Total , 



Bowie N. S., Bowie, Md 

Fanny Coppin N. S., Balto., Md, 
Cheyney N. S., Chevney, Pa. . . 
Philadelphia N. S., Phila., Pa. . 
Other Pennsylvania Schools. . . 

Miner N. S., Wash., D. C 

Wilberforce N. S., Wilberforce, 

Ohio 

Dayton Jr. Teachers' College, 

Dayton, Ohio 

Glassboro N. S., Glassboro, N. J. 
New Jersey S. T. C, Newark, 

P«*N. J 

Indiana S. N. S., Terre Haute, 

•iilnd 

Indiana Univ., Bloomington, 

Wind 

Hampton Inst., Hampton, Va. 

Delaware Normal Schools 

West Va. St. Coll., Institute. 

►*W. Va 

Schools in 8 Other States 



Total 

Morgan College, Balto., Md. . 
Howard Univ., Wash., D. C. . . 
Hampton Inst., Hampton, Va 

Lincoln Univ., Pa 

Temple Univ., Phila., Pa 

Va. State Teachers' College . . , 

Unknown 



Of the 24 colored high school teachers new to Maryland coun- 
ties in 1930-31, 9 were graduates of Morgan College, 6 were 
trained at Howard University, and 4 received degrees from 
Hampton Institute. 



Training of Newly Appointed Colored Teachers ; Experience 189 



St 

o 



ootuiooiw^ 



C-. ^ t-Z ^ ■» ■ --1 — u-cC-HiO 



X L-: ^1 



:^3saacaos 



CO 



»o O 



;5j3nio3:^noi^ 



» CO 
CO 



pjB.«.OJJ 



— !N • — • -I 



<X) o 
U5 



-1 M ^^ .-c 



CO 



31 



XX o -T-cc-c — X •^^[co lO 



CO ~ ■ — > — 



CO [ 00 



1-^ 



IN 



O I O 
X 



t>. X 



I" - 



0-'iNc»;rj<i.';«t>.XCi 



— — (NO 

— — C^N 



190 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



EXPERIENCE OF COLORED TEACHERS 

The median teaching experience for 814 colored teachers in 
service in the Maryland counties in October, 1931, is 3.9 years, 
an increase of .4 over the preceding year. The higher median 
indicates not only that there will be a decrease in turnover for 
1931-32, but also a reduction in the number of inexperienced 
teachers employed, 98 m contrast with 159 inexperienced teach- 
ers appointed in October, 1930. All of the counties, except Alle- 
gany, Harford, St. Mary's, and Washington, showed an increase 
in the median experience of their teaching staff. The median 
years of experience ranged from under 2 years in Caroline, Car- 
roll, and Somerset to more than 6 years in Baltimore, Harford, 
Montgomery, Prince George's, and Washington counties. 

In October, 1931, those teachers with one year of experience 
included the largest proportion of the colored teaching staff, for 
the first time displacing the number of inexperienced teachers 
which formed the next highest group. If the supervision is effec- 
tive, the continuance in service of a larger proportion of teachers 
should bring better results in instruction than was possible in 
former years with a larger turnover in the teaching staff. (See 
Table 143.) 



INCREASE IN NUMBER OF MEN TEACHERS 

There were 118 men teachers employed in the county colored 
schools for the school year ending in 1931. This number com- 
prised 14.4 per cent of the total number of colored teachers, 
which is 1.2 per cent more than were in service during 1930. The 
men are generallj^ employed in the upper grades or as principals 
of the elementary schools, and in the high schools. (See Table 
144.) 

TABLE 144 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 

Year Number Per Cent Year Number Per Cent 

1923 135 18.3 1928 93 11.8 

1924 129 16.9 1929 104 13.0 

1925 126 16.5 1930 106 13.2 

1926 108 14.0 1931 118 14.4 

1927 107 13.8 



The percentage of men employed in the colored schools varied 
considerably. In 1931, Howard employed no men teachers, and 
in Calvert, Charles, Prince George's, St. Mary's, and Montgom- 
ery, the number of men employed in the colored schools com- 
prised less than 10 per cent of the teaching staff. On the other 
hand, more than 20 per cent of the colored teachers were men in 
Dorchester, Wicomico, Talbot, Harford, and Carroll. (See Table 
145.) 



Experience and Sex of Colored Teachers; Size of Class 191 



TABLE 145 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers Employed in County Colored Schools for 

Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



COUNTY 



Men Teaching 



Number Per Cent 



Total and Average . 



Howard 

Calvert 

Charles 

Prince George's. 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery. . . 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Somerset 



.17.8 



14.4 



3.7 
6.8 
7.3 
7.5 
8.5 
10.0 
10.7 
11.8 
12.5 



Anne Arundel 

Kent 

Washington . . 

Frederick 

Worcester ... 
Queen Anne's 
Baltimore. . . 
Dorchester. . . 
Wicomico. . . . 

Talbot 

Harford 

Carroll 



10.2 
4.2 
2 

5.2 

8 

4 
10 
11 
11 

9.2 

7.4 

6 



For counties arran^red alphabetically, see Table IX, page 303. 



AVERAGE SIZE OF CLASS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

SLIGHTLY LARGER 

The average number of pupils belonging per teacher in county 
colored elementary schools increased by .3 to 33.3 in 1931. The 
counties ranged from 41.2 pupils per teacher in Allegany to 25.5 
in Carroll. All but 9 counties showed an increase in size of 
class. The most marked increases were found in Allegany, Queen 
Anne's, Harford, and Caroline, and the largest reductions in 
size of class appeared in Dorchester and Kent. The average 
number of pupils per teacher in Baltimore City elementary 
schools, including kindergartens, the special classes and the 
teachers of special subjects, but excluding grades 7 and 8 in 
junior high schools and pupils in the vocational schools, num- 
bered 35.1, identical with the corresponding number for 1930. 
The slight increase in the average number belonging per teacher 
in the county schools made the average number of colored pupils 
per teacher in the State as a whole 34.2. (See Chart 24 and 
Table XIV, page 308.) 

A check of the average attendance in the colored elementary 
schools for 1931 showed that the attendance at each of 35 schools 
justified the employment of at least one additional teacher. All 
of the counties, except Allegany, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Har- 
ford, and Washington, had from 1 to 7 schools which were en- 
titled to additional teachers. There were 7 such schools in Mont- 
gomery, 6 in Charles, 3 each in Baltimore and Calvert, and 1 or 
2 in the remaining 12 counties. In practically every case, it was 
because of lack of classrooms that these schools were under- 
staffed. 



192 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 
CHART 24 



AVERAGE NUMBER BELONGING PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1929 


1950 


Co. Average 


35.3 


55.0 


Allegany 


41.4 


57.5 


Calvert 


38.5 


59.3 


Baltimore 


34.6 


36.8 


Montgomery 


36.6 


37.5 


Anne Arundel 


36.6 


56.9 


Pr. George's 


36.7 


35.3 


Queen Anne's 


34.4 


33.5 


Charles 


34.9 


54.9 


Worcester 


35.8 


55.1 


Wicomico 


54.5 


55.8 


Caroline 


29.9 


31.5 


Somerset 


54.8 


52.5 


St. Mary's 


29.9 


50.1 


Talbot 


dc.4 


OU.D 


Harford 


27.4 


27.2 


Howard 


31.2 


29.5 


Frederick 


27.2 


27.6 


Cecil 


27.7 


27.6 


Kent 


28.5 


29.0 


Dorchester 


29.4 


28.7 


Washington 


29.1 


27.9 


Carroll 


25.0 


25.8 


Balto. City 


56.7 


55.1 


State 


54.5 


33.9 




For counties arranged alphabetically see Table XIV, page 308. 

The average number of pupils per teacher in colored high 
schools was 25.2, an increase of .2 over the 1930 figure. The 
ratio of pupils to teachers varied from over 30 in Calvert, 
Charles, Dorchester, and Worcester, to 9.1 in Carroll and 7.2 
in Harford. Increases in number belonging per teacher in the 
colored high schools appeared in 10 counties from 1930 to 1931. 
The most significant increases occurred in Calvert, Charles, Caro- 
line, and Montgomery Counties. (See Table XXXV, page 329. 
For average number belonging per teacher, with the counties 
arranged in alphabetical order, see Table XIV, page 308.) 



« 



Size of Class, Average Salary in County Colored Schools 193 

AVERAGE SALARY PER COLORED TEACHER INCREASES 

The average salary for a teacher employed in a Maryland 
county colored elementary school for the year 1930-31 was $643, 
$8 more than in 1930. There has been a steady increase in the 
average annual salary per teacher since 1917, resulting from 
the employment of a constantly larger proportion of trained and 
of experienced teachers. (See Table 146.) 

TABLE 146 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1931 



Year Ending Average Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 1925 $546 

1918 279 1926 563 

1919 283 1927 586 

1920 359 1928 602 

1921 442 1929 621 

1922 455 1930 635 

1923 513 1931 643 

1924 532 



In the counties the average salary per teacher varied consid- 
erably, depending on the salary schedules in effect in the indi- 
vidual counties and the length of the school year. Allegany and 
Baltimore Counties have the highest average salaries per teacher, 
$1,186 and $1,102, respectively. Washington, Prince George's, 
and Cecil, which rank next in the order named, keep their col- 
ored schools open longer than the 8 months required by law and 
thus pay their teachers higher salaries than those having the 
minimum session, since the salaries for colored teachers are fixed 
on a monthly basis. The remaining counties, which adhere 
rather closely to the minimum monthly salary schedule for eight 
months, vary only in the proportion of trained and experienced 
teachers employed. Five counties had average salaries under 
$550. Increases in average salary in 1931 over 1930 were found 
in all the counties except Allegany, Washington, Anne Arundel, 
Howard, and Talbot. The increased average salary in Baltimore 
City of $1,838 made the average salary in the State as a whole 
$1,188, an increase of $75 over the corresponding figure for last 
year. (See Chart 25.) (For average salary per teacher for 
the counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 309.) 

The average salary per principal and teacher for 1930-31 in the 
county colored high schools was $882, and ranged from $1,692, 
$1,250 and $1,064, in Allegany, Washington, and Anne Arundel, 
respectively, to below $750 in Wicomico, Somerset, Worcester, 
and Dorchester. As in the elementary schools, salaries in the 
high schools vary with the length of the school year, salary 
schedule, and training and experience of the teachers employed. 
(See Tables XV and XXXV, pages 309 and 329.) 



194 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 25 



AVERAGE SALARY PER TEACHER IN COLORED ELQJENrARY SCHOOLS 



County 


1928 


1929 


1930 


Co. Average 


Z 602 e 621 $ 635 


BsLXtiJiiore 


1184 


1175 


1181 


Allegany 


1063 


1197 


1220 


Hm3 YlA n crf.Qn 


792 


787 


817 




680 


704 


710 




699 


716 


697 


nan oru 


616 


620 


651 




556 


573 


627 


Anne Arundel 


586 


615 


637 


Carroll 


557 


604 


581 


Kent 


676 


585 


571 


Frederick 


552 


554 


567 


Wicomico 


557 


562 


567 


Calvert 


544 


546 


563 


Caroline 


484 


524 


537 


Charles 


518 


528 


543 


Queen Anne's 


509 


532 


635 


Howard 


559 


562 


567 


St. Maiy»s 


474 


516 


533 


Talbot 


634 


536 


544 


Dorchester 


487 


499 


525 


Worcester 


486 


516 


530 


Somerset 


472 


516 


517 


Balto. City* 


1510 


1698 


1707 


State 


985 


1007 


1U3 




1 .va -1 


5 




c 


69 1 


1 1 




^ 





♦Includes $ 1779 for elementary, $ 2068 for Junior high, and $ 1989 for 
vocational teachers in 1931. 

For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XV, page 309. 

The median salary paid to a county colored elementary school 
teacher in October, 1931, was $600, just $40 higher than in 1930. 
Only 25 teachers in 1931, as against 46 in 1930, received salaries 
under $520, the minimum salary for a teacher holding a regular 
first grade certificate, showing that teachers with second and 
third grade certificates are being replaced by trained teachers. 
There were 47 colored elementary teachers and principals whose 
salaries ranged between $1,000 and $1,700. (See Table 147.) 



/ 



Salaries and Cost per Pupil in County Colored Schools 



195 



TABLE 147 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland Counties, 

October, 1931 



elementary schools 



Salary No. Salary 

Under $520. .. . 25 $1,120., 

$ 520 228 1,160.. 

1,200. . 
1,240. . 
1,280. . 
1,320. , 
1,360. , 
1,400. . 



560. 

600. 

640. 

680. 

720. 

760. 

800. 

840, 

880. 

920. 

960. 
1,000. 
1,040. 
1,080. 



83 
91 
30 
84 
64 
24 
9 
30 
1 
4 
6 
3 
3 



1,500. 
1,700. 

Total . . 



Median 



No. 

6 
4 
13 
3 
1 
2 



3 

726 
•1600 



HIGH SCHOOLS 



Salary 



No. 



Salary 



Under $600 *2 $1,240 



.... 13 
.... 6 
.... 12 
.... 11 
.... 11 
1 
2 

.... 5 
.... 4 

1,000 5 

1,040 4 

1,080 

1,120 1 

1,160 2 

1,200 3 



640. 
680. 
720. 
760. 
800. 
840. 
880. 
920. 
960. 



1,280. 
1,320. 
1,360. 
1,400. 
1,440. 
1,480. 
1,520. 
1,560. 



1,860. 
Total . . 



Median 



No. 
1 



$800 



* Includes a music teacher at $5.00 per diem. 

According to the distribution of salaries paid to county col- 
ored high school teachers in October, 1931, the median salary- 
was found to be $800, the same amount as in 1930. Only 2 
teachers were paid salaries under $600, 1 holding a provisional 
certificate, and the other being a part-time music teacher. Sal- 
aries ranged from $600 to $1,860. (See Table 147.) 



COST PER COLORED PUPIL FOR CURRENT EXPENSES 

The average current expenditure per pupil in the county col- 
ored elementary schools in 1931 was $25.09, an increase of 7 
cents over the current expense cost per pupil in 1930. Costs in 
the individual counties varied from $41.67 in Baltimore County 
to approximately $19 in Somerset, Calvert, and Charles. Just as 
in 1930, Baltimore, Washington, Cecil, Carroll, Allegany, and 
Harford were the only counties in which the per pupil cost ex- 
ceeded $30. Increases in cost per pupil occurred in 13 counties, 
as compared with corresponding figures for the preceding year. 
Increases of $1.68 to $2.22 appeared in Cecil, Washington, Dor- 
chester, Carroll, and St. Mary's counties. (See Chart 26 and 
Table XXXIV, page 328.) 

The 9 counties which ranked highest in 1931 in per pupil cost, 
with amounts of $26 or more, ranked among the first 11 coun- 
ties in average salary per teacher. This is to be expected, since 
teachers' salaries constitute the major portion of the current ex- 



196 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 26 



COST PER PUPIL BELONGING IN COLORED ELEMENTilRI SCHOOLS 
FOR CURRENT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GENERAL CONTROL 



1931 




Baltimore City* 66 
State 43 



For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 176, page 238. 

penditures and therefore have the greatest effect on per pupil 
cost. The size of the average class and the length of the school 
year are also important factors in determining high or low per 
pupil costs. 

The average current expense cost per colored high school pupil 
belonging in 1931 was $47, slightly over $1 more than in 1930. 
Costs in the individual counties varied from $108 in Carroll, to 



Cost per Pupil and Transportation of Colored Pupils 197 

slightly less than $29 in Dorchester. The cost per high school 
pupil exceeded $60 in Carroll, Allegany, Caroline, Cecil and 
Washington. Increases of $10 or more were found in Carroll, 
Queen Anne's and Frederick during 1931. The largest reduc- 
tion in per pupil cost occurred in Calvert, caused by the increased 
enrollment for which no additional teacher was provided. (See 
Table 176, page 238, and for individual schools Table XXXVI, 
pages 330 to 335.) 

There was no colored high school in Baltimore County, but the 
county paid $10,270 for the tuition costs for 52 senior and 26 
junior high school pupils who attended the colored junior-senior 
high schools in Baltimore City. This was more than was spent in 
any other county in the State for colored high school current ex- 
penses. The charge was $150 per senior high school pupil and 
$95 for each junior high school pupil. 

TRANSPORTATION FOR COLORED PUPILS 

There were 478 elementary and 215 high school pupils in 13 
counties transported to 26 colored schools at public expense dur- 
ing the school year 1930-31. Pupils were transported to colored 
elementary schools in 13 counties at a cost to the public and the 
Rosenwald Fund of $12,100, and to colored high schools in 5 
counties at a cost of $5,533. The amounts spent for transporta- 
tion to the colored elementary schools exclude the cost to the 
State of carrying 47 pupils from Anne Arundel to the Bowie 
Normal Demonstration School. (See Table 180, page 243, show- 
ing number of schools to which transportation is provided.) 

The average expenditure per county colored elementary school 
pupil transported was $28, an increase of $2 over 1930, and for 
each colored high school pupil transported, $26, exactly twice the 
amount in 1930. Three counties, Caroline, Queen Anne's and 
Calvert, received aid amounting to $1,383, $450 and $150, re- 
spectively, from the Rosenwald Fund for 6 bus routes established 
in Caroline, and 2 each in Queen Anne's and Calvert. With the 
aid of this stimulus from the Rosenwald Fund, Caroline paid 
the balance of the transportation costs for more than 75 per cent 
of the colored high school pupils, and Calvert carried more than 
twice the number of colored high school children transported in 
1930. 

The per cent of county colored pupils transported to school, 
excluding those carried to the Bowie elementary school at the 
expense of the State, was 2.3, the 13 counties providing such 
transportation varying from transporting 15 per cent of all col- 
ored pupils in Caroline to less than 1 per cent in Dorchester. 
(See Table 179, page 242, showing per cent of pupils transported 
to school.) 



198 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



COLORED SCHOOL LIBRARIES AIDED BY ROSENWALD FUND 

In order to promote and encourage the establishment of libra- 
ries in the colored schools, the directors of the Julius Rosenwald 
Fund have arranged to provide aid for well-chosen school libra- 
ries of 75, 105, and 155 volumes, respectively, at an expense of 
$75-$120, one third to be paid by the Rosenwald Fund, and the 
rest divided equally between the county and the school. Since 
1927-28, the Rosenwald Fund has given aid amounting to $3,990 
to 15 Maryland counties for 32 libraries organized in 30 col- 
ored schools. (See Table 148.) 

TABLE 148 

Names of Schools Receiving Libraries through Aid from the Rosenwald Fund 



Name of School and Year of Receipt of Library 
1927-28 1928-29 1929-30 1930-31 



County 

Anne Arundel 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Frederick 

Harford 

Kent 

Montgomery 
Prince George' 



St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Wicomico 



Federalsburg 



Pomonkey 
Frederick 
Bel Air 
Coleman 
Sandy Spring 
Marlboro 



Easton 

St. Michael's 

Sharptown 



Brown's Woods 
Prince Frederick 

Westminster 
Elkton 



Rockville 
Brentwood 
Berwyn 
Highland Park 
Abell 

Princess Anne 



Nanticoke 
Salisbury 



Chestertown 
Takoma Park 



Hollywood 
Crisfield 



Annapolis 
Mt. Hope 



Lincoln 

Havre de Grace 



Princess Anne 



Sahsbury 



A list of books for high school libraries has recently been 
prepared at the Nashville office, headquarters of the Rosenwald 
Fund for Southern schools, taken from titles submitted to and 
approved by the Southern State Departments of Education. 

Any public colored four-year high school may receive aid from 
the Rosenwald Fund (1) in the purchase of a set of high school 
library books valued at $120 which the Fund will purchase at 
cost, paying one-third of the set plus transportation charges, and 
(2) in addition, one-third of the cost of other books up to a max- 
imum value of $600 selected from the list. Schools desiring to 
qualify under both (1) and (2) would receive a maximum of 
$240 aid toward the purchase of $720 worth of books. 



RosENWALD Aid to Libraries; Capital Outlay in Colored Schools 199 



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RosENWALD Aid to School Buildings for Colored Children 201 

CAPITAL OUTLAY AND ROSENWALD AID IN 1931 

Capital outlay for county colored schools amounted to $123,322 
in 1931, an increase of $51,082 over 1930, and more than was 
spent in any year since 1928. Capital outlay totalled $51,000 in 
Wicomico and about $30,000 in Baltimore County. Since 1920, 
Baltimore and Prince George's have made the largest invest- 
ments in buildings, land and equipment for the promotion of 
colored education. In addition to these 2 counties, Allegany, 
Anne Arundel, Montgomery, Wicomico, and Worcester each has 
had a capital outlay of more than $50,000 in the 12-year period 
from 1920 to 1931, inclusive. (See Table 149.) 

Reimbursement from the Rosenwald Fund amounting to $13,- 
400 aided in the construction of 38 classrooms for colored chil- 
dren in 8 counties during the year 1930-31. The amount of aid 
received from the Fund, and the number of rooms constructed in 
1931 were greater than in any year since 1927. Since the Fund 
has been available. Prince George's, Anne Arundel and Wicomico 
have each received aid exceeding $10,000. Every county having 
colored schools, except Allegany, has received aid from the Fund 
at some time since 1919. To date the counties have received a 
total of $105,600 from the Fund, which has stimulated the con- 
struction of 331 modern class rooms for colored children. In 
addition 22 rooms have been built without aid from the Fund. 
The total of 353 rooms comprises 43 per cent of the classrooms 
used for colored pupils. (See Table 150.) 

NEATNESS AND CLEANLINESS CONTESTS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

Cleanliness and neatness contests were held in Dorchester and 
St. Mary's counties from April 7 to May 23, 1931, as an out- 
growth of the school health activities of Negro Health Week. 

The contest was sponsored by the State Departments of Health 
and Education. It was undertaken in response to the offer, by 
Dr. H. Maceo Jones, a colored physician of Baltimore City, of 
special awards to the two elementary schools in two counties that 
showed the greatest improvement, during a given period, in the 
cleanliness and neatness of the pupils and in the appearance of 
the school buildings and school grounds. 

The awards consisted of a complete set of ^'Health Crusader" 
posters to each of the schools having the highest score and 
smaller collections of the panels to the schools that came in 
second. Awards were made to the following schools : 



Award 



Dorchester 



St. Mary*s 
Milestown 
St. PYancis 
Cross Roads 



First Place 

Second Place 

Honorable Mention. 



Skinner's Road 

Crapo 

Airey 

Lina's Road 



202 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Day by day scores were kept by the teachers and "effort" was 
recorded as well as definite accomplishment. Record was kept 
of the following: 

Personal habits of the pupils — hair, face, teeth, hands; dress; hand- 
kerchief. 

Exterior of school buildings — playgrounds; toilets; woodpile; flowers. 
Interior — desks; walls; floors; windows; stove; ventilation; trash basket; 

water-bucket or cooler; individual glasses; basin; individlial towels; 

cloaks and lunch boxes. 

A general inspection of the schools was made at the beginning 
of the contest and again at the close by the full-time health officer 
of each of the counties. In his report of the inspections in Dor- 
chester, Dr. E. A. Jones, Deputy State Health Officer for that 
district, wrote : 'The effort made to improve most of the schools 
has been very gratifying, ranging from a simple clean-up of the 
building and yard to the placing of good playground equipment, 
painting inside and out, planting flowers and the installation of 
sanitary toilets." 

Miss Lettie M. Dent, County Superintendent of Schools for St. 
Mary's, called attention to the fact that the school at Milestown 
scored 27 out of a possible 100 points on the first inspection, and 
87 at the close, a gain of 60 points; the school at St. Francis 
started with a score 40 and ended with 82, a gain of 42 ; and the 
school at Cross Roads began with a score of 36 and ended with 
74, showing an improvement of 38 points. 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY FOR COLORED CHILDREN 

The valuation of school property used by colored pupils in the 
counties during 1930-31 was $1,343,708, an increase of $126,410 
over the total value of school property reported in 1930. Balti- 
more, Caroline, Prince George's and Wicomico showed the great- 
est increases in the value of their colored school property. (See 
Table 188, page 252.) 

The value of school property per colored pupil belonging in 
1931 was $51, an increase of $4 over the corresponding value in 
1930. The value of property per pupil ranged from $170 in Alle- 
gany to $20 per pupil in Queen Anne's and St. Mary's. With the 
exception of Allegany, the 5 counties which ranked highest in 
property value per colored pupil were those which have taken 
most advantage of the aid for the construction of colored school 
buildings provided by the Rosenwald Fund. Ten counties had a 
higher valuation than in 1930, increases of $21, $18, $14 and $13 
appearing in Baltimore, Caroline, Wicomico and Washington, 
respectively. Decreases of $1 to $7 occurred in 9 counties. (See 
ChoH 27.) 

The value of school property per colored pupil belonging in 
Baltimore City was $208, which made the average for the entire 
State $122. (See Chart 27 and Table 188, page 252.) 



Clean up Campaign ; Value of Property ; Size of Colored Schools 203 

CHART 27 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUPIL BELONGING 



Covmtj 


1929 


1930 


Co. Average 


$ 46 


$ 47 


Allegany 


1 7? 
X 1 <c 


165 


Baltimore 


JUL 1 


114 


Washington 


115 


11 ( 


Tricomico 


44 


62 


Pr« George's 


OO 




Frederick 


61 


57 


Montgomery 


O < 


DO 


Harford 


4o 


4y 


Caroline 




iCO 


Talbot 


40 


42 


Carroll 


42 


46 


Cecil 


An 




Anne Amndel 


39 


39 


Charles 


55 


38 


Howard 


27 


30 


Calvert 


24 


23 


Dorchester 


26 


26 


Worces ter 


24 


24 


Kent 


22 


22 


Somerset 


18 


18 


Queen Anne's 


17 


21 


St. Mary's 


20 


19 


Balto. City 


197 


197 


Total State 


111 


114 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table 188, page 252. 

SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

Of the 508 colored elementary schools in the Maryland coun- 
ties, 354 had one teacher, 111 had two teachers, and 27 had three 
teachers. The largest colored elementary school, of 13 teachers, 
was located at Annapolis. Wicomico had a school of 9 teachers 
at Salisbury, and Allegany and Washington had schools in which 
6 and 7 teachers were employed, respectively. The number of 
colored elementary schools ranged from 2 in Allegany and 6 in 
Washington to 40 or more in Anne Arundel, Dorchester, and 
Prince George's. (See Table 151.) 



204 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 151 



Number of Colored Elementary and High Schools Having Following 
Number of Teachers, School Year, 1930-1931 



COUNTY 


COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
HAVING FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 


COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 
HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 


j» 
o 




ec 


1 

CO 




<o 
»o 




oo 


o 

00 


12.1-13 


Total 


i 




w 

1 

(N 


CO 


1 




1 


Total 


Total 


354 

1 

22 

15 
13 
9 
9 
26 
37 
14 
14 
12 
20 
27 
21 
14 
19 
15 
16 
5 
10 
16 


111 


27 


5 


7 


1 
1 


1 




1 


1 


508 

2 
40 
30 
20 
17 
11 
12 
33 
42 
21 
18 
15 
24 
34 
44 
17 
27 
29 
22 

6 
19 
25 


3 


6 


5 


7 
1 


3 


1 


1 


26 




-Ajine Arundel 


14 

4 
1 
2 

"6 
4 
5 
3 
2 
3 
5 

20 
3 
8 

11 
3 


2 

"i 

3 


1 
t 










1 












1 


Baltimore 


q 
o 






















Calvert 












1 




































1 








Carroll 




















1 








Cecil 


3 
1 
1 
2 

" *i 
1 

2 
2 












































1 
































1 




























1 








1 
















1 


































Kent 






















1 
1 

2 








3 
1 
























"i 










1 
































1 








St. Mary's 






























1 

2 




2 
1 
















2 










2 
2 
1 
2 
3 


Talbot 














1 
1 




1 










1 


















5 
5 


2 
3 


1 
1 








1 




1 






1 














2 


1 































TABLE 152 



Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1931 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 


Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 


712 


403 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


734 


378 


51.5 


1929 


734 


372 


50.7 


1930 


733 


363 


49.5 


1931 


739 


353 


47.7 



Size op Colored Schools; Decrease in One-Teacher Schools 205 

Fewer One-Teacher Schools 

During the year 1930-31 there were 353 colored teachers, 47.7 
of the entire colored elementary staff who taught in one-teacher 
schools. This was a reduction of 10 under the corresponding 
figure for 1930 and 69 fewer than in 1920. (See Table 152.) 

The individual counties varied considerably in the per cent of 
the colored elementary staff employed in one-room schools. Alle- 
gany, Wicomico, Prince George's, Somerset, and Anne Arundel 
had less than one-third of their colored teachers in one-teacher 
schools, while Queen Anne's, Carroll, and Dorchester had 70 per 
cent or more of their colored teachers instructing in one-teacher 
schools. Twelve counties had 1 teacher less in one-teacher schools 
than in 1930 ; Baltimore was the only county which reduced the 
number of teachers in one- room schools by 2. (See T<ibl-e 153.) 

TABLE 153 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary Schools in 
Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and Average . . 


353 


47.7 


Allegany 


1 


15.4 




. 10 


25.6 


Prince George's 


21 


29.3 


Somerset 


15 


30.0 




22 


30.8 


Baltimore 


19 


36.5 




16 


41.0 




5 


43.9 




14 


47.0 


Talbot 


, 16 


48.5 



Teachers in One- 
Teacher Schools 



County 


Number 


Per Cent 




13 


54.2 


St. Mary's 


. , , ,19 


54.6 


Calvert 


15 


57.7 


Harford 


14 


59.3 


Cecil 


9 


60.0 


Montgomery 


27 


62.8 




12 


63.2 


Charles 


, , . 26 


63.4 


Kent 


20 


69.0 




14 


70.0 


Carroll 


9 


70.3 




36 


75.9 



There were 26 colored high schools in the counties, which em- 
ployed from 1 to 7.2 teachers. There were 7.2 teachers in the 
Stanton High School at Annapolis and 6 teachers employed at 
the Salisbury High School, the 2 largest high schools in the State. 
(See Table Ibl.) 

The relation between the enrollment and the teaching staff em- 
ployed in the colored high schools is shown in Table 154. Four 
second group schools had one teacher and the fifth one had two 
teachers. Ten schools in which the enrollment numbered from 
16 to 50 pupils employed either 1 or 2 teachers. The 2 large 
high schools at Salisbury and Annapolis enrolled 184 and 169 
pupils and provided 6 and 7 teachers, respectively. (See Table 
154.) 

For average number of pupils per teacher in colored high 
schools see Table XIV, page 308, and Table XXXV, page 329. 



206 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 154 



Relation of Teaching Staff in Colored High Schools and Size of 
Enrollment for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Average Number 
Belonging 


Number of Teachers 


Total 
Number 

High 
Schools 


tl 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


Ifr- 25 




n 
1 

4 












1 

3 

O 

3 
8 
2 
1 
1 
1 

26 . 


26- 40 


*2 
*2 












41- FtO 












51-75 


3 
5 
1 










76-100 






3 
1 
1 








101-125 












126-150 












151-175 












1 


176-200 












1 
1 


Total 


*4 


t6 


9 


5 




1 







t Mid point of interval. * Second group schools. % Includes 1 second group school. 

See Table XXXV, page 329, and Table XXXVI, pages 330 to 335 for individual high 
schools. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE COLORED SCHOOLS 
In 1931, under the auspices of the Playground Athletic League, 
5,293 colored boys and 5,944 colored girls from the counties 

TABLE 155 



Number of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests in 1930 and 1931 



COUNTY 


BOYS 


GIRLS 


1931 


1930 


1931 


1930 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 


Total 


5,293 


1,610 


4.641 


1,328 


5,944 


2,030 


5,573 


1,845 




485 


161 


301 


118 


584 


182 


540 


233 


Baltimore 


368 


106 


271 


92 


430 


164 


321 


125 


Calvert 


169 


45 


131 


54 


219 


79 


201 


92 




288 


111 


233 


69 


336 


122 


233 


111 


Carroll 


110 


45 


111 


32 


103 


44 


98 


36 


Cecil 


107 


22 


77 


24 


134 


36 


92 


24 


Charles 


358 


80 


320 


57 


392 


120 


395 


45 




263 


109 


251 


90 


294 


84 


319 


156 


Frederick 


291 


83 


285 


88 


309 


73 


302 


101 


Harford 


229 


72 


199 


44 


230 


77 


183 


22 


Howard 


98 




141 


43 


126 




131 


40 


Kent 


161 


61 


162 


37 


201 


163 


185 


63 




478 


174 


460 


108 


439 


156 


489 


127 


Prince George's 


576 


150 


498 


76 


605 


197 


538 


174 




179 


56 


168 


47 


218 


67 


190 


65 




215 


65 


199 


76 


228 


108 


282 


109 


Somerset 


207 


61 


165 


45 


219 


90 


193 


55 


Talbot 


163 


41 


198 


52 


175 


88 


227 


36 




369 


126 


287 


109 


480 


142 


434 


153 




179 


42 


184 


67 


222 


98 


220 


78 



See also Table XIX, page 313, for types of badges. 



Colored High Schools; Physical Education; P. T. A.'s 207 



entered the contests for bronze, silver, gold and super-gold 
badges and about 30 per cent of the boys and 34 per cent of the 
girls won the badges for which they were competing. There 
were 652 more boys and 371 more girls than in 1930 who took 
the badge tests, and 282 more boys and 185 more girls who suc- 
cessfully met the requirements of the tests. More boys entered 
the contests and won the badges in 1931 than in the preceding 
year in 11 counties, and increases over the 1930 figures in the 
number of girls who took the tests and won their badges were 
found in 10 counties. (See Table 155, and Table XIX, page 313.) 

All the counties except Allegany and Washington held meets 
for the colored pupils in 1931. There were 5,512 boys from 496 
schools who entered the track and field events. Every colored 
school in Queen Anne's, Caroline, Carroll, Wicomico, Anne Arun- 
del, St. Mary's, and Calvert was represented at these meets, and 
in only Frederick and Baltimore did less than 90 per cent of the 
schools send teams. (See Table 156.) Dodge-ball teams for boys 
and girls were organized in all the counties which were repre- 
sented at the meets ; 5 teams of speed ball for boys were formed 
in Prince George's, Talbot and Wicomico; and there were 23 
volley-ball teams for girls from 14 counties. Altogether there 
were 7,293 entrants on 580 teams playing dodge, speed, or volley 
ball. (See Table XX, page 314.) 

TABLE 156 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Schools Which Had Entrants in County 
Meets During Years 1931 and 1930 





SCHOOLS 


ENTERED 




SCHOOLS ENTERED 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




1931 


1930 


1931 


1930 




1931 


1930 


1931 


1930 


Total and Average . 


. 496 


494 


92.9 


92.3 




41 


36 


95.3 


85.7 










Harford 


18 


18 


94.7 


100.0 




18 


19 


100.0 


100.0 


Montgomery . . . 


. 33 


32 


94.3 


91.4 


Caroline 


18 


19 


100.0 


100.0 




14 


14 


93.3 


100.0 


Carroll 


12 


12 


100.0 


100.0 


Worcester 


26 


26 


92.9 


92.8 


Wicomico 


21 


21 


100.0 


100.0 


Cecil 


12 


13 


92.3 


100.0 




41 


41 


100.0 


100.0 


Kent 


23 


24 


92.0 


100.0 




27 


27 


100.0 


96.4 


Prince George's. 


. 43 


44 


91.5 


93.6 


Calvert 


21 


21 


100.0 


95.4 




28 


28 


90.3 


90.3 




33 


33 


97.1 


97.0 


Frederick 


19 


21 


86.4 


91.2 


Talbot 


, 23 


23 


95.8 


95.8 


Baltimore 


25 


22 


83.3 


73.3 



Girls also participated in run and catch and flag relays. For 
these events, 3,952 girls were placed on 416 teams. (See Table 
XX, page 314.) 

PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

During the school year 1930-31 there were 378 Parent Teacher 
Associations in 74.3 per cent of the colored schools. In Caroline, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's every colored school had an organ- 
ized P. T. A., and in Baltimore, Talbot, Anne Arundel and Kent, 
more than 90 per cent of the schools formed these associations. 



208 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Howard was the only county in which there was not a single 
school which had a P. T. A., and in Frederick, Calvert, Washing- 
ton and Carroll, less than 50 per cent of the colored schools had 
formed such organizations. In 14 counties the proportion of 
schools with P. T. A/s was higher in 1931 than in 1930. (See 
Chart 28.) 

CHART 28 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTT COLORED SCHOOLS, 1930 and 1931 



Cotnty Number 

1930 1931 

Total and 
Co. Average 364 



Per Cent 
1930 1931 




As an illustration of how a P. T. A. may function to improve 
school conditions, the activities in Charles County are interest- 
ing. There the P. T. A.*s connected with the County Federation 
of Parent Teacher Associations were instrumental in raising 
funds to buy a school bus and to build a dining-room and kitchen 
at the Pomonkey High School. 



p. T. A.'s; Receipts from Other than County Funds 209 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN COUNTY 

FUNDS 

Four of the counties sent in reports for the colored schools 
on the new blanks prepared at the State Department of Educa- 
tion for reporting on funds received from other than county 
funds. In these counties the gross receipts in the colored schools 
from funds other than those appropriated by the County Board 
of Education totalled $3,137. Expenses of the activities were 
$542, leaving a balance of $2,595 available for school purposes. 
The source of these receipts is shown in Table 157. 

TABLE 157 

Source of Gross Receipts of Other Than County Funds 

St. Wash- 
Mary's ington 

$110.33 $ 13.08 
'III 7L56 



Source of 
Receipts 

Balance - 


Total 

$ 154.41 


Per Cent 

4.9 : 
.8 


Caroline 

$ 31.00 


Dorchester 


Dues _ 


24.00 


12.00 


$ 12.00 


Plays, Movies, etc... . 


202.19 


6.4 


120.39 


10.30 


Debates, 










Declamations 


46.97 


1.5 


37.37 


9.60 


Athletics _ 


513.08 


16.4 


157.79 


117.24 


School Lunches 


. 116.15 


3.7 


116.15 




School Publications 


5.20 


.2 


5.20 




P. T. A.'s 


158.51 


5.0 


158.51 




Parties, Dances, etc 


1,452.73 


46.3 


303.06 


464.43 


Sales 


92.78 


3.0 


92.78 




Donations 

Other Sources 


345.57 
25.18 


11.0 
.8 


120.63 


5.00 
25.18 



238.05 



685.24 

118.51 101.43 



Total Gross 

Receipts $3,136.77 100.0 $1,154.88 $643.75 $914.08 $424.06 

Expense or Cost _.. 542.43 .._ 322.69 159.88 32.76 27.10 

Net Receipts $2,594.34 $ 832.19 $483.87 $881.32 $396.96 

It will be seen that the major portion of the gross receipts, 46.3 
per cent, came from parties, dances, entertainments and concerts ; 
that 16 per cent were derived from athletics, 11 per cent from 
donations, 6 per cent from plays, movies and talkies, and 5 per 
cent from P. T. A/s. 

What was done by the colored schools with the net receipts of 
$2,594 in these four counties ? Of this amount $2,210 was spent 
for various purposes and $385 was carried over as a balance. 
(See Table 158.) 

One third of the net receipts actually spent was used for physi- 
cal education. The building and grounds and regular classroom 
instruction were each recipients of 7 per cent of the net receipts. 
Nearly 6 per cent was used for libraries and 5 per cent for music. 
It is evident that the colored people were willing to contribute 
themselves toward the improvement of the schools in these four 
counties. (See Table 158.) 



210 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 158 



Purpose of Expenditure of Net Receipts of Funds from Sources Other Than 





County Funds 1930-31 








Purpose of 










St. 


Wash- 


Expenditure 


Total 


Per Cent 


Caroline 


Dorchester 


Mary's 


ington 


Building & Grounds 


$156.79 


7.1 


$ 61.68 


$ 59.11 


$ 36.00 




Library 


128.55 


5.8 


39.96 


13.40 


7.85 


$ 67.34 


Music 


109.25 


4.9 


1.85 




107.40 


Physical Education 


743.41 


33.7 


68.61 


179.25 


244.45 


251.10 


Industrial Arts 


74.25 


3.4 




74.25 






School Lunch 


12.93 


.6 




12.93 




Classroom Instruction 


±00.00 


7 1 


OU.DO 


46.34 


38.75 


21.14 


Auditorium _ 


59.50 


2.7 


59.50 








General Use _ 


88.19 


4.0 


64.61 


4.57 


17.41 


1.60 


Cleaning & Heating 


37.74 


1.7 


9.74 


6.00 


22.00 




Graduation 


25.60 


1.2 


23.00 




2.60 




Other School Purposes 


222.53 


10.1 


179.40 


41.63 




1.50 


Medical Inspection 


16.15 


.7 


16.15 








Social Affairs, Trips 


137.94 


6.2 


31.56 




52.10 


54.28 


Benevolences _ 


84.84 


3.8 


84.84 








Other 


155.18 


7.0 


13.18 


18.65 


123.35 








Total $2,209.73 


100.0 


$704.73 


$443.20 


$664.84 


$396.96 


Balance 


384.61 




127.46 


40.67 


216.48 





SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

The State Supervisor of Colored Schools is responsible for 
the supervision of all the county colored schools. He spends most 
of his time in the field visiting schools with the county super- 
visors of colored schools, and working with the high school prin- 
cipals and teachers. The Supervisor of Colored Schools has con- 
tinued his practice of former years of keeping in contact with 
the graduating classes of Cheyney, Hampton, and Miner Normal 
School, from which schools a large percentage of our new teach- 
ers are graduates. He visited the Bowie Normal School a num- 
ber of times during the school year to study in detail the prac- 
tice teaching and to offer suggestions for improving the instruc- 
tion, based on noting elements of strength or weakness displayed 
by Bowie graduates in actual school situations. Much of his 
time at the office is spent in interviewing prospective county 
teachers. The major portion of the salary and traveling ex- 
penses of the State Supervisor of Colored Schools was paid by the 
General Education Board. 

Each of 16 counties received $750 from the State as reim- 
bursement toward the salary of a full time colored supervisor. 
Five of the supervisors employed were women and 11 were men. 
In 7 counties, the supervisors devoted some time to instruction in 
home economics or manual training in the high school. The at- 
tendance officers in Cecil, Howard, and Somerset counties spent 
part of their time in supervising the colored schools, and the 
Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Baltimore County had 
the supervision of the colored schools as part of his duties. In 



Other than County Funds; Supervision; Bowie Normal School 211 

Allegany and Washington, whatever supervision the colored 
schools had was given by the white elementary school super- 
visors and the county superintendent. 

In addition to visits to each supervisor and conferences with 
the high school principals and teachers individually and in groups 
in their own counties, the State Supervisor of Colored Schools 
early in the school year held a meeting at which all the super- 
visors were present, and another for all of the high school prin- 
cipals and teachers, for the purpose of setting up plans for the 
year. 

BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL 
Enrollment and Graduates 

During the school year 1930-31 there were 113 students en- 
rolled at the Bowie Normal School, 6 fewer than in 1930. The 
enrollment in the fall of 1931 was 106, of whom 55 were juniors. 
The decreases in the normal school enrollment were partly caused 
by more careful scrutiny of the high school records of all appli- 
cants who applied for entrance and the requirement that they 
meet a higher standard. In the fall of 1931 only high school 
graduates who in the last 2 years of high school had made not 
less than 60 per cent of "A'* and "B" grades and 40 per cent of 
"C" grades were admitted to the Normal School in regular stand- 
ing. (See Table 159.) 

TABLE 159 
Enrollment at Bowie Normal School 



Summer 

Year Total Juniors Seniors Graduates School 

1924* 11 11 67 

1925* 26 16 10 10 103 

1926* 36 24 12 12 80 

1927* 80 58 22 22 81 

1928* 109 55 54 50 53 

1929 128 76 52 46 36 

1930 119 46 73 56 

1931 113 59 54 41 

FaU of 1931 106 55 51 



* Excludes high school enrollment. 

In 1931 there were 41 graduates from the Bowie Normal 
School, which included 1 from Baltimore City. Of these grad- 
uates, 35 are teaching in the Maryland counties. Twenty-eight 
^f the graduates were placed in their home counties, 7 received 
appointments in counties other than their home counties, 2 could 
not take appointments because of illness, and 4 were not placed 
because of lack of available positions. (See Table 160.) 



212 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 160 

Home and Teaching County of Bowie Graduates of 1931 



Home Teaching 
County County County 



Total 


.. 41 


35 


Anne Arundel 


1 


1 




1 




Calvert 


1 


i 


Caroline 


2 


2 


Carroll 


1 


a4 


Charles 


6 


4 




2 


2 


Frederick 




61 


Harford 


cl 





County 


Home 
County 


Teaching 
County 


Kent 


1 


1 


Montgomery 




dl 


Queen Anne's 


el 


4 


2 


1 


Somerset 


3 


2 


St. Mary's 


c2 


/3 


Talbot 


e4 


2 




1 


1 


Wicomico 


5 


5 


Baltimore City . . . . 


1 





a Includes a graduate from Charles, one from Prince George's, and one from Baltimore City. 
h A graduate from Somerset County. c Includes one not teaching because of illness. 

d A graduate from Baltimore County. e Includes two not teaching. 

/ A graduate from Charles County and one from Queen Anne's placed in February, 1931. 

During 1930-31 the principal of the Bowie Normal School 
made a special effort through the principals of the colored high 
schools and the colored supervisors to encourage the high school 
seniors of high scholastic ability, good character, and most pleas- 
ing personality to attend the State Normal School. 

The extension work which was begun in 1929-30 was continued 
in 1930-31. The principal of the normal school visited all of the 
normal school graduates of the class of 1930 who were teaching 
in the counties. Considerable improvement in teaching ability 
and classroom management was found in the 1930 group over 
the* previous survey. The chief purpose of these visits was to 
collect information about how the graduates were meeting the 
needs of the school system and the community, so that the stu- 
dents now in training might be better prepared to face the prob- 
lems of rural school teaching. 

The Faculty and Practice Centers 

The professional staff of the normal school included the prin- 
cipal, 8 instructors, a nurse, a secretary-registrar, a house- 
manager, 3 campus elementary teachers, 2 librarians, and a ste- 
nographer. The assistant librarian spent half of her time in the 
office. Because of the smaller enrollment, there was a decrease 
in the number of cooperative practice centers needed. Only 5 
schools off the campus were in use for practice teaching, 3 being 
two-teacher and 2 one-teacher schools. Much of the practice 
work is done in one-teacher rural school situations. Before grad- 
uation each student is required to do 160 hours of supervised 
practice teaching, and it is the aim to make it constantly more 
effective by improving the supervision given. 

Cost Per Bowie Normal School Student Over $450 

The current expenses of the Bi)wie Normal School in 1931 
amounted to $55,916, of which $29,093 was used for instruction 



Bowie Normal School and Coppin Training School 



213 



and $26,823 for expenses of room, board, laundry, etc. The total 
instruction cost was $310 per student, $7 of which was paid by- 
each student and the remaining $303 by the State. Of the aver- 
age enrollment of 94 students, all except 2 were residents at the 
school. The total expense per resident student for board, room 
and lodging was $292. The average fee of $142 reduced the cost 
to the State for dormitory expenses to $150. The combined cost 
to the State for instruction and dormitory expenses per resident 
student at Bowie amounted to $452. (See Tabl€ 161.) 

TABLE 161 

Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School, 1930-31 

Instruction Dormitory 

EXPENDITURES 

Administration 

Salaries S 1,900.00 $ 2,336.75 

Other than Salaries 579 . 49 549 . 21 

Instruction 

Salaries 16,431.95 

Other than Salaries ' 3 , 949 . 54 

Operation and Maintenance 

Salaries and Wages 1 , 866 . 62 6 , 973 . 05 

Other than Salaries 4 , 365 . 72 6 , 900 . 14 

Food 10,064.08 

Total $29,093.32 $26,823.23 

RECEIPTS 

From Students for 

Board and Lodging $10 , 580 . 51 

Service Rendered 703 . 52 

Laundry, Breakage Fees 9 14 . 78 

Health, Dental, Medical Service 372.56 

Athletics 308.34 

Uniforms 468.75 

Registration and Entertainment 368 . 09 

Total Receipts from Students $ 676 . 43 $13 , 040 . 12 

From State $28,416.89 $13,783.11 

COST PER STUDENT 

Average Number of Students 94 92 

Average Total Expenditure per Student $ 309 . 50 $ 291 . 56 

Average Payment per Student 7 . 20 141 . 74 

Average Cost to State per Student 302 . 30 149 . 82 

Average Total Cost to State per Dormitory Student $452.12 

Improvement of Normal School Plant and the Inventory 

The inventory of the Bowie Normal School as of September 
30, 1931, showed the total value of the property to be $201,635, 
distributed as follows: Land, $9,440; buildings, $147,407; 
equipment, $42,538 ; livestock, $140; improvement of land, $1,910. 



COPPIN TRAINING SCHOOL FOR COLORED TEACHERS 

During 1930-31 there were 35 men and 110 women enrolled 
in the Coppin Training School for Colored Teachers in Baltimore 
City. The average number belonging was 133 students, 1 less 
than in 1930. The school was open for 191 days. The faculty 
consisted of the principal, 4 instructors, and 1 clerk. The cur- 
rent expenses for the school amounted to $15,665, making the 
average cost per student $118. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND COUNTIES 

The director of the Playground Athletic League, acting as 
State Supervisor of Physical Education, plans and cooperates 
with the State Department of Education and County Superin- 
tendents of schools in carrying out the program for physical edu- 
cation in the counties of Maryland. One of the outstanding 
characteristics of the Maryland plan is the large proportion of 
pupils above grade 3 who are reached by the physical education 
activities in practice during the school year. 



TABLE 162 

Participants in County Meets for White Boys and Girls, 1931 



COUNTY 


Badge 
Tests 


Games 


Track and 
Field 


Totals 


Boys 


ijrirls 


Boys 


IjrirlS 


Boys 


uirls 


Allegany 


816 


1,295 


509 


434 


554 


760 


4,368 


Rural 


215 


265 


143 


177 


168 


351 


1,319 


Anne Arundel 


849 


1,244 


441 


363 


728 


592 


4,217 


Baltimore 


761 


2,186 


762 


629 


652 


938 


5,928 


Calvert 


117 


251 


123 


150 


131 


171 


943 




361 


628 


210 


240 


277 


363 


^,079 


CarroU 


648 


1,112 


625 


531 


471 


715 


4,102 




266 


725 


235 


291 


255 


279 


O CiKt 

J,U51 


Charles 


196 


415 


197 


189 


187 


370 


1,554 


Dorchester 


415 


645 


235 


228 


304 


332 


2^159 


Frederick 


833 


1,287 


470 


432 


409 


436 


3,867 


Garrett 


299 


403 


182 


196 


152 


321 


1,553 


Harford 


423 


706 


408 


377 


378 


353 


2,645 




271 


395 


163 


168 


281 


254 


1,532 


Kent 


210 


374 


208 


217 


226 


259 


1,494 


Montgomery 


714 


1,105 


477 


496 


665 


674 


4,131 


Prince George's 


669 


849 


470 


380 


546 


547 


3,461 


Rural 


222 


294 


200 


210 


147 


259 


1,332 


Queen Anne's 


253 


365 


236 


235 


214 


253 


1,556 


St. Mary's 


168 


255 


161 


196 


140 


188 


1,108 


Somerset 


161 


321 


164 


182 


235 


223 


1,286 


Talbot 


333 


451 


236 


262 


229 


286 


1,797 


Washington 


834 


876 


355 


273 


501 


484 


3,323 


Wicomico 


258 


519 


150 


178 


203 


245 


1,553 


Worcester 


205 


366 


168 


175 


217 


315 


1,446 


Total, 1931 


10,497 


17,332 


7,528 


7,209 


8,270 


9,968 


60,804 


Tome Institute 


24 
31 


44 
368 












Maryland State Normal 













CONSOLATION DODGE 

Boys Girls 
Teams Entrants Teams Entrants 

Baltimore County 11 110 20 200 

Frederick 4 40 1 10 

Washington 4 40 1 10 



214 



It 

The Physical Education Program in Maryland Counties 215 



Participation in Spring County Meets 

In 1931 there were 60,804 individual participations in the 
badge tests, games, track and field events which are scheduled 
in connection with every spring county meet. This was an in- 
crease of 1,829 over the corresponding number in 1930. These 
figures represent gross participation and include duplicates, since 
any one individual who was included for a badge test may also 
have appeared and been counted for one or more games or one 
or more track and field events. All of the counties except seven 
had a greater number of individual participations in 1931 than 
for the preceding year. (See Table 162.) 

Although the number of white schools which entered pupils 
for events at the county meets decreased from 1,036 in 1930 to 
1,017 in 1931, the percentage of schools which entered pupils 
increased from 77.6 to 81.4. This apparent discrepancy between 
number and per cent is explained by the decrease in the total 
number of county schools due to consolidation. Four counties 
had entries from every white school, and sixteen counties had 
entries from over 90 per cent of the white schools. Every 
county, except four, had a higher percentage of schools which 
participated in 1931 than in 1930. (See Table 163.) 



TABLE 163 

Number and Per Cent of County Schools for White Pupils Which Had Entries in 
County Meets During the School Years 1930-31 and 1929-30 





SCHOOLS ENTERED 




SCHOOLS ENTERED 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




1931 


1930 


1931 


1930 




1931 1930 


1931 


1930 


Total and Average . 


.1,017 


1,036 


81.4 


77.6 




... 31 


29 


93.9 


85.2 










44 


44 


93.6 


88.0 


Talbot 


24 


27 


100.0 


100.0 




, , 26 


25 


92.9 


83.3 




31 


31 


100.0 


96.8 




34 


36 


91.9 


97.3 


Calvert 


24 


24 


100.0 


96.0 


Cecil 


51 


44 
66 


91.1 


74.5 




17 


23 


100.0 


79.3 




65 


86.7 


90.1 


Carroll 


85 


80 


98.8 


86.9 




79 


79 


83.2 


79.0 




54 


56 


98.2 


96.5 




67 


67 


80.7 


77.0 




. 68 


90 


97.1 


100.0 


Harford 


53 


53 


77.9 


77.9 




27 


28 


96.4 


90.3 


Worcester 


24 


24 


64.9 


58.5 


Montgomery 


66 


66 


95.7 


97.0 




55 


51 


53.4 


45.9 




37 


36 


94.9 


92.3 




, , . . 23 


25 


20.9 


20.8 


Kent 


32 


32 


94.1 


94.1 







Badge Tests 

There were over 41,694 white boys enrolled in the county- 
schools above grade 3. Of these boys 17,055, or 41 per cent, in 
the opinion of their teachers successfully passed the badge tests 
on their school grounds, which permitted them to enroll for the 
badge tests at the meet. According to Table 162, page 214, there 
were 10,497 boys who were counted at the meets as entering the 
badge tests, and of these 5,657 won their badges. Of those who 
entered the meet, therefore, 54 per cent won their badges, 
although the percentage of the county enrollment of boys above 
grade 3 which won badges was only 13.6 per cent. (See Chart 
29.) 



216 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 29 



Coxmty 



PER 
ATHLETIC 



Number 
Enrolled 



CENT OF BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AND FINAL 
BADGE TESTS, 1931, BASED ON 1930-31 ENROLLllENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, lUCLUSIVE 



Nxunber 
Qitered Won 



Average 


41,694 


17,055 


5,657 1 


St. Mary's 


420 




7*7 1 


A. Ariuidel 


2,262 


1,256 


450 


Calvert 


302 


167 


72 ] 


Q. Anne's 


632 


349 


100 1 


Caroline 


955 


513 


228 1 


Kent 


634 


334 


75 1 


Montgomery 


2,334 


1,220 


572 1 


Dorchester 


1,184 


618 


193 


Howard 


743 


383 


127 


Charles 


624 


310 


124 1 


Pr. Geo. 


2,744 


1,362 


413 1 


Talbot 


854 


415 


195 


Wicomico 


1,575 


761 


76 1 


Carroll 


2,038 


985 


404 


Frederick 


3,059 


1,476 


445 


Somerset 


932 


411 




Harford 


1,566 


633 


108 1 


Worcester 


1,030 


363 


101 1 


Allegany 


4,723 


1,664 


473 1 


Cecil 


1,582 


483 


131 


Washington 


4,178 


1,210 


567 


Garrett 


1,509 


418 


225 


Baltimore 


6,014 


1,486 


427 1 



Per Cent 



Won 



Entered 



40.9 



18.3 



19.9 



23.8 



15.8 



23.9 



11.8 



24.5 



1€.3 , ■ 



17.1 



19.9 



15.1 



2 



59.0 



55.5 



55.3 



55.2 



53.7 



52.7 



52.3 



52.2 



51.5 



49.7 



49.5 



48.6 



48.5 



48.5 



48.5 



440. 



40.4 



38 ■ 


35.2 1 


mem 35.2 1 






54.9 1 


13.6 


29.0 1 


14.8 ^ggi^H 



24.7 i 



Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Howard 



155 56 
772 556 
46 12 



See Table XVI. page 310. 



The manifestation of interest in the badge tests on the school 
premises varied from attracting over one half of the boys en- 
rolled above grade 3 in nine counties to as few as one-fourth in 



Results of Badge Tests in Maryland Counties 217 
CHART 30 



PER CENT OF GIRLS PASSING PRELIMINARY AUD FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS, 1931, BASED ON 1930-31 ENROLLMENT 
IN GRADE 4 TO YEAR IV, INCLUSIVE 



_ . Nuaiber 
^^^y Enrolled 

Total and 

Average 42,463 


Number 
Qitered 

23,828 


Won 

7,726 


St. Mary's 


388 


337 


113 


Charles 


601 


495 


141 


Calvert 


371 


295 


85 


Caroline 


1,012 


797 


192 


Talbot 


892 


687 


298 


Howard 


672 


511 


206 


Kent 


686 


512 


154 


Dorchester 


1,232 


906 


241 




695 


479 


156 


nicomlco 


1,716 


1,134 


223 


CecU 


1,367 


892 


232 


Montgomery 


2,401 • 


1,564 


594 


Carroll 


2,096 


1,351 


455 


Frederick 


2,973 


1,915 


628 


A. Arundel 


2,372 


1,434 


442 


Ft, Geo. 


2,719 


1,604 


683 


Harford 


1,669 


884 


379 


Somerset 


1,006 


515 


124 


Baltimore 


5,963 


2,988 


1,054 


Worcester 


1,0U 


504 


155 


Allegany 


4,890 


2,065 


719 


Garrett 


1,407 


515 


218 


Washington 


4,326 


1,444 


334 



Won 



Per Cent 

ihtered 



56.1 



86.9 



82.4 



79.5 



78.8 



77.0 



76.0 



74.6 



73.5 



68.9 



66.1 



65.3 



65.1 



64.5 



64.4 



60.5 



59.0 



53.0 



51.2 



50.1 



49.9 



42.2 



36.6 



33.4 



another county. Some counties which carry on a regular physi- 
cal education program throughout the year may not be desirous 
of having a concentration on the badge test program in the 
spring. (See Chart 29 and Table XVI, page 310.) 

The badge tests are different for boys and girls, since it is the 
policy of the physical education leaders in Maryland to plan 
activities adapted to the special physique and interests of the 
two sexes. Of the 42,463 girls above grade 3 enrolled in the 
county public schools, 23,828 or 56 per cent tried out the badge 



218 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



tests for girls at their schools. At the county meets 17,332 of 
these girls who had passed or 70.8 per cent entered for the badge 
tests, and of these 7,726 or 44.6 per cent won their badges. The 
percentage of the county enrollment of girls above grade 3 which 
won badges was 18.2. (See Chart 30 and Table XVI, page 310.) 

In six counties over three fourths of the girls above grade 3 
tried out and passed the tests for badges at their schools and in 
only four counties was the percentage who successfully passed 
the tests at their schools less than 50 per cent. (See Chart 30 
and Table XVI, page 310.) 

The emphasis in the badge tests is on individual attainment of 
physical skills. This is desired before pupils are permitted to 
enter the group activities of the physical education program. 
The games and track and field events set up opportunities for co- 
operation of individuals when they work together on teams as 
representatives of schools or groups with which they are identi- 
fied. It is this phase of the physical education program that 
develops fine character exhibited in good behavior and self- 
control. 



Team Games 

There were 29,635 white boys and girls entered on 2,094 teams 
in the State-wide athletic program of games. Circle dodge ball 
outranked all other games in popularity, having had 11,292 boys 
and girls as entrants on 827 teams. Of these teams 197 were 
mixed. Speed ball, however, showed greater gains than any 
other game reported, the number of teams and boys entered 
having increased by nearly two thirds. There were 5,974 en- 
trants on 427 speed ball teams. Soccer, baseball and boys' bas- 
ketball showed little change in status for the counties as a whole 
from the preceding year. Every county had soccer teams, repre- 
senting a total of 132 high schools. Each county winner played 
the neighboring winner, until the Western Shore series was 
won by the Washington County team from Hancock, while the 
Eastern Shore winner and finally the State winner was the Kent 
County team from Chestertown. All counties, except Carroll 
and Montgomery, participated in the baseball tournament spon- 
sored by the Evening Sun. All counties, except Anne Arundel, 
Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, and St. Mary's, had at least 
one boys' basketball team. The need for indoor gymnasiums 
probably prevented the playing of basketball in the counties 
which had no basketball teams. (See Table XVII, page 311.) 

Outside of dodge ball, the girls showed the greatest support 
and interest in volley ball, hit ball, touchdown pass and basket- 
ball, in the order named. Every county except Carroll had field 
ball teams at the third State-wide tournament, in which 2,055 



Badge Tests; Team Games; Track, Field and Relay Events 219 

girls from 112 high schools participated. Basketball was played 
by girls in fourteen counties. Since an indoor gymnasium is 
required for practice during the winter months, basketball is, of 
course, limited to the localities having the necessary facilities. 
(See Table 164, and Table XVII, page 311.) 

TABLE 164 



Number of County High Schools from Which Girls Entered Games, Relays, 
Carnivals and Badge Tests, Year Ending June 30, 1931 





Ball Games 


Relays 




Badge 


Tests 












1 




JS 














00 


COUNTY 








fit 




o 














o 










3hdown 


>> 


and Cj 


acle 


livals 








!r Gold 


iber of 
igh Sch 




IB 


o 




3 
O 


ji 


c 


OQ 


33 


c 


1 


"3 


a 

3 






m 






H 


> 




o 


u 


n 




O 


OD 




Total Counties 


43 


112 


114 


79 


134 


123 


92 


30 


144 


145 


143 


141 


*145 




6 


5 


6 


4 


7 


8 


5 


. . . . 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 






3 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Baltimore 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Calvert 




3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 






6 


5 


4 


6 


6 


5 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Carroll 






10 


10 


11 


11 


9 




11 


11 


11 


11 


11 


Cecil 




8 


7 


4 


8 


8 


5 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 






5 


3 


2 


5 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 




2 


5 


4 


2 


6 


6 


3 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 




4 


8 


6 


4 


6 


6 


4 




8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


Garrett 


1 


4 


5 


3 


6 


4 


4 




6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


Harford 


2 


7 


6 


3 


8 


7 


4 


. . . . 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 




2 


4 


4 


2 


5 


5 


5 




6 


6 


6 


5 


6 


Kent 




2 


3 
9 


2 


4 


4 


2 




4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Montgomery 


7 


4 


2 


8 


2 


2 




9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 


1 


8 


7 


4 


9 


5 


5 




8 


9 


9 


8 


9 




5 


5 


3 


5 


5 


5 




5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


St. Mary's 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


3 




4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Talbot 


4 


6 


5 


5 


6 


6 


3 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 




2 


5 


4 


4 


6 


4 


2 




6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Wicomico 


1 


7 


3 


3 


4 


7 


3 


"i 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 




3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


3 


4 


5 


5 




4 


5 



* Excludes Junior High and One Year High Schools. 



Track, Field and Relay Events 

In addition to team games, the P. A. L. program includes run- 
ning and jumping events for track and field. In the relay races, 
broad jumps, dashes, etc., it is the skill of the individuals who 
make up a team which brings success to the school or county 
represented. In Maryland the number of events in which any 
one participant may enter is limited to one running event for 
girls and one running and one field event for boys. It is thus 
impossible for a few good athletes to win the track meet for their 
school. All children who have attained even average ability in 



220 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



the events are needed to bring final success to their own schools. 
(See Tables XVII and XVIII, pages 311 to 312.) 

From Table 164 it will be seen that the majority of the high 
schools had girls represented in the team games and relays. 
Space for playing basketball and holding carnivals was not avail- 
able in all of the counties. 

Girls* Winter Carnivals 

In addition to these tournaments and athletic meets a number 
of carnivals were held throughout the year. Cecil, Wicomico, 
and Worcester Counties held girls' carnivals at the State armor- 
ies for 2,122 entrants. In addition, 4,642 girls representing 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Howard Counties and Baltimore 
City took part in the Winter Carnival at the Fifth Regiment 
Armory at Baltimore. A high school carnival, in which '260 girls 
and 224 boys were entrants, was held at Indian Head in Charles 
County. (See Table 164.) 

The Spring Athletic Meets 

The final badge tests, the games, and the track and field events 
take place generally at the county spring athletic meets. The 
winners of the county meets come to Baltimore to compete for 
the State-wide championships. The girls are entertained at the 
State Normal School at Towson and a majority of the boys are 
cared for in the homes of members of the City Parent-Teachers' 
Associations. The Y. M. C. A. takes care of the boys not assigned 
to homes. The county winning the greatest number of points is 
awarded the Sun trophy. In 1931 this award went to Baltimore 
County. The dodgeball championship was won by Baltimore 
County athletes from Dundalk Junior High School, and the cham- 
pionship in volley ball was won by Baltimore City's representa- 
tives from Eastern High. 

TABLE 165 

Number of Boys and Girls in Eight Maryland Counties Examined by Physicians of 
the Playground Athletic League Showing Those Defective and Non-Defective, 

Year 1930-31 















Not Defective 






Number 


Number 












Examined 


Defective 










COUNTY 










Number 


Per Cent 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


*2,916 


3,331 


2,534 


2,801 


382 


530 


13.1 


15.9 


Anne Arundel 


*342 


416 


295 


352 


47 


64 


13.0 


15.4 


Cecil 


273 


326 


238 


262 


35 


64 


12.8 


19.6 


Dorchester 


314 


389 


283 


322 


31 


67 


9.9 


17.2 


Garrett 


376 


439 


329 


392 


47 


47 


12.5 


10.7 




448 


575 


404 


495 


44 


80 


9.8 


13.9 




204 


203 


176 


174 


28 


29 


13.7 


14.3 




661 


659 


574 


544 


87 


115 


13.2 


17.5 




298 


324 


235 


260 


63 


64 


21.1 


19.8 



Excludes 19 additional examinations. 



'Carnivals; Meets; Medical Inspection; P. A. L. Fina>^ces 221 



Medical Inspection of High School Pupils 

The two physicians of the Playground Athletic League exam- 
ined 6,247 white high school boys and girls in eight counties. 
They found 13 per cent of the boys and 16 per cent of the girls 
examined without physical defects. Pupils and parents of pupils 
with defects were advised to have them corrected by their regu- 
lar family physicians. (See Table 165.) 

Expenditures by P. A. L. for the 23 Counties as a Group 

The administration and direction of school athletics in Mary- 
land counties during the fiscal year October 1, 1930, to Septem- 
ber 30, 1931, required a total expenditure of approximately 
$27,000. Towards this the Playground Athletic League received 
$15,000 from the State through the Public School Budget and 
$10,000 as a State-aided institution. In addition, certain serv- 
ices were rendered the counties, for which the Playground Ath- 
letic League received reimbursements to the extent of $26,690. 
Furthermore, materials and supplies worth $5,406 were bought 
by the counties through the P. A. L. The actual service rendered 
the counties, therefore, necessitated a budget of more than 
$58,000. The Playground Athletic League made no charge to the 
counties for the general administration and direction of the P. 
A. L. program. (See Table 166.) 

TABLE 166 
Playground Athletic League 
Financial Statement 
Expenditures for County Work 
October 1, 1930 to September 30, 1931 

Salaries $ 9,941.30 

Wages _ „ 2,738.91 

Printing 435.24 

Postage . - 300.36 

Telephone 270.46 

Auto : _ „ 384.65 

Supplies _ 735.34 

Repairs 5.86 

Awards „ 5,065.30 

Travelling _ 5,341.58 

Miscellaneous _ 1,378.42 

Equipment _ 4.65 

$26,602.07 

Research „ 412.28 

$27,014.35 

The State appropriation to the P. A. L. provided for the sal- 
aries of Mr. Pitman and Miss Grossman, who gave instruction, 
supervision and service for 2,449 school units. A school unit is 
defined as any school to which assistance is given, and the same 
school may be included a number of times in this figure. 



222 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The State appropriation also takes care of the cost of record- 
ing the badges and medals won by different pupils. The system 
of registration prevents unnecessary duplication of awards. The 
20,725 badges, 1,300 date bars, 5,800 medallions, 9,061 pendants 
and 1,130 official badges awarded to county pupils were all paid 
for through the State appropriation. These incentives to effort 
in the physical education program bring returns out of all pro- 
portion to the amount of money spent for this purpose, just over 
five thousand dollars. (See Table 166.) 

The amount of $5,342 spent on travel includes the expenses of 
the physicians who have been making physical examinations of 
the girls and boys in eight counties. This item also covers the 
transportation costs of the leaders who act as officials at the 
many county meets and athletic tournaments that are conducted 
during the year. (See Table 166.) 

The amount of $412 reported as for research includes the costs 
of a study of color blindness among high school boys and girls. 
(See Table 166.) 

Physical Education Supplies Purchased for the Counties 

Through the P. A. L. the counties may purchase the supplies 
and materials needed for the physical education program at a 
greatly reduced rate. During the school year 1930-31, the coun- 
ties paid $5,406 for these purchases. The savings possible 
through purchases from the P. A. L. permit more schools to have 
the needed equipment, and thus more children are able to partici- 
pate with pleasure and benefit in these healthful activities. 

BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS IN 1931 

There were 5,238 white pupils who took advantage of the 
opportunity of attending the 1931 summer school courses avail- 
able for eight weeks in 9 schools in Baltimore City. All except 
13.5 per cent of these pupils were taking review work. Of the 
enrollment 2,026 were senior high school pupils, 1,303 were in 
junior high schools and 1,909 were taking elementary school 
work. A staff of 98 teachers was employed at an expenditure 
of $21,261, which represented a cost of four dollars per pupil en- 
rolled. There was an increase in pupils and teachers over the 
preceding year. (See Table 167.) 

The colored pupils in summer schools numbered 3,240, of whom 
all except 8.6 per cent were taking review work. All of the col- 
ored pupils, except one-sixth, were in elementary school classes. 
There was little increase in enrollment over that for the preced- 
ing summer. With 56 colored teachers employed at an expense 
of $11,787, the cost per pupil enrolled was $3.63. 

The total number of summer school pupils who remained to 
the end of the term was 6,504 or 85 per cent of the enrollment. 
About 95 per cent of the pupils taking advance work and 90 per 
cent of those registered for review work were recommended for 
promotion. 



p. A. L. Finances; Baltimore City SummeiI and Evening Schools 223 

TABLE 167 



Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1931 









Net Roll at End of 


Term 


Per Cent of Net 
















Roll Promoted 
















Taking 




TYPE OF SCHOOL 


HQ 

"o 






'> 


a; 
«; 
C 
03 
> 






bi 

a; 




o 
s: 


I Enrol 




Pi 

C O 


< 
C O 


c o 




»f Tea( 




d 


eJ 
O 


"o 


IS 








d 








H 








< 





WHITE 



Secondary 




















Senior 


2 


2,026 


1,888 


1,749 


139 


86 


5 


95.0 


30 


Junior 


2 


1,303 


1,131 


1,050 


81 


93 





96.4 


22 




4 


1,578 


1,241 


1,118 


123 


97 


2 


96.8 


29 




1 


331 


267 




267 






97.5 


17 


Total 






9 


5,238 


4,527 


3.917 


610 


98 



COLORED 



Secondary 

Junior 

Elementary 

Demonstration 


*1 
*1 

4 
1 


327 
246 
2,233 
443 


280 
174 
1,891 
320 


252 
128 
1,737 
320 


28 
46 
154 


84.6 
82.9 
89.3 
75.0 


87.4 
98.6 
97.0 


8 
6 
36 
6 


Total 






7 


3.249 


2.665 


2.437 


228 


56 



ALL SCHOOLS 



1931 


16 


8,487 


7.192 


6,354 


838 ! 




154 


1930 


16 


7,663 


6,504 


5.592 


912 j 




145 



Same building. 

EVENING SCHOOLS 



In Baltimore City 

The adult population of Baltimore City indicates by its in- 
creased attendance at evening schools each year greater interest 
in the program which is available. There was a larger enrollment 
in every type of class offered in the white schools, and this was 
the case also in the colored schools, with the exception of the 
vocational industrial and home economics classes. 

In the white schools the secondary, commercial and vocational 
classes are in far greater demand than are the Americanization 
and elementary work, while in the colored schools the elemen- 
tary classes, many of which give instruction to illiterates, take 
care of nearly one half of the adults enrolled. (See Table 168.) 

The percentage of the average net roll in average attendance 
increased to 85 per cent in the white and 80 per cent in the col- 
ored evening schools. The secondary and commercial classes 



224 



1931 Report of State Department op Education 



TABLE 168 

Baltimore City Evening Schools for the Year Ending July 31, 1931 







Net Enrollment 




Number of Nights 


Type of Work 


Whit€ 


Colored 


1931 




1931 


1930 


1931 


1930 


White 


Colored 


Americanization 


1,711 


1,678 






70 




Academic 














V,] f m PT1 f « TV 


415 


324 


1 478 


1 "^70 


70 


*7n 


Secondary 


3,596 


3,273 


'535 


425 


99 


90 




2,738 


2,698 


396 


294 


t90 


90 


Vocational 












Industrial 


2.407 


2,102 


320 


342 


50 


50 


Home Economics .... 


880 


835 


461 


497 


50 


50 


Total 


11,747 


10,910 


3,190 


2,928 






Average Net Roll 


8,009 


7,161 


2,808 


2,544 






Average Attendance . . . , 


6,822 


5.588 


2,256 


2,015 






Per Cent of Attendance . 


. 85.1 


83.6 


80.3 


79.1 






No. of Teachers 


335 


310 


89 


85 






No. of Schools 


16 


16 


6 


6 







t Junior high school classes also had 90 nights. 
* Junior high school classes also had 70 nights. 

were in session for 90 nights, the Americanization and elemen- 
tary classes for 70 nights, and the vocational short unit classes 
for 50 nights. All of the schools began instruction at the same 
time in order to avoid the confusion of different opening dates. 
(See Table 168.) 

Although one-third of the enrollment dropped out before the 
close of the session, this was a much lower percentage of with- 
drawal than in any year previous. Most of the withdrawals 
occur after the Christmas holidays. Early in 1931 each pupil 
enrolled in the school prior to the holidays received an announce- 
ment of the reopening of school after the holidays. As a result 
a number of those who in previous years would have dropped out 
returned to complete the course. 

Instruction in the evening schools for white adults, excluding 
Americanization classes, cost $92,997. The amount spent for 
evening Americanization classes was $17,116 and for day classes, 
$1,216. The classes for colored adults cost $27,048. 

In the Counties 

The evening school program in the counties, except for some 
elementary school work at Hagerstown, was limited to the voca- 
tional industrial classes carried on for adults in Allegany, Gar- 
rett, Prince George's, and Washington Counties and the continu- 
ation classes for colored adults in Anne Arundel County. 



Evening Schools; Vocational Rehabilitation 



225 



There were 230 adults enrolled in the evening courses in Cum- 
berland, Mt. Savage and Westernport, who were instructed by 
outstanding industrial leaders in the community. Mining classes 
for 196 men in Allegany and Garrett Counties were taught by 
two instructors, one of whom was from the Bureau of Mines of 
the University of Maryland. (See Table 112, page 147.) 

An evening class organized at Laurel, Prince George's County, 
for employees of the B. & 0. had so small an enrollment that it 
was discontinued. 

Washington County organized two evening classes for 46 adults 
desiring elementary school instruction and seven instructors from 
the day school staff of vocational teachers taught 75 adults in 
sheet metal, electricity, wood, architecture, and auto mechanics 
in the evening. 

The general continuation classes for 61 waiters, waitresses 
and cooks at the Naval Academy were continued at the Annapo- 
lis Colored High School with a staff of 3 instructors. 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 

During the year ending June 30, 1931, 246 physically handi- 
capped persons of working age (over 14 years) were rendered 
some type of service by the State Supervisor of Vocational Re- 
habilitation. Out of this number, 18 were trained and satis- 

TABLE 169 



Service Rendered Cases Referred for Vocational Rehabilitation in Maryland During 
Year Ending June 30, 1931 



COUNTY 


Total 
No. 
of 

Cases 


Surveyed 
but 
Plan 
Not 
Made 


Plan 
Made. 
Ready for 
Training 
or 

Placement 


Being 
Prepared 
for Em- 
ployment 


Training 
Completed, 
Awaiting 

Em- 
ployment 


Rehabili- 
tated 


Not 
Eligible 
or Sus- 
ceptible of 
Rehabili- 
tation 


Total Counties. . 


141 


46 


36 


14 


o 


8 


32 


Allegany 


27 


10 


9 


1 




1 




Anne Arundel . . . 


12 


4 


2 


3 




3 


Caroline 


10 

5 


2 
1 


o 




1 


i 
1 


3 
2 


Carroll 


9 






9 




T 


Cecil 


4 












1 




2 


j 










Dorchester 


G 






1 






1 


Frederick 


11 


I 






1 




4 


Garrett 


9 




4 




1 


1 




1 






1 








2 


1 




1 








Kent 


1 






1 




Montgomery .... 
Prince George's. . 


8 






1 




1 


1 


8 


1 


2 






5 


2 






1 


1 






Talbot 


4 


1 


1 






2 




12 


9 


2 






1 






4 




1 
2 


1 


1 


1 




4 






1 


1 


Baltimore City. . 


105 


38 


17 


15 


7 


10 


18 


Entire State .... 


246 


84 


53 


29 


12 


.8 


50 



226 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

factorily placed in employment, 12 completed training but have 
not yet been placed in jobs, 29 were receiving vocational educa- 
tion, and 53 were ready for training or employment just as soon 
as opportunities opened. Of the remaining 134 cases, 84 were 
determined as eligible for rehabilitation service, while 50 were 
found to be ineligible. The rehabilitation program has had con- 
tact with handicapped persons in Baltimore City and in 20 out 
of 23 counties. (See Table 169.) 

Four important developments of the past year affecting the 
future of the rehabilitation program are : 

(1) The annual State appropriation for rehabilitation was raised 
from $5,000 to $10,000— this means that $20,000 per year will be avail- 
able for the next biennium since the Federal government matches each 
dollar of State money. 

(2) The Industrial Accident Law was amended so that if an employed 
physically handicapped person should become injured again, his em- 
ployer would be responsible only for the second injury. 

(3) An assistant supervisor of rehabilitation was employed effective 
September 1, 1931, to devote his entire time to the development of a 
comprehensive program for persons injured in employment accidents in 
Baltimore City. The supervisor will, therefore, be able to spend rnost 
of his time on the county program for special education and rehabilita- 
tion. (See pages 50-51 for the special education program.) 

(4) Plans for establishing a placement service for physically handi- 
capped persons who are not eligible for vocational training were in- 
augurated by the supervisor of rehabilitation in cooperation with the 
Stabilization Commission of Baltimore City and the Council of Social 
Agencies. 



COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION 

County current expenses for public elementary and secondary 
schools totalled $8,852,000 in 1931, an increase of slightly less 
than $400,000 over 1930. State funds furnished $2,387,000 of 
the total spent and county funds supplied the remaining $6,465,- 
000. State appropriations to the counties were practically double 
those available in 1919 and 1920, while county provision for 
school current expenses were 3.3 times greater in 1931 than they 
were in 1919. Capital outlay in 1931 amounted to $2,172,000. 
(See Table 170.) 

State appropriations to the Retirement System for 1931 on 
account of county teachers required $445,886, in addition to the 
amount of $2,387,000 just given. 

Expenditures in 1931 for current school maintenance in Balti- 
more City totalled $9,817,000, of which $946,000 came from State 
funds, and the remainder, $8,871,000, was provided from rev- 
enue raised by the City. These figures include amounts required 
for the colored training school for teachers, but exclude appro- 
priations of $818,631 made by City and State to the Baltimore 
City Retirement Fund on account of teachers. The amount of 
$818,631 for the Retirement System, which is excluded, was de- 
rive from State funds to the extent of $432,487 and from City 
funds for the remainder, $386,144. (See Table 170.) 

Combining county and city expenditures, exclusive of the 
amount of $1,264,517* from State and City funds applied to 
the retirement systems for teachers, makes the total figure for 
school current expenses $18,669,000. Excluding payments to the 
retirement systems of $878,373, the allowance from the State 
was $3,333,000, leaving the amount raised locally by counties and 
City a total of $15,336,000. (See Table 170.) 

The amount collected in public school taxes was $271,317 short 
of the amount appropriated in the Public School Budget to come 
from this source. It was, therefore, necessary to reduce the last 
quarterly distribution of the census and attendance fund by the 
amount uncollected at the close of the State's fiscal year, Septem- 
ber 30, 1931. Since the counties received $102,694 early in Octo- 
ber, 1931, to make up for the census and attendance fund deficit 
in 1930, this amount was added to the State allotments received 
for the State's fiscal year 1930-31, included in Tables 170 and 
172. A deficit of $150,000 for 1931 was anticipated and included 
in the 1933 budget, to be paid to the counties in October, 1932. 
The actual deficit in 1931, for which no provision was made, 
amounted to $121,317. For data on the school census of ages 6 
to 14 years for 1928 and 1930. the census and attendance fund 
for 1931 and 1932, and the 1931 deficit in the census and at- 
tendance fund, see Table 171. 

* This figure does not include the amounts teachers themselves contributed to the Retire- 
ment System which represent between 4 and 8 per cent of their salaries. 

227 



228 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 170 



Expenditure for School Current Expense From State and Local Funds and 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1931 



Year 
En'dixg 
JULV 31, 


CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Total 


From State 
Funds 


From Local 
Funds 


Capital 
Outlaj' 



Total Counties 



$3,184 
3.703 
5,043 
5,291 
5,964 
6.475 
6.743 
7,143 
7,517 
7,787 
8,164 
8,456 
8,852 



.351.22 
,153.29 
,923.02 
,124.43 
,456.44 
.802.93 
,015.08 
,149.65 
,728.77 
,298.09 
,657.18 
,414.05 
,073.43 



SI, 230, 
1,186. 
1,554. 
1 , 545 , 
2,026, 
2.068, 
2.161, 
2,248, 
2,329, 

°2.246. 

°2,322, 

t2,348, 
2.386, 



181.601 
192. 67i 
693.601 
695.85! 
315.581 
186.051 
571 .041 
399. 75| 
031.35i 
541. 47i 
643.821 
530.19! 
738 . 761 



$1,954 
2.516 
3.489 
3,745 
3,938 
4,407 
4.581 
4,894 
5,188 
5.540 
5,842 
6,107 
6,465 



.169.62 
.960.62 
,229.42 
,428.58 
,140.86 
,616.88 
,444.04 
,749.90 
,697.42 
,756.62 
,013.36 
,883.86 
,334.67 



I 311, 
485, 
929, 
1,121, 
1,475, 
949. 
2,527, 
2,602, 
1,023, 
1,532, 
1,773, 
2,450, 
2.172. 



137.08 
601.23 
024.08 
553.98 
268.52 
719.78 
823.35 
745.09 
362.25 
717.90 
070.68 
143.80 
087.55 



Baltimore City* 



1919 


$2,832,543 


59 


$ 671.006 


78! 


$2,161,536 


81 


$ 38,562.29 


1920 


3,706,641 


51 


713.287 


02; 


2.993,354 


49 


60.741.25 


1921 


5,394,655 


76 


1.032.541 


55 i 


4,362.114 


21 


1,267,636.20 


1922 


6,631,682 


32 


1,026,972 


79 


5,604,709 


53 


1.417,569.15 


1923 


6,949,793 


45 


1,066,100 


96 


5.883,692 


49 


3,301,086.21 


1924 


6,963.332 


47 


1.061.111 


63 


5,902.220 


84 


5,336,889.06 


1925 


7.419.638 


99 


1.042.479 


92 


6.377.159 


07 


3,224,733.82 


1926 


7,660,787 


84 


1,056.893 


87 


6.603,893 


97 


3,484,766.86 


1927 


8.040.694 


93 


1,086.496 


95 


6,954,197 


98 


4.200.037.45 


1928 


8,503.427 


29 


tl, 016, 993 


13 


7.486,434 


16 


1,897,871.37 


1929 


8,910.245 


11 


fl, 037, 490 


92 


7 , 872 . 754 


19 


633,631.71 


1930 


9,340,560 


01 


995.0(33 


18 


8,345.496 


83 


1,508,678.41 


1931 


9,817,669 


53 


946.023 


62 


8,871,645 


91 


3.658.046.55 



Entire State* 



$6,016, 
7,409, 
10,438, 
11,922 
12,914, 
13,439, 
14,162, 
14,803, 
15.558, 
16.290 
17,074, 
17,796, 
18,669, 



894.811 
794.80 
578.78 
806.75 
249.89 
135.40 
654.07 
937.49 
423 . 70 
725.38 
902.29 
974.06 
742 . 96 



$1,901 



,899 
,587 
,572 
,092 
,129 
,204 
,305 
,415 
°3 . 263 
°3.360 
13.343 
3.332 



188.38 
479.69 
235 . 15 
668.64 
416.54 
297.68 
050.96 
293.62 
528.301 
534 . 60 
134.74: 
.593.37' 
762.38 



$4,115, 
5.510, 
7,851. 
9.350. 
9.821. 
10,309, 
10,958, 
11,498. 
12.142, 
13.027, 
13,714. 
14,453, 
15.336, 



706.43 
315.11 
343.63 
138.11 
833.35 
837.72 
603.11 
643.87 
895.40 
190.78 
767 . 55 
380.69 
980.58 



5 349, 
546, 
2,196, 
2.539, 
4.776, 
6,286, 
5,752, 
6,087, 
5,223, 
3.430, 
2,406, 
3.958, 
5,830, 



699.37 
342.48 
660.28 
123.13 
354.73 
608.84 
557.17 
511.95 
399.70 
589.27 
702.39 
822.21 
134.10 



* Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers in City training schools, 
but excludes amounts appropriated by City and State for the Retirement Fund, 
t Excludes receipts, from liquidation of Free School Fund. 

" Excludes $6,500 to be used by Charles County for school building purposes. 



Total Disbursements; Census and Attendance P\'nd Deficits 229 



TABLE 171 

Comparison of Census of Ages 6 to 14 Years, Inclusive, Used in Computing State 
Aid for Two-Thirds of the Census and Attendance Fund and Census and Attendance 
Fund Appropriation and Receipts, 1930-1 and 1931-2 



Countv 
• 


Total Population 

Ages 6-14 
Years Inclusive 


Census and Attendance Fund 


Appropriations in 
State Budget of 


1930-31 Budget 


Available 
Tow"ard 
1930-31 

Deficit in 
193J-3-i 
Budget 


1 

§1931-32 j 


tl930-31 


1931-32 


1930-31 


Receipts 


Deficit 


Total Counties . 


159,230 


155,961 


$995 , 580 


$1,061,322 


$909,767 


$151 


,555 


$83,790 


Alleganv 


15.929 


15.450 


100,980 


106,737i 


91.495 


15 


,242 


8.430 


Anne Arundel. . . 


9,901 


9.431 


62.820 


65,490 


56,138 


9 


,352 


5 . 175 


Baltimore 


22,911 


21,734 


142,740 


149 , 269 


127,954 


21 


,315 


11,790 


Calvert 


2,190: 


2,225 


13,080 


14.378 


12,325 


2 


.053 


1 , 140 


CaroUne 


3.449i 


3,458 


21,900 


23,806 


20,406 


3 


,400 


1,875 


Carroll 


5,937 


6,094 


38,220 


41,696 


35,742 


5 


.954 


3 , 2 S.5 


Cecil 


4,706 


4,543 


28,800 


30.429 


26.0S4 


4 


,345 


2.400 


Charles 


3,661 


3,389 


21.720 


22,024 


18,879 


3 


,145 


1.740 


Dorchester 


5,018 


5,179 


31,260 


34.840 


29,865 


4 


,975 


2 , 74.5 


Frederick 


10,203 


10.331 


64 , 140 


70,196 


60.172 


10 


.024 


5 . .535 


Garrett 


4,467 


4,400 


29,100 


30.685 


26.303 


4 


.382 


2.415 


Harford 


5,513 


5,379 


34,980 


37,392 


32,052 


5 


.340 


2.955 


Howard 


3,483 


3.010 


20.760 


20,259 


17,366 


2 


,893 


1.605 


Kent 


2.681 


2,740 


16.800 


18,506 


15,864 


2 


,642 


1.470 


Montgomery. . . . 


9,498 


8,M7 


59.460 


60,862 


52.171 


8 


,691 


4.800 


Prince George's. . 


12.86i 


12.365 


78,720 


82,621 


70,823 


11 


,798 


6,525 


Queen Anne's . . . 


2,776 


3,103 


17,340 


20.252 


17,360 


2 


,892 


1,605 


St. Mary's 


3,842 


3.863 


20,880 


22.7&i 


19,530 


3 


,254 


1,800 




4,546 


4,579 


28.560 


30.894 


26,483 


4 


,411 


2.445 


Talbot 


3.230 


3.268 


20.520 


22,567 


19.344 


3 


.223 


1.78.5 


Washington 


12,313 


12,258 


80.280 


86.528 


74,172 


12 


.356 


6.825 


Wicomico 


5.720 


5.948 


35.700 


39,986 


34,276 


5 


,710 


3.150 


Worcester 


4.392 


4,367 


26,820 


29.121 


24.963 


4 


,158 


2.295 


Baltimore City . . 


127. 390! 


122,615 


804.420 


838.678* 


718.916 


119 


,762 


66.210 


Entire State. . . . 


286,620 


278,576 


1,800.000 


1,900,000 


1,628,683 


271 


,317 


150,000 



* Used in determining the State aid for two-thirds of the Census and Attendance Fund. 
§ Based on 1930 school census in the counties and 1930 federal census in Baltimore City, 
t Based on 1928 school census in the counties and 1929 police census in Baltimore City. 



The State and federal aid received in 1931 by the 23 counties 
represented 27 per cent of their school current expense budgets. 
The aid from the State Equalization fund amounted to 6 per cent 
of the total expenditures for school maintenance in the 23 coun- 
ties. While the average aid from the State to the counties was 
only 27 per cent, counties varied inversely with their financial 
ability in the proportion of State aid received. Six counties, 
Somerset, Calvert, Garrett, Charles, St. Mary's, and Caroline 
received over 47 per cent of their school current expenses from 
State and federal funds ; while at the opposite extreme, six coun- 
ties, Anne Arundel, Frederick, Washington, Allegany, Montgom- 
ery, and Baltimore, and Baltimore City received less than 23 per 
cent from these sources. The amount of total disbursements for 
Baltimore City shown in Table 172 excludes expenditures for the 
colored training school for teachers and for the Retirement Sys- 
tem with respect to teachers. (See Table 172 and Chart 31.) 



230 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



For the State as a whole 18 per cent of the disbursements for 
school maintenance came from State and federal aid, if the cost 
of the colored teachers' training school and aid to the retirement 
systems in the State and in Baltimore is not considered. (See 
Table 172.) 



TABLE 172 

Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received from State 
and Vocational Funds for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



County 



Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expenses 



Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 



State and 
Vocational 
Aid 



County and 
Other 
Sources 



Per Cent of Current Expense Dis- 
bursements Received from 



> 3 



-go 

go 
o 



Total Counties 

Somerset , 

Calvert , 

Garrett , 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Caroline 

Dorchester 

Wicomico , 

Worcester. ... 
Carroll 

Kent 

Queen Anne's . 

Howard 

Talbot 

Harford 

Prince George's 

Cecil 

Anne Arundel. 

Frederick 

Washington. . . 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . 
Baltimore 

Baltimore City 

State 



*$8,852,073.43 

218,153.48 
101,433.38 
331,427.05 
161,727.22 
115,398.74 

218,438.87 
280,115.04 
283,182.85 
238,977.04 
451,644.78 

172,193.38 
162,293.95 
165,164.95 
202,136.56 
326,915.59 

600,163.62 
275,945.72 
537,059.08 
546,315.57 
687,834.81 

905,548.22 
643,958.94 
1,226,044.59 

t9, 802, 004. 23 

tl8, 654,077 



$2,386,738.76 

130,310.60 
57,345.15 

178,273.98 
86,805.30 
55,255.48 

104,057.94 
115,927.45 
101,853.25 
80,790.73 
141,902.41 

52,158.19 
48,013.03 
44,937.94 
49,681.55 
77,181.75 

141,440.22 
64,903.23 
118,494.88 
119,370.48 
137,760.26 

169,736.54 
112,280.84 
198,257.56 

t946,023.62 

t3, 332, 762. 38 



$ 6,465,334.67 

87,842.88 
44,088.23 
153,153.07 
74,921.92 
60,143.26 

114,380.93 
164,187.59 
181,329.60 
158,186.31 
309,742.37 

120,035.19 
114,280.92 
120,227.01 
152,455.01 
249,733.84 

458,723.40 
211,042.49 
418,564.20 
426,945.09 
550,074.55 

735,811.68 
531,678.10 
1,027,787.03 

t8, 855, 980. 61 

tl5,321,315.28 



27.0 

59.7 
56.5 
53.8 
53.7 
47.9 

47.6 
41.4 
36.0 
33.8 
31.4 

30.3 
29.6 
27.2 
24.6 
23.6 

23.6 
23.5 
22.1 
21.9 
20.0 

18.7 
17.4 
16.2 

9.7 

17.9 



21.0 

25.0 
26.7 
19.7 
27.2 
30.5 

24.5 
23.2 
25.6 
24.1 
19.6 

22.6 
26.2 
27.2 
24.6 
23.6 

23.6 
23.5 
18.6 
21.9 
20.0 



6.0 

34.7 
29.8 
34.1 
26.5 
17.4 

23.1 
18.2 
10.4 
9.7 
11.8 

7.7 
3.4 



3.5 



15.1 



2.8 



73.0 

40.3 
43.5 
46.2 
46.3 
52.1 

52.4 
58.6 
64.0 
66.2 
68.6 

69.7 
70.4 
72.8 
75.4 
76.4 

76.4 
76.5 
77.9 
78.1 
80.0 

81.3 
82.6 
83.8 

90.3 

82.1 



* Includes $102,694 deficit in census and attendance funds for 1929-30 not paid until October, 
1931, but excludes $150,000 deficit in census and attendance funds for year 1930-31 to be paid in 
October, 1932. See Tables XXI to XXII. pages 315 to 317. 

t Excludes amounts paid by City and State toward Retirement System on account of 
teachers. 



Proportion of Aid Received from State 



CHART 31 

PER CENT OF CORRENT EXPH^DITDRES FOR YEAR EMDING JUL! 31, 1931 



I State and Vocational Funds Excluding 

ina 



County 



Coimty Average 



Received from Q 



] Equalization Fund 



Equalization Func 



6 V////////////Z^y 




County Funds and Other Sources 
20 40 60 80 



100 



V////////////////////////// 



V///////////////////////////////////// 



8 v////y////////////////////////////////^, 



\V/////////?/////////////////////////^^^^ 




Baltimore City 
State 



HOW THE SCHOOL DOLLAR IS SPENT 

Of every dollar spent for school current expense for 1930-31 
in the twenty-three counties, 68.5 cents were used to pay the 
salaries of principals and teachers. This amount was .7 cents 
lower than in the preceding year, and the reduction was possi- 
ble because of the consolidation of schools. The only item in the 
school dollar which showed an increase was auxiliary agencies, 



232 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



which grew from 8.1 cents to 9.4 cents. Transportation of pupils 
forms the bulk of the expenditure for auxiliary agencies and 
accompanies the consolidation of schools and reduction in sal- 
aries. Operation, maintenance, supervision, and general con- 
trol showed reductions of .2 or .1 cents when compared with 1930. 
(See Table 173 and Chart 32.) 



TABLE 173 



Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used For 


rer oent oi 
Expenditures 
for Current 
Expenses and 
Capital Out- 
lay Used for 
L/apitai 
vJutlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 


County Average 


3.3 


2.1 


68.5 


4.8 


7.0 


3.4 


9.4 


1.5 


— . 

19.7 


Allegany 


2.5 


2.0 


69.1 


7.1 


7.2 


3.4 


7.3 


1.4 


13.6 


Anne Arundel . 


3.1 


2.5 


62.2 


3.8 


6.4 


6.1 


14.3 


1.6 


15 8 




2.8 


1.5 


71.1 


4.9 


8.2 


2.0 


7.0 


2.5 


39.7 


Calvert 


7.3 


3.9 


58.2 


3.7 


4.2 


2.8 


18.5 


1.4 


5.5 




3.6 


2.0 


65.9 


3.4 


6.9 


1.1 


15.7 


1.4 


/ 


Carroll 


3.2 


1.9 


65.0 


6.2 


4.8 


3.8 


13.5 


1.6 


19.6 


Cecil 


3.2 


3.7 


70.2 


4.7 


7.2 


3.1 


7.3 


.6 


19.3 


Charles 


3.7 


2.2 


60.8 


3.5 


6.2 


4.5 


18.1 


1.0 


13.4 




3.7 


2.2 


65.8 


3.6 


5.8 


5.7 


12.4 


.8 


1.5 




3.0 


1.8 


69.3 


3.2 


6.2 


2.7 


11.5 


2.3 


4.8 


Garrett 


3.9 


3.2 


66.3 


3.7 


4.9 


2.7 


12.5 


2.8 


8.0 




3.1 


2.0 


73.5 


4.3 


6.4 


6.0 


4.1 


.6 


10.6 




4.3 


2.2 


69.3 


3.3 


6.6 


1.1 


8.8 


4.4 


2.1 


Kent 


5.0 


2.6 


64.7 


5.9 


7.8 


4.6 


8.8 


.6 


1.6 




3.0 


2.1 


66.5 


5.4 


8.9 


5.9 


7.0 


1.2 


8.7 




3.5 


1.6 


72.4 


5.1 


8.1 


4.6 


4.7 




16.1 




5.4 


2.5 


63.5 


3.5 


6.4 


1.3 


15.5 


1.9 


1.7 


St. Mary's 


6.5 


3.1 


61.6 


2.3 


4.3 


3.1 


17.0 


2.1 


7.3 




4.1 


1.7 


70.3 


3.7 


6.6 


1.1 


11.3 


1.2 


6.4 


Talbot 


4.8 


2.2 


64.7 


3.9 


8.8 


2.1 


12.1 


1.4 


1.6 


Washington 


2.3 


1.5 


74.0 


6.2 


6.2 


2.5 


5.8 


1.5 


37.0 




4.3 


2.5 


72.7 


3.9 


6.2 


2.2 


7.0 


1.2 


26.2 




3.7 


1.7 


65.9 


4.2 


9.5 


2.4 


11.3 


1.3 


25.7 


Baltimore City* 


3.4 


2.2 


72.1 


4.2 


9.2 


4.3 


4.3 


.3 


27.2 


State* 


3.4 


2.1 


70.4 


4.5 


8.1 


3.9 


6.7 


.9 


23.8 



*In making this calculation, $818,631, estimate of actuary of amount contributed by Baltimore 
City and State to State Teachers' Retirement System, has not been considered. 



Just over 5 cents of each dollar was used for general control 
and supervision to insure the efficient spending of the remain- 
ing 95 cents needed to bring about satisfactory conditions for 
the instruction of children. On the average, 5 cents were used 
for books and materials, necessary aids in the teaching process. 
(See Table 173 and Chart 32.) 



Per Cent Distribution of School 'Expenditures 233 
CHART 32 

HOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 
IN THE MARYLAND COUNTIES, 1931 




r 



* Fixed Charges and Tuition to Adjoining Counties. 



In the individual counties, the proportion of the tax dollar 
used for salaries varied from approximately 60 cents in the three 
southernmost counties of Southern Maryland to over 70 cents 
in Washington, Harford, Wicomico, Prince George's, and Balti- 
more Counties. In the counties spending but 60 cents out of each 
dollar for salaries, transportation expenditures required between 
17 and 18.5 cents, while in the counties with a higher proportion 
spent for salaries, the auxiliary agency item required only from 
5 to 7 cents of each tax dollar. 



234 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The small counties had to devote a larger proportion of each 
school dollar to general control, from 5 to 7 cents, than was the 
case in the largest counties, which spent 3 cents or less for this 
purpose. All of the functions of planning for the management of 
schools must be carried on whether the county be large or small. 

The amount used for books and instructional materials was 
over 5 cents out of each school current expense dollar in Alle- 
gany, Carroll, Washington, Kent, Montgomery, and Prince 
George's. On the other hand, 3.5 cents or less of each dollar 
was spent for these indispensable tools of instruction in St. 
Mary's, Frederick, Howard, Caroline, Charles, and Queen Anne's. 

Cleaning and heating school buildings required on the aver- 
age 7 cents of each dollar. In some counties where janitorial 
service is not provided, only slightly over 4 cents was devoted 
to this purpose, whereas other counties with large consolidated 
schools had to employ efficient janitors to care for the central 
heating and ventilating plants. There was considerable varia- 
tion in the part of the tax dollar devoted to repair and replace- 
ment of buildings and equipment. Some counties spent only 1 
cent, while others used 6 cents for this purpose. 

As noted before, the amount a county needs for auxiliary 
agencies varies with the percentage of children in the county 
transported to consolidated schools, with the policy of charg- 
ing high school pupils transported all or part of the cost of their 
transportation, with the plans for managing transportation, with 
the funds for libraries furnished the schools, and the aid given 
by the school board toward the physical education and health 
program. The counties varied from an expenditure of 4 cents 
for auxiliary agencies to over 18 cents spent from each current 
expense tax dollar. 

Fixed charges and tuition to adjoining counties used less than 
a cent in several counties, while over 4 cents was devoted to this 
purpose in Howard, which has many of its residents attending 
school in adjoining counties. Capital outlay charges must be 
paid for each pupil who attends school in an adjoining county 
with the approval of the superintendent. In addition, tuition 
charges, equal to 60 per cent of the cost in the average county, 
must be paid to every county instructing children from an ad- 
joining county, if the county giving the instruction does not re- 
ceive the Equalization Fund. 

Proportion of Funds Used for Capital Outlay 

If to expenditures for current expense, capital outlay is added, 
one fifth of the combined total went for capital outlay. In six 
counties less than 5 per cent of the combined total was used for 
capital outlay, while in four counties, capital outlay totaled over 
one fourth of the funds used. In Baltimore and Washington 
Counties, 40 and 37 per cent, respectively, was used for capital 



% Distribution of School Expenditures; Coarr PEai Pupil Belonging 235 

outlay. In most of the counties where the percentage of the com- 
bined cost used for capital outlay was over 10, except in Cecil, 
Carroll, and Harford, the funds available for capital outlay were 
derived from the sale of bonds. (See last column in Table 173.). 

COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING FOR SCHOOL CURRENT 

EXPENSE 

The average expenditure per white and colored day school 
pupil belonging in county schools, excluding expenditures for 
tuition to adjoining counties, was $56.44 in 1931, nearly $1.00 
more per pupil than for the preceding year. Since the propor- 
tion of the enrollment in high school grows larger each year and 
the instruction of a high school pupil is twice as expensive as 

TABLE 174 



fCost Per Day-School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
1928, 1929, 1930 and 1931 



County 


tl928 


tl929 


tl930 


tl931 


Increase 

1931 
over 1930 


County Average 


$52.62 


$54 


55 


$55 


49 


$56 


.44 


$ .95 


Garrett 


66.96 


71 


12 


72 


46 


69 


17 


♦3.29 


Carroll 


64.14 


62 


79 


66 


83 


68 


75 


1.92 


Montgomery 


57.11 


62 


92 


64 


51 


68 


29 


3.78 


Allegany 


62.40 


62 


58 


61 


31 


61 


45 


.14 


Kent 


58.00 


57 


45 


58 


23 


61 


15 


2.92 


Cecil 


56.43 


60 


91 


60 


94 


60 


84 


MO 


Baltimore 


56.40 


57 


19 


56 


71 


58 


05 


1.34 


Queen Anne's 


57.09 


59 


66 


59 


72 


57 


55 


*2.17 


Caroline 


50.91 


50 


97 


55 


67 


57 


13 


1.46 


Harford 


47.76 


50 


93 


54 


58 


56 


05 


1.47 


Howard 


53.27 


54 


52 


56 


23 


56 


02 


*.21 


Talbot 


50.90 


52 


81 


53 


67 


54 


86 


1.19 


Dorchester 


47.59 


50 


96 


51 


64 


54 


21 


2.57 


Anne Arimdel 


49.37 


52 


59 


53 


37 


53 


72 


.35 


Worcester 


49.02 ' 


51 


96 


51 


35 


53 


36 


2.01 


Frederick 


48.67 


50 


56 


51 


46 


52 


88 


1.42 


Prince George's 


50.98 


49 


74 


50 


70 


51 


55 


.85 


Washington 

St. Mary's 


45.22 


49 


01 


50 


71 


51 


31 


.60 


41.74 


43 


21 


46 


15 


49 


59 


3.44 


Calvert 


42.57 


46 


28 


46 


00 


47 


94 


1.94 


Charles 


40.68 


42 


60 


49 


42 


47 


86 


♦1.56 


Wicomico 


48.27 


49 


64 


48 


56 


46 


42 


*2.14 


Somerset 


42.72 


45 


72 


44 


51 


45 


75 


1.24 



* Decrease. 

t In making this calculation, erpenditures for tuition to adjoining counties and states, and for evening 
schools have been excluded and number belonging at Towson, Salisbury and Bowie Normal Elementary- 
Schools have been eliminated. 



236 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



that of an elementary school pupil, as long as the present stand- 
ard for salaries and other functions remains the same, the aver- 
age cost per pupil will continue to increase until the proportion 
of pupils going to high school becomes stationary. (See Table 
174.) 

Costs varied from less than $50 per pupil in the southernmost 
counties of Southern Maryland and the lower Eastern Shore, 
which have a large proportion of colored pupils, to more than 
$68 per pupil in Garrett, Carroll, and Montgomery Counties. 
Garrett has no colored pupils, and despite considerable progress 
in school consolidation still has the largest number of one-teacher 
schools in the State, which means that there are many small 
classes necessitating a high cost per pupil. Montgomery and 
Carroll have a very rich program of special subjects in their 
high schools and comparatively small elementary classes. 

The cost per pupil in Garrett is $3.29 lower than it was for 
the year preceding. Costs were lower in five other counties in 
1931 than they were in 1930. Montgomery, St. Mary's, Kent, 
and Dorchester showed the largest increases in cost over the pre- 
ceding year. Since Dorchester and, especially, St. Mary's, are 
spending considerably less per pupil than the average county, 
such increases will continue until teachers holding regular first 
grade certificates working in well equipped classrooms are found 
throughout the county. (See Table 174.) 

The analyses of the costs for white elementary, white high and 
colored schools, given on pages 71-85, 142-155, and 195-197, ex- 
plain the variation and changes from 1930 to 1931. 



Cost per Pupil for General Control 



TABLE 175 
Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



1929 



1930 



1931 



Decrease 
1931 
under 
1930 



County 



1929 



1930 



1931 



County Average . 



$1.85 

3.67 
3.20 
3.13 
t2.73 
3.01 

2.45 
2.54 
2.13 
2.31 
2.25 



$1.92 

3.57 
3.28 
3.22 
2.88 
3.20 

2.75 
2.63 
2.18 
2.25 
2.41 



$1.90 

3.53 
3.23 
3.16 
3.05 
2.77 

2.69 
2.53 
2.17 
2.07 
2.04 



$ .02 

.04 
.05 
.06 
*.17 
.43 

.06 
.10 
.01 
.18 
.37 



Dorchester. . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Cecil 

Somerset 

Prince George's 

Charles 

Harford 

Anne Arundel . . 
Baltimore 

Frederick 

Allegany 

Washington 



$1.73 
1.94 
2.06 
2.11 
2.00 

1.42 
1.79 
1.63 
1.50 
1.63 

1.25 
1.55 
1.17 



$1.78 
1.95 
2.10 
2.06 
1.85 

1.82 
1.76 
1.63 
1.58 
1.66 

1.61 
1.46 
1.20 



$1.99 
1.98 
1.97 
1.95 
1.88 

1.79 
1.77 
1.76 
1.71 
1.65 

1.61 
1.56 
1.19 



* Increase. 

t Adjusted to include payments actually due in year in question. 
For 1931 disbursements for general control, see Table XXIV, page 318, 



Cost per Pupil Belonging; Total and, for General Control 237 

The administration of the school system, whether it be large 
or small, requires the carrying on of all of the functions which 
exist in order that instruction to children may be most effective. 
When general control costs are divided by number of pupils in 
the large counties, the cost per pupil appears to be small, whereas 
the small counties will show a high cost per pupil for general 
control. The average county cost in 1931 of $1.90 was two cents 
lower than in 1930. Costs varied from over $3 per pupil in four 
of the counties having the smallest public school population to 
less than $1.75 in five of the counties having the largest school 
population. The cost per pupil in the highest county was $3.53 
and in the lowest county, $1.19. (See Table 175.) 

Comparative Cost per Pupil in County White Elementary and High Schools 

In 1931 the average cost of instructing a county white elemen- 
tary school pupil was $50.17, while the corresponding cost per 
county white high school pupil was $98.54. Chiefly because high 



CHART 33 




1931 COST, EXCLUDING G3JERAL CONTROL, 



PER COUNTY PUPIL BELONGING 



In White 
Elementary 
Schools 



In White 
High Schools 



$98.54 




150.17 



a. Supervision. 

b. Text Books and Supplies. 



238 



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Comparative Cost per Pupil in High and Elementary Schools 239 

school classes are smaller and high school salaries, based on the 
two additional years of preparation required, are higher, the 
cost per high school pupil for salaries is just double that per 
county elementary school pupil. (See Chart 33 and Table 176.) 

Expenditure per white high school pupil for operation and 
maintenance of buildings, $10.82, is nearly double the expendi- 
ture per white elementary school pupil for these purposes. This 
is due to the smaller number of pupils per high school class and 
to the need of space for laboratories in science and home eco- 
nomics, for shops for industrial arts and agriculture, and for 
commercial work. Auditoriums or assembly rooms and gym- 
nasia are also required in the high school buildings, which are not 
always supplied for the elementary schools, especially for those 
housing a small numl)er of elementary school classes. (See 
Chart 33.) 

The expenditure for auxiliary agencies per white high school 
pupil, $9.49, is one and three quarter times the amount for each 
white elementary school pupil. The number of high schools is 
limited, compared with the number of elementary schools, so 
that the high school pupils need to be transported much longer 
distances than are the elementary school pupils. Library needs 
of high school pupils are greater than those of elementary school 
pupils, because so much more of the work is done with reference 
materials and the interests of older pupils are so much broader. 
(See Chart 33.) 

Expenditure per pupil for books and materials and costs of 
instruction other than salaries amounted to $6.71 per white high 
school pupil, in contrast with $2.12 for each white elementary 
school pupil. The amount per high school pupil, which is 3.2 
times that for an elementary school pupil, is greater not only 
because the number and size of books used is necessarily larger, 
thus increasing the cost of books, but also because the high school 
enrollment continues to mount rapidly, bringing a large propor- 
tion of new high school pupils who must be provided for annu- 
ally with an entirely new set of books. The elementary school 
enrollment is growing in only a few counties which are increas- 
ing in population. However, it is important to understand that 
unless elementary school pupils have access to and are trained 
in the use of books and reference material of wide variety, they 
are not likely to use such materials at all if provision of it is 
postponed until they reach high school. (See Chart 33.) 



FINANCING VOCATIONAL WORK IN MARYLAND 

The allotment to Maryland for 1930-31 from the Federal gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes and George Reed Acts was 
$105,953, of which a maximum of $38,145 was allocated to agri- 
culture, $54,038 to industrial education and home economics, and 
$13,770 to teacher training and supervision. The amount of this 
Federal Fund actually used was $94,366, leaving an unexpended 
balance of $11,587, which was returned to the Federal govern- 
ment. The balance existed because the Acts specifically desig- 
nate that certain amounts must be used for part-time and con- 
tinuation work in industry, and this phase of vocational train- 
ing is developing only gradually. Of the $94,366 received and 
used, $30,472 was expended for salaries of teachers of agricul- 
ture, $32,369 for salaries of teachers of trade and industrial sub- 
jects, $14,404 for salaries of teachers of home economics, and 
$17,121 for administration, supervision and teacher training in 
these three branches. 

Vocational work is further aided through State appropria- 
tions amounting to $10,483 toward the salaries of vocational 
teachers in the counties, and $10,830 for administration and 
supervision of vocational work. In addition, there were expendi- 
tures for vocational work from county funds and from State 
funds, such as high school aid and the Equalization fund, total- 
ling $51,069, from city funds amounting to $150,194, and from 
the University of Maryland aggregating $10,477. The total 
amount spent in Maryland in 1931 for vocational education, in- 
cluding the Federal reimbursement, was $327,390. For the voca- 
tional salary expenditures in the various counties, see Table 112, 
page 147. 

Baltimore City's Vocational Education Program 



TABLE 177 

Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enroll- 
ment 


Vocational 
Education 
Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Inrlustrial 

Day Home Economics. . 
Part-time Industrial. . . . 
General Continuation . . 

Evening Industrial 

Evening Home 

Economics 

Total 


$88,483.30 
33,920.00 
3,575.00 
4.200.00 
9,666.00 

10,350.12 


$4,306.70 

3,575.00 
4,200.00 

1,690.88 


$92,790.00 
33,920.00 
7,150.00 
8,400.00 
9,666.00 

12,041.00 


745 
374 
45 
443 
1,063 

1,571 


$124.55 
90.70 
158.89 
18.96 
9.09 

7.66 


$150,194.42 


'<!;13 .772 58 


$163,967 00 


4.241 











240 



Financing Vocational Work in Maryland 



241 



The 1931 salary cost of the vocational education program in 
Baltimore City was nearly $164,000, an increase of $38,000 over 
1930. Baltimore City appropriations of $150,000 covered the cost 
of 92 per cent of the salary budget, and the Federal reimburse- 
ments totalling $13,773 carried the remaining 8 per cent. Almost 
three fifths of the vocational salary expenditures were used for 
salaries of teachers in the 5 day vocational schools, which en- 
rolled 745 pupils. The salary cost per pupil was $125. (See 
Table 111.) 

In the part-time and general continuation classes the Federal 
appropriation matched the city expenditures. The salary cost 
per pupil in the part-time industrial classes, which enrolled only 
45 pupils, was $159. In the evening industrial classes, with 
1,063 enrolled, the salary cost per pupil was $9.09. (See Table 
111,) 

The major portion of the salary cost in the evening home eco- 
nomics classes was paid by Baltimore City, Federal funds carry- 
ing only $1,691 out of the total cost of $12,041. An enrollment 
of 1,571 pupils brought the salary cost per pupil to $7.66. (See 
Table 111.) 

Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education 



TABLE 178 

Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational Education, 
Year Ending July 31, 1931 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 
Md. 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


$4,438.68 
t3,537.57 
2,854.18 


$3,738.69 
1,980.58 
2,854.19 


$3,263.04 
3,004.41 
2,279.64 


$3,263.04 
3,004.40 
2,279.63 


$7,701.72 
6,541.98 
5.133.82 


$7,001.73 
4,984.98 
5,133.82 


$10,830.43 


$8,573.46 


$8,547.09 


$8,547.07 


$19,377.52 


$17,120.53 



t Includes $900 paid by Baltimore City. 



Administration, supervision, and teacher training in agricul- 
ture cost $14,704. Towards this total the State contributed $4,- 
439, the University of Maryland, $3,263, and the Federal Govern- 
ment, $7,002. For supervision and teacher training for vocational 
work in trade and industry, the State contributed $2,638, Balti- 
Tnore City paid $900, and the University of Maryland expendi- 
tures were $3,004. The Federal allotment of $4,985 made the 
total expenditures for these purposes $11,527. For vocational 
home economics the Federal Government matched expenditures 
by the State and University of Maryland, the State appropria- 
tion being $2,854, that of the University of Maryland, $2,280, 
thus making the total expenditure, including the Federal funds, 
$10,268. (See Table 178.) 



MORE PUPILS TRANSPORTED TO COUNTY SCHOOLS 

For the school year 1930-1931, the 23 Maryland counties spent 
from county funds $744,400 for the transportation of 29,006* 
pupils to county schools. These figures were larger by $141,252 
in cost and 6,192 in pupils than the corresponding figures in 
1930. (See Table 179.) 



TABLE 179 



County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910 — 1931 



Year 


Transportation 


Counties 


iM u.iiiL>cr oi ir upiis 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 




1915 


17,270 


10 




1920 


64,734 


18 




1921 


84,870 


18 




1922 


90,011 


18 




1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 


1929 


1512,385 


23 


18,928 


1930 


603,148 


23 


22,814 


1931 


744,400 


23 


*29,006 



* Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
t Excludes $1,056 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



Of the 28,959 county pupils transported at public expense, 
20,593 were carried to white elementary schools, 7,720 to white 
high schools and 646 to colored schools. These figures were 
higher than those for the preceding year by 3,923 white elemen- 
tary, 2,060 white high, and 162 colored pupils. (See Table 180.) 

The counties paid all of the costs of transporting county ele- 
mentary pupils, but in some of the counties parents of high school 
pupils had to supplement the amounts paid by the county for 
transporting high school pupils. This was the case in Baltimore, 
Frederick, Harford, Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, 
Queen Anne's, and Washington Counties, where parents paid 
from $1 to $4 per month for this purpose. County expenditures 

* Includes 47 pupils transported at State expense to Bowie Normal School elementary 
school. 



242 



Pupils Transported and Cost of Transportation 



243 



TABLE 180 

Maryland Pupils Transported in 1931 at Expense of Counties 



Pupils Transported 



COUNTY 


















To Ele- 


To 




To Ele- 


To 




Total 


mentary 


High 


Total 


mentary 


High 






School 


School 




School 


School 


Total Counties .... 


* , uuo 


*01 071 


/ ,yoo 




«fiOJ. A1Q 

5hOi4*, Diy 




Baltimore 


t3,506 


t2.442 


1.064 


t68.630 


t43,775 


24,855 


Anne Arundel .... 


*3,039 


*2.598 


441 


68,048 


54.451 


13,597 


Frederick 


2,469 


2.303 


166 


60,247 


54.742 


5,505 


CarroU 


2,065 


1,473 


592 


57,224 


41,701 


15,523 




1 , ooU 


1 AO& 




zlQ 




y , zoL 




1,050 


544 


506 


40,794 


22,395 


18,399 


Dorchester 


1,302 


929 


373 


34,024 


22,765 


11,259 


Montgomery 


1,587 


1,033 


554 


33,490 


25,215 


8,275 


Caroline 


1,408 


962 


446 


33,474 


21,981 


11,493 




1 1 on 


CQQ 
OOO 








y ,uyy 


Charles 


1,074 


777 


297 


29,112 


20,167 


8,945 


Worcester 


1,124 


713 


411 


25,865 


16,207 


9,658 


Prince George's . . . 


987 


751 


236 


25,041 


20,427 


4,614 


Somerset 


874 


563 


311 


24,113 


12,370 


11,743 


Queen Anne's 


866 


597 


269 


24,043 


17,185 


6,858 


Talbot 


848 


570 


278 


23,414 


15,634 


7,780 


Cecil 


642 


422 


220 


19,647 


12,510 


7.137 


St. Mary's 


599 


399 


200 


19,022 


11,361 


7,661 


Calvert 


479 


269 


210 


18,595 


9,910 


8,685 




797 


434 


363 


17,948 


9,151 


8,797 


Howard 


477 


308 


169 


14,335 


10,156 


4,179 


Kent 


391 


186 


205 


14,108 


7,670 


6.438 


Harford 


352 


352 




11,148 


11,148 















County Expenditures 
for Transportation 



* Includes 47 pupils transported to Bowie Normal School at State expense, 
t Includes $107.50 for nine colored pupils transported to Baltimore City. 

for elementary school transportation totalled $524,619, while 
those for high school transportation aggregated $219,781. (See 
Table 180.) 

Baltimore County transported at public expense over 3,500 
pupils, Anne Arundel over 3,000, Frederick nearly 2,500, and 
Carroll nearly 2,100. Only five counties, Harford, Kent, Howard, 
Calvert, and St. Mary's transported fewer than 600 pupils. 

Total expenditures for transportation were over $68,000 in 
Baltimore and Anne Arundel, $60,000 in Frederick, and $57,000 
in Carroll. Harford, Kent, Howard, Wicomico, Calvert, St. 
Mary's, and Cecil, spent over $11,000 and under $20,000 for 
transportation. (See Table 180.) 



244 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of pupils transported at public expense increased 
from 1930 to 1931 in every county, except Harford, Kent, and 
Somerset, and the expenditures for this purpose increased in 
every county, except Harford and Kent. The greatest change 
from 1930 to 1931 in transportation policies occurred in Carroll, 
which before 1931 carried no high school pupils at public expense 
and in 1931 transported 592 at a cost of $15,523. 

The high school transportation policy in a number of cases 
has involved the closing of small, inefficient, exceedingly expen- 
sive high schools, and has made it possible to meet the needs of 
individual pupils better in larger schools offering a choice of cur- 
ricula and subjects. It also has made it feasible for many pupils 
whose residences were too far distant to take advantage of the 
opportunity for a high school education, which has always been 
a simple matter for those who lived in close proximity to the 
limited number of high schools which should be provided in a 
county if they are to be large enough to really give the variety 
of courses needed. 

TABLE 181 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported in 1931 



County 



Total County. . 

Kent 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Howard 

Harford 

Cecil 

Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Washington .... 

Talbot 

Prince George's 

Charles 

Allegany 

Dorchester. . . . 

Montgomery. . . 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Anne Arundel . . 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 



Cost to County 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to Elementary 
School 



$24 


95 


41 


23 


41 


17 


36 


84 


32 


97 


31 


67 


29 


64 


28 


79 


28 


47 


28 


31 


27 


71 


27 


43 


27 


20 


25 


96 


25 


17 


24 


50 


24 


41 


23 


77 


22 


85 


22 


73 


21 


97 


21 


34 


21 


09 


17 


93 



County 



Total County . . 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Allegany 

Frederick 

Cecil 

Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 
Dorchester. . . . 

Charles 

Talbot 

Carroll 

W^ashington .... 
Caroline 

Queen Anne's. . 

Howard 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore 

Prince George's 
Montgomery. . . 
Harford 



Cost to Countj^ 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to High 
School 



$27 


70 


41 


36 


38 


31 


37 


76 


36 


36 


34 


12 


33 


16 


32 


44 


31 


40 


30 


83 


30 


19 


30 


12 


27 


99 


26 


22 


25 


85 


25 


77 


25 


50 


24 


73 


24 


23 


23 


50 


23 


36 



19.55 
14.94 



Cost per Pupil Transported ; Per Cent of Pupils Transported 245 

Cost per Pupil Transported 

The cost per elementary school pupil transported was $25, on 
the average, in the 23 counties, a decrease of $1.15 per pupil 
under 1930. The counties ranged in cost for each elementary 
school pupil transported, from $18 in Baltimore County, which 
owns a number of its busses, to over $41 in Kent and Garrett. 
Fifteen of the counties had lower costs in 1931 than they had 
in 1930, the decrease in Howard being as much as nine dollars 
per pupil transported. (See Table 181.) 

The average cost from public funds per high school pupil 
transported was $27.70, two cents less than in 1930. The coun- 
ties ranged in cost from nearly $15 in Montgomery to over $41 
in Calvert. Montgomery owns a number of busses and also re- 
quires pupils to pay $3.00 per month toward transportation costs. 
Twelve counties had lower costs in 1931 than they had in 1930. 
(See Table 181.) 

For cost per white elementary pupil transported, see pages 
75 to 76, and per white high school pupil, pages 149 to 151. 

St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Prince George's and Montgomery 
Counties had higher costs for each elementary and high school 
pupil transported than they had in 1930. (See Table 181.) 

TABLE 182 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Pupils Transported to School at 
Public Expense, Year Ending, July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



White 



Elementary 



Number 



Per Cent 



High 



Number 


Per Cent 


7,720 


29.0 


360 


46.9 


592 


43.2 


256 


54.4 


297 


66.3 


441 


37.9 


200 


81.0 


373 


44.5 


411 


51.5 


166 


8.4 


278 


39.4 


506 


56.6 


166 


80.2 


311 


44.3 


487 


31.0 


169 


37.1 


1,064 


31.3 


220 


21.9 


205 


40.4 


267 


9.8 


363 


30.1 


352 


15.7 


236 


13.4 



Colored 



Number 



Per Cent 



Total and Average 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Queen Anne's 

Charles 

Anne Arundel .... 

.St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Kent 

Allegany 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Prince George's . . . 
Harford 



20,593 

903 

1,451 
578 
777 

2,551 
317 
928 
713 

2,262 
570 
544 
235 
563 

1,016 
308 

2,327 
406 
186 

1,601 
434 
830 
751 
342 



19.5 

40.9 
29.0 
36.5 
54.3 
41.7 
30.3 
30.8 
31.1 
30.1 
31.6 
13.9 
28.3 
24.0 
16.1 
16.4 
14.5 
13.0 
12.8 
13.5 
12.1 

7.6 
10.4 

8.5 



^646 

145 
22 
32 



41 



115 
16 



*2.3 

15.1 
6.1 
4.0 



7.0 
.1 



4.2 



6.4 

i'.i' 



5.9 
3.4 



3.5 
2:2' 
1^3 



* Excludes 47 pupils transported to the Bowie Normal School at State expense. 



246 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Since the State is sharing in the cost of transportation in 
Equalization Fund counties, a study of the transportation poli- 
cies in effect is being undertaken by the State Supervisor of In- 
dustrial Education. 

Per Cent of Pupils Transported 

The two big factors determining transportation costs are the 
per cent of the county pupils who are transported and the econ- 
omy of plans made for the transportation provided. In order 
that a picture of the size of the transportation program in rela- 
tion to the total enrollment may be available, the counties are 
ranked in the order of the per cent of their total school popula- 
tion transported, the per cent of white elementary, white high 
and colored pupils transported at county expense also being 
given. (See Table 182.) 

The transportation of 20 per cent of all county white elemen- 
tary pupils, of *29 per cent of all county white high school 
pupils, and of 2 per cent of the county colored pupils is paid for 
out of public funds. The per cent of county white elementary 
pupils transported varied from less than 10 per cent in Wash- 
ington, Harford and Prince George's, where much still remains 
to be done in reducing the number of rural schools, to over 40 
per cent in Charles, Anne Arundel and Caroline, which have 
advanced far in their program of school consolidation. (See 
Table 182.) 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation is Provided 

There were 376 county schools to which transportation at 
public expense was pro\dded in 1931, an increase of 32 schools 
over 1930. Of these schools 120 had both high and elementary 
grades, 119 were elementary schools with three or more teachers, 
54 were two-teacher schools, 37 were one-teacher schools, 20 
were high schools and 26 were colored schools. Fourteen coun- 
ties transported colored pupils to 26 schools, an increase of six 
counties and eight schools over 1930. (See Table 183.) 

In Frederick, transportation was provided to 34 schools, and 
in Baltimore, Allegany, Garrett, Anne Arundel, Washington, 
Montgomery, Carroll and Queen Anne's the number of schools 
to which pupils were transported were between 20 and 29. (See 
Table 183.) 

In the fall of 1931 there were 770 motor vehicles used for the 
transportation of Maryland county school children. One of these 
was a motor boat, used in Calvert County. In addition, there 
were 6 horse-drawn vehicles in Montgomery, Dorchester, and 
Garrett. Of the motor vehicles, 53 busses and 13 bodies were 
owned by County Boards of Education. Montgomery owned 26 



♦ In eight counties only a part of the cost of transportation is paid for from public funds. 



I 

% OF Pupils Transported; No. of Schools to Which Transported 247 



TABLE 183 

Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County Expense, 

Year Ending July 31, 1931 



COUNTY 



Schools with Elementary 
Grades Only 



One- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 



Graded 
Schools 



Schools 
Having 
Both 
High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 



Schools 
Having 

High 
School 
Pupils 

Only 



Colored 
Schools 



Total 
Number 
of 

Different 
Schools 



Total Counties . 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. 
Baltimore . . . . 

Calvert 

CaroHne 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles ... 
Dorchester. 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. 



Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington. 
Wicomico. . . 
Worcester. . 



10 



54 

1 
1 
7 
1 
4 

3 
3 
1 
3 



119 

11 
17 
9 



13 



120 

a9 
1 
7 
3 



11 
4 
5 
5 
7 

4 

6 
5 
3 
bll 

9 
1 
1 
2 



376 

25 
23 
29 
8 
17 

20 
16 
7 
19 
34 

24 
9 
6 
8 

22 

17 
20 
9 



Allegany . . 
Baltimore . 

CecU 

Frederick . 
Garrett . . , 



*To Elementary *To High 
Only Only 

3 

■ 1 

1 



Harford 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 
Washington. . . . 



"To Elementary *To High 
Only Only 

6 

1 

2 

1 1 



o Includes Greene St. Junior High School and Midland Junior High School w^ith only grades 7-9 
and Bruce High School with no grades below the seventh. 

b Includes the Bethesda-Chevy Chase and the Takoma-Silver Spring High Schools \\-ith no grades 
below the seventh. 



busses ; Baltimore County, 15 busses ; Prince George's, 13 bodies ; 
Garrett, 4 busses; Calvert and Harford, 3 each; and Charles 
County Colored P. T. A.'s 2 busses. The remaining busses were 
owned by contractors. In addition to children carried in busses 
at public expense, the counties paid for the transportation of 
1,402 pupils on public busses, 81 on trains and 205 on electric 
cars. The total distance reported as covered one way was 6,850 
miles, an average route of 8.8 miles for school busses. 



248 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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I 



EXPENDITURES FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY 

The capital outlay in the counties in 1931 totalled $2,172,000, 
a decrease of $278,000 under 1930. Nearly one-half of the 
amount, $1,086,000, was needed to take care of the increased 
enrollment in white high schools. Elementary and junior high 
schools required $921,500. Very little was spent for one-teacher 
schools. Two-teacher schools required a capital outlay of nearly 
$59,000, and the remainder was needed for graded schools. The 
capital outlay for county colored schools was $123,300. (See 
Table 184.) 

Baltimore and Washington Counties in 1931 invested over 
$800,000 and $400,000, respectively, in school buildings, while 
Allegany, Prince George's, Carroll, Wicomico, and Anne Arundel 
increased the investment in their school plants between $100,000 
and $143,000. (See Table 184.) 

Baltimore City's capital outlay of $3,658,000 was used for ele- 
mentary schools for white pupils to the extent of $1,463,000, for 
vocational schools for white pupils to the amount of $602,541, 
for high schools for white pupils costing $855,600, for elemen- 
tary schools for colored pupils totalling $230,115, and for junior 
high schools for colored pupils amounting to $302,646. (See 
Table 184.) 

STATUS OF SCHOOL BONDS AUTHORIZED 

The status of school bonds authorized from 1918 to 1929 was 
included in the 1929 annual report on pages 248-249. To bring 
the information up to date, including data regarding bonds 
authorized in 1931, Table 185 is included. 

TABLE 185 

School Bonds Authorized or Issued Since Data on School Bonds Were Included 

in the 1929 Report 



County 



Chapter Laws of 



Anne Arundel 203 1929 

Calvert 505 1931 

Charles 143 1931 

Dorchester 493 1931 

Frederick 224 1931 

Garrett 349 1931 

Howard 213 1929 

Kent 316 1931 

Montgomery 108 1931 

193 1931 

Prince George's 234 1931 

Queen Anne's 86 1929 

300 1931 

317 1931 

Washington 281 1929 

282 1929 

135 1931 

386 1931 

Wicomico 196 1929 

31 1931 

Baltimore City 243 1929 

434 1931 



Amount 
Authorized 

SI, 000, 000 
45,000 
23,000 
100,000 
124.000 
150.000 
SO. 000 
100,000 
78.000 
*601,000 
275.000 
20.000 
20,000 
20,000 
150,000 
271,000 
45,000 
10,000 
300.000 
110.000 
1,500,000 
10.000.000 



of Bonds 

Issued Referendum Required and Date 
9 30/31 

SI, 000, 000 Favorable referendum, Nov., 1930 

45,000 

23,000 
100,000 
124,000 

Referendum required, Nov., 1932 

Unfavorable referendum 

Referendum required, Nov., 1932 

78,000 
278,000 

'26!ooo 

20,000 

156,660 
271,000 

366,606 Favorable referendum, May, 1929 
110,000 

1.500,000 Favorable referendum, May, 1929 
Referendum required 



* Estimated. 



249 



250 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Calvert, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, ^Montgomery, *Queen 
Anne's and Wicomico have issued the bonds for school purposes 
authorized by the 1931 legislature. In Garrett and Kent a refer- 
endum is to be taken in November, 1932, and in Baltimore City 
there will be a referendum when the question is placed on the 
ballot. In Prince George's and Washington the issue of bonds 
authorized in 1931 has been withheld pending a better market 
for them. (See Table 185.) 

TABLE 186 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, September, 1931 







1931 Assessable 


Assessable 


Per Cent that 




School 


Basis Taxable 


Basis Back 


Indebtedness 




Bonds 


at the 


of Each 


for School 


COUNTY 


Outstanding 


Full Rate 


Dollar 


Bonds is of 




CI i. I- 

September, 


for County 


of School 


Total County 




1931 


Purposes 


Indebtedness 


Basis 


Total Counties . . 


.*t°S15,813,001 


1923,203,349 


$58 


1.7 




2,210,000 


80,971,599 


37 


2.7 


Anne Arundel. . . 


1,340,834 


48 , o53 , 503 


36 


2.8 


Baltimore 


4,186,667 


167,241,854 


40 


2.5 


Calvert 


85,500 


5,560,021 


65 


1.5 


Caroline 


90,000 


15,155,742 


168 


.6 


Carroll 




36,265,283 






Cecil 


125.000 


36,392.532 


291 


.3 


Charles 


109,000 


10,103,432 


93 


1.1 




330.000 


22,188.156 


67 


1.5 


Frederick 


1,025.000 


64,669,858 


63 


1.6 


Garrett 




20,837,860 






Harford 


150.000 


51,149,116 


34i 


* !3 


Howard 


169.000 


18,665,706 


110 


.9 


Kent 


25.000 


16,137,722 


646 


.2 


Montgomery. . . 


12,344,000 


84,580,075 


36 


2.8 


Prince George's. 


fl, 216, 500 


63,300,617 


52 


1.9 


Queen Anne's . . . 


56,000 


16,246,870 


290 


.3 


St. Mary's 


8,590,026 






Somerset 


31,000 


12,054,845 


389 


*!3 


Talbot 


281,500 


21,533,879 


76 


1.3 


Washington. . , , 


°1, 314, 000 


75,322,045 


57 


1.7 




424,000 


26,486,800 


62 


1.6 


Worcester 


300.000 


21,195,808 


71 


1.4 


Baltimore 


23,154,451 


1,346,402,914 


58 


1.7 


Entire State , . . . 


$38,967,452 


$2,269,606,263 


$58 


1.7 


* The entire amount authorized ha 


s not been issued in 


Montgomery a 


ind Queen Anne's. 



X In addition $323,000 have been authorized, but not yet issued, 
t In addition $275,000 have been authorized, but not yet issued. 
° In addition $55,000 have been authorized, but not yet issued. 



I 



SCHOOL BONDS OUTSTANDING AS OF SEPTEMBER, 1931 

In September, 1931, the school bonds outstanding in 20 of the 
23 counties totalled $15,813,001, an increase of $1,417,169 over 
1930. All of the counties, except Anne Arundel, Calvert, Charles, 
Dorchester, Frederick, Montgomery, Queen Anne's and Wicom- 
ico, which issued bonds authorized in 1929 and 1931, had a 
smaller amount of school bonds outstanding than for the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 186.) 

The assessable basis back of each dollar of school indebted- 
ness in the counties is $58 in 1931, compared with $64 in 1930. 
The counties, which are those increasing most rapidly in popu- 
lation, are the only ones which have less wealth back of each 
dollar of school indebtedness than is found in the average 
county. Anne Arundel and Montgomery have $36 back of each 
dollar of school indebtedness, Allegany has $37, Baltimore County 
$40, Prince George's $52 and Washington $57. In these coun- 
ties which have the greatest indebtedness the school bonds out- 
standing represent from 1.7 to 2.8 per cent of the assessable 
wealth taxable at the full rate for county purposes. (See Table 
186.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY INCREASED 

The value of school property for the State of Maryland in 
1931 increased to $61,141,759, of which $23,830,725 was the total 
for the counties and $37,311,034 was the valuation in Baltimore 
City. These amounts represent increases over 1930 of $5,400,- 
000 for the State, $2,347,000 for the counties and $3,053,000 for 
Baltimore City. (See Table 187.) 

TABLE 187 



Value of School Property, 1922-1931 



Year 


Value of School Property- 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Mary- 
land 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


1922. .. 
1923... 
1924. . . 
1925... 
1926... 
1927... 
1928... 
1929... 
1930... 
1931... 


$20,453,646 
22,236.638 
28,264.507 
33,622,503 
38,865,024 
48,654,045 
51,765,517 
52,801,013 
55,741,316 
61,141,759 


$10,014,638 
11,796,630 
12.813,396 
14,946,810 
16,704,564 
17,889,796 
18,994,670 
19,920,102 
21,483,720 
23,830,725 


$10,439,008 
10,440,008 
15.451,111 
18,675,693 
22.160.460 
30,764,249 
32,770,847 
32,880,911 
34,257.596 
37,311,034 


$82 
87 
110 
129 
148 
182 
191 
193 
215 
229 


$68 
77 
85 
97 
108 
114 
120 
124 
142 
153 


$103 
100 
147 
164 
205 
277 
291 
290 
318 
336 



251 



252 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The average value of school property per pupil enrolled was 
$229 for the State, the amount for the counties being $153 and 
for Baltimore City $336. These amounts represent increases 
over 1930 of $14 for the State, of $11 for the counties and of 
$18 for Baltimore City. (See Table 187.) 

The most recent statistics from the United States Office of 
Education for the school year 1929-30 indicate the average value 
of property per pupil enrolled in the United States as $242. The 

TABLE 188 



Value of School Property Per Pupil Belonging, 1931 



rTiTTMTV 
^^VJUIN 1 1 


Schools for White Pupils 


Schools for Colored Pupils 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


Value 


Average 
Number 
Belonging 


Value 
Per 
Pupil 


1 ota,l bounties . . 


$22,487,017 


129,103 


$174 


$1,343,708 


26,607 


$51 


All 

Allegany 


3,521,150 


14,247 


247 


58,375 


344 


170 


Anne Arundel. . . 


641,000 


7,147 


90 


102,900 


2,746 


37 


Baltimore 


5,058,300 


18,916 


267 


260,000 


1,920 


135 


Calvert 


Q7 710 


1 004 


Q7 




J. , XJiJO 


97 


Caroline 


362,300 


2,909 


125 


38,400 


902 


43 


Carroll 


545,487 


6,203 


88 


13,598 


347 


39 


Cecil 


455,600 


4,068 


112 


18,000 


463 


39 


Charles 


240,000 


1,820 


132 


56,525 


1,552 


36 


Dorchester 


490.400 


3,720 


132 


38,000 


1,435 


26 


Frederick 


«1, 311, 850 


9,335 


141 


53,850 


936 


58 


Garrett 


6361,070 


4,675 


77 








Harford 


610,800 


5,095 


120 


33,300 


727 


46 


Howard 


310,500 


2,298 


135 


15,900 


547 


29 


Kent 


214,450 


1,930 


111 


19,860 


886 


22 


Montgomery. . . 


2,513,000 


7,735 


325 


96,850 


1,695 


57 


Prince George's . 


1,602.600 


8,847 


181 


165,400 


2,794 


59 


Queen Anne's . . . 


190,200 


2,047 


93 


15,000 


741 


20 


St. Mary's 


93,950 


1,225 


77 


22,200 


1,102 


20 


Somerset 


312,700 


2,962 


106 


38,800 


1,790 


22 


Talbot 


431,500 


2.473 


174 


48,000 


1,167 


41 


Washington .... 


cl, 877, 450 


12,945 


145 


45,700 


352 


130 


Wicomico 


776,400 


4,515 


172 


135 . 500 


1,583 


86 


Worcester 


rf468,600 


2,987 


157 


37.800 


1,483 


25 


Baltimore City. . 


632,672,567 


88,843 


368 


4,638,467 


22,337 


208 


Total State 


55,159,584 


217,946 


253 


5,982,175 


48,944 


122 



a Excludes $5,300 for five buildings not used during 1930-31. 
6 Excludes $800 for two buildings closed during the year. 
c Excludes $268,000 for junior high schools not yet opened. 
d Excludes $3,500 for a new building not opened during 1930-31. 
" Excludes $621,919, value of the administration building. 



Value of School Property in Maryland 



253 



corresponding figure in Maryland was $215 for 19'29-30, and the 
1930-31 valuation of $229 is $13 below the average for the 
country for the preceding year. 



CHART 34 



County 


1929 


1950 


Co. Average 


$152 


$161 


Montgomery 


261 


349 


Baltifflore 


225 


219 


Allegany 


261 


255 


Pr. George's 


164 


166 


Talbot 


140 


176 


Wicomico 


81 


95 


MUX 


78 


78 


Washington 


133 


138 




129 


130 


Howard 


133 


136 


Charles 


105 


127 


Dorchester 


81 


133 


Caroline 


123 


126 


Harford 


118 


U5 


CecU 


106 


116 


Kent 


110 


109 


Somerset 


104 


105 


Calvert 


100 


92 


Queen Anne's 


89 


94 


Anne Arundel 


95 


93 


Carroll 


71 


79 


Garrett 


79 


82 


St. Mary's 


77 


78 


Balto. City 


340 


348 


State 


229 


238 



VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTI PER WHITE PUPIL BELONGIMG 



1931 




In the counties the average value of property used by white 
pupils was $22,487,000 or $174 per pupil belonging. This repre- 
sented an increase of $2,221,000 in the total valuation and of $13 
in the valuation per pupil from 1930 to 1931. The value of build- 
ings used by county colored pupils was $1,343,700, an increase of 



254 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



$126,410 over 1930. The average value per county colored pupil 
belonging was $51, an increase of $4 over 1930. (See Table 
188.) 

About one-half of the counties showed an increase in the value 
of school property per white pupil belonging. The greatest in- 
creases from 1930 to 1931 in the value of school property per 
white pupil belonging occurred in Worcester, Wicomico, Balti- 
more, and Prince George's Counties. (See Chaj^t 34.) 

The counties varied in value of school property per white pupil 
belonging from $77 in St. Mary's and Garrett, $88 in Carroll 
and $90 in Anne Arundel, to $325 in Montgomery, $267 in Balti- 
more County, $247 in Allegany, $181 in Prince George's, $174 
in Talbot and $172 in Wicomico. (See Chart 34.) 



COUNTY LEVIES IN 1931-32 

TABLE 189 
County Tax Budgets, 1931-32 



COUNTY 



Total 
Budget 



COUNTY APPROPRIATIONS FOR 



SCHOOLS 


Roads, 
Bridges 

and 
Ferries 


Other 
County 
Purposes 


Current 
Expenses 


Debt 
Service 


Capital 
Outlay 


Total 


$6,360,621 


$1,116,846 


$222,229 


$7,699,696 


$3,540,083 


$4,387,505 


726,369 


°167,313 


3,683 


897,365 


144,397 


339,937 


205,740 


39,238 


3,000 


247,978 


180,898 


233,033 


398,106 


94,875 


1,000 


493,981 


341,235 


439,210 


1,053,924 


293,644 




1,347,568 


905,667 


989,097 


40,225 


°6.358 




46,583 


36,100 


49,419 


106,000 


°13,830 


3,000 


122,830 


46,750 


135,862 


300,736 


°7,661 


48,185 


356,582 


109,557 


221,219 


210,013 


11,250 


61,900 


283,163 


136,500 


137,410 


61,407 


°7,320 


1,790 


70,517 


17,000 


45,664 


149,359 


°22,125 




171,484 


84,400 


198,392 


427,500 


° 76, 640 




504,140 


231,885 


216,771 


139,154 


3,500 


5,000 


147,654 


77,565 


152,469 


249 , 700 


20,000 


42,500 


312,200 


173,350 


127,228 


117,000 


°10,605 


1,000 


128,605 


111,537 


95,218 


110,006 


"4,200 


114,206 


84,363 


102,300 


498,544 


°130,530 




629,074 


265.606 


289,320 


483,180 


°88,122 


9,000 


580,302 


180,598 


154,029 


108,076 


°7,950 




116,026 


60,185 


94,430 


57,380 


10,000 


67,380 


26,000 


39,531 


91,300 


"4,395 


27,200 


122,895 


36,116 


70,647 


149,189 


"13,890 


121 


163,200 


86,070 


62.607 


546,536 


94,371 


1,650 


642,557 


185,889 


193,357 


193,120 


"19,017 


2,600 


214,737 


127,395 


147,950 


143,797 


"19,250 


3,600 


166,647 


71,918 


85,438 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

*Anne Arundel | 

Baltimoret 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll . 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harfordt 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington. . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



$15,627,284 

1,381,699 
661,909 
1,27 

3,242,332 
132,102 



557,073 
133,181 



377,688 
612,778 



300,869 



914,929 
270,641 
132,911 
229,658 
311,877 

1,021,803 



*The upper row of figures for Anne Arundel County includes the levy for the six months' period 
from July 1 to December 31, 1931, which are not included in the total figure for the counties. The lower 
figures are for the calendar year 1932. 

t For the calendar year 1932. 

° Paid by County Commissioners directly. 



I 



Value of School Property; County Leivies 1931-32 255 

The total county levies for county purposes in 1931-32 totalled 
$15,627,000. Of this total the school current expenses aggre- 
gated $6,360,621, the school debt service $1,116,846, and school 
capital outlay charged directly to the levy amounted to $222,229, 
making a grand total for all school purposes of $7,699,696. Ex- 
penses for roads, bridges, and ferries totalled $3,540,083, leaving 
$4,387,505 available for all other county purposes. (See Table 
189.) 

The increase over the year preceding amounted to $373,717 
for the entire county levy, to $67,841 for the current expenses 
of the schools, to $200,902 for school debt service, and to $194,- 
609 for all school purposes, since school capital outlay charged to 
the direct levy decreased by $74,134. The levy for roads, bridges, 
and ferries increased by $25,061, v^hile that for "other county 
purposes" was larger than the year before by $204,169. (See 
Table 189.) 

All of the counties, except ten, had higher total county levies 
in 1931-32 than they had the year before. The ten counties with 
decreased total county levies were Carroll, Charles, Garrett, Har- 
ford, Howard, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, Wicomico, and Wor- 
cester. (See Table 189.) 

The county levies for school current expense were higher in 
all, except the following nine counties — Anne Arundel, Calvert, 
Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Garrett, Howard, and Wash- 
ington. The levy necessary to carry school debt service, whether 
paid directly by the County Board of Education or by the Board 
of County Commissioners, was higher than it was the year before 
in every county, except Baltimore County, Caroline, Cecil, and 
Harford. The only counties which increased the county levy 
for school capital outlay over the amount made available in the 
preceding year were Cecil and Harford, which shared in the rev- 
enue from Conowingo, and Allegany, St. Mary's, and Washing- 
ton. The total amount levied for all scJiool purposes, current 
expenses, debt service, and capital outlay combined, increased in 
all counties, except Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Charles, Garrett, 
Howard, Talbot and Wicomico. The decreases in Wicomico and 
Talbot are explained by the reduction in the levy for school capi- 
tal outlay. (See Table 189.) 



256 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Per Cent of 1932 Levy for Counties and Incorporated Towns 
Used for Schools 



TABLE 190 

Amounts Levied in Incorporated Towns and Districts 
Added to County Levies 







Levy in 










Levy in 


County and 




Levy in 


County and 




Incorporated 


Incorporated 




Incorporated 


Incori>orated 




Towns and 


Towns and 




Towns and 


Towns and 


County 


Districts 


Districts 


County 


Districts 


Districts 


Total 


$2,421,576 


$18,048,860 


Harford 


$79,305 


$692,083 








3.907 


339,267 


Allegany 


490.026 


1.871,725 


Kent 


30,041 


330,910 


Anne Arundel 102,464 


1.376,890 


Montgomey 


175.268 


1.359,268 






3.242.332 


Prince George's. 


. 176,421 


1.091.350 


Calvert 


t9,760 


7141.862 


Queen Anne's 


15.448 


286,089 


Caroline 


33,765 


339,207 


St. Mary's 


4.550 


137,461 


Carroll 


- 74,541 


761,899 


Somerset 


33,268 


262,926 


Cecil 


*50,000 


607,073 


Talbot 


59,823 


371,700 


Charles 


4,728 


137,909 


Washington 


494.172 


1.515.976 


Dorchester 


106,642 


560,918 


Wicomico 


126,014 


616 096 


Frederick 


249.174 


1.201,970 


Worcester 


75,839 


399,842 


Garrett 


26.420 


404.108 








t Levy of 


$9,760 for North 


Beach, Calvert 


County, not included in Chart 


35, since the 


information 


came in too late. 









* Estimated. 



In order to know the proportion of funds used for school pur- 
poses, it is necessary to add to the county levy for all purposes 
the amounts levied by incorporated cities, towns, sanitary dis- 
tricts, etc., which in certain counties perform functions delegated 
in other counties solely to the county." For this purpose all of 
the superintendents cooperated in securing the following amounts 
for incorporated towns and districts which levy taxes in addition 
to those raised by the county. (See Table 190.) 

If to the county levy of $15,627,284 is added $2,421,576, made 
up of the additional levies in every county except Baltimore, 
which has no incorporated towns, a grand total of $18,048,860 
is the aggregate amount levied for county, to\\Ti, and district 
purposes in Marvland, outside of Baltimore City. (See Table 
190.) 

The counties ranged from devoting 40 per cent or more of 
their total levy to school current expense in * Charles, Prince 
George's, St. Mary's, and Talbot to less than 31 per cent in Dor- 
chester, Anne Arundel, and Calvert. In per cent of the total 
amount levied for county, town and district purposes, used for 
all school purposes, the variation was from over 47 per cent in 
Prince George's, '''Charles, St. Mary's, and Allegany to below 35 
per cent in Wicomico, Kent, and Dorchester. (See Chart 35.) 



* The amount shown as levied for Charles excludes the county receipts from the federal 
government for Indian Head. 



Per Cent of Levies Used for Schools 
CHART 35 



257 



PER CENT OF 1932 BUDGEPS FOR C0UNTI2S AND INCORPORATED 
TOWNS AND DISTRICTS USED FOR SCHOOLS 



Coianty 


Total 
Per Cent 
Used For 
Schools 


County Average 42,7 


Charles 


51.1 1 


Pr, George's 


53.2 1 


St. Mary's 


49.0 1 


Talbot 


43.9 


Carroll 


46.8 


Allegany 


47.9 


Queen Anne's 


40.6 


Montgomery 


46.3 


Harford 


45.1 


Washington 


AO A 


Worcester 


41.7 1 


Frederick 


42.0 1 


Somerset 


46.7 1 


Cecil 


46.6 1 


Howard 


37.9 1 


Garrett 


36.5 1 


Kent 


34.5 1 


Baltimore 


41.6 1 


Wicomico 


34.8 1 


Caroline 


36.2 1 


Calvert 


35.2 1 


Anne Arundel 


35.9 1 


Dorchester 


30.5 1 



Current 
Expense 



Capital 
Outlay 




. 44.5 



;v 4-4.3 



39.5 



38.8 



37^8 ; 



36.7 ^ 



35 



3G.1 



36.0 



35.6 



34.7 



73 



10.3 



■ . . 34.6 



> 34.5 



33.2 



32.5 



31.3 



31.2 



30.4 



28-9 • 



26.6 




When the levies for school current expense, school debt service, 
and school capital outlay are divided by the aggregate amount 
of the levy for the counties, incorporated towns and districts, 
it is found that 35.3 per cent is required for school current ex- 
pense, 6.2 for school debt service, and 1.2 for school capital out- 
lay, a total of 42.7 per cent for all school purposes. The only 



258 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



change from 1931 is an increase of 1 per cent for school debt 
service, a decrease of .4 per cent for school current expense and 
of .5 per cent for school capital outlay. (See Clmrt 35.) 



THE 1931 ASSESSABLE BASIS 

The 1931 assessable basis taxable at the full rate for county- 
purposes is $923,203,000, an increase of $5,526,000 over the cor- 
responding figure for 1930. All of the counties showed increases 
except Allegany, Caroline, Carroll, Charles, Dorchester, Fred- 
erick, Garrett, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Worcester. The 
increase of $17,624,000 in the assessable basis in Baltimore City 
brought the total basis for the State to $2,269,606,000. (See 
Table 191.) 

TABLE 191 

Assessable Basis Taxable at the Full Rate for County Purposes 

in Thousands of Dollars 

Figures furnished by State Tax Commission 



County *1923 

Total Counties $661 ,724 

Allegany 69,886 

Anne Arundel 30,692 

Baltimore 104.232 

Calvert 4,427 

Caroline 14,027 



1925 1927 *1928 

$726,064 $781,971 $883,508 

75,718 78.837 80,715 

36.956 44.565 47.544 

124,971 139,232 157,654 

4,623 4,935 5,305 

14.616 14,761 15,283 



1929 1930 1931 

$921,308 $917,677 $923,203 

81,931 81.911 80.971 

48,138 48,106 48,553 

167,461 164,308 167,242 

5,518 5,546 5.560 

15.190 15,170 15,156 



Carroll , 


33,382 


34,183 


35,636 


39,875 


39.201 


36.537 


36,265 


Cecil 


23,189 


24.700 


25,628 


30.408 


35,732 


35.916 


36.392 


Charles 


8,394 


8.854 


9,315 


9,938 


9,956 


10.162 


10,103 




18,987 


19.628 


20,439 


21.918 


22.033 


22.495 


22,188 


Frederick 


51.248 


54.941 


57,655 


65,234 


65,660 


65,244 


64,670 


Garrett , 


16.303 


19.556 


18.903 


21,653 


21,468 


21,526 


20.838 


Harford 


28.580 


29,487 


29,561 


39,763 


51,361 


50.846 


51,149 


Howard 


15,670 


15,682 


16,539 


18,063 


18,390 


17.956 


18,666 


Kent 


14,519 


14,777 


14.956 


16,162 


16,294 


16.108 


16,138 




45,503 


50,676 


60,239 


77,889 


81,230 


82.615 


84,580 




33.651 


37,776 


42.878 


59,312 


61.195 


62.757 


63.301 




14,793 


15,024 


14.803 


16,692 


16.607 


16.536 


16.247 


St. Mary's 


7,162 


7,825 


7,809 


8,289 


8.700 


8.371 


8,590 




10,609 


11,307 


11.972 


12,392 


12,325 


12.150 


12,055 


Talbot 


16,927 


17,524 


18.048 


20,478 


21.009 


20.486 


21,534 


Washington 


62,570 


68,281 


72,867 


72,908 


75.113 


75.316 


75,322 




20.394 


21.379 


24,109 


25,092 


26,047 


26,250 


26.487 


Worcester 


16.579 


17.580 


18,284 


20,941 


20.749 


21,365 


21,196 


Baltimore City .... 


902.208 


1.083.959 


1,230,198 


1.255.978 


1.305.074 


1,328,779 


1.346.403 



State $1,563,932 $1,810,023 $2,012,169 $2,139,486 $2,226,382 $2,246,456 $2,269,606 



* Includes reassessment figures. 



An analysis of the elements making up the assessable basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes in the counties as a 
group indicates increases amounting to $6,767,000 in the assess- 



Basis Taxable at Full Rate for County Purposes 



259 



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260 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



ment of real and tangible personal property, and of $474,000 in 
domestic share corporations. The assessment of ordinary busi- 
ness corporations was lower by $1,099,000, of railroad rolling 
stock by $611,201, and of personal property of non -stock corpo- 
rations and of distilled spirits by $4,260 in 1931 than in 1930. 
(See Table 192.) 

All of the counties, which show^ed a decrease in the total basis 
taxable at the full rate for county purposes in Table 191, except 
Charles and Worcester, had a lower assessment on real estate 
and tangible personal property than they had the preceding year. 
Every county, except Garrett, had a lower assessment for rail- 
road rolling stock than it had the year preceding. The assess- 
ment of ordinary business corporations was lower in Baltimore 
City and all of the counties, except Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, 
Charles, Harford, Kent, Prince George's, St. Mary's, and 
Worcester in 1931 than in 1930. In assessment of domestic share 
corporations, all of the counties had decreases, except Baltimore, 
Calvert, Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick, Montgomery, Som- 
erset, and Talbot. The increase in the assessment for domestic 
share corporations was over $1,000,000 in Talbot. Large de- 
creases in the assessment for domestic share corporations oc- 
curred in Charles, Garrett, Harford, and Worcester. The assess- 
ment of property of non-stock corporations and of distilled spirits 
decreased in Baltimore City. (See Table 192.) 



TAX RATES FOR 1931-32 

The total county tax rates as published ranged from $1.30 in 
Cecil, Frederick, and Washington to $2.34 in Calvert and $2.45 
in Anne Arundel County. The average county rate was $1.69 
if the total levy is divided by the county basis taxable at the full 
rate for county purposes. If to the assessable basis taxable at 
the full rate for county purposes is added the basis taxable at 
limited rates expressed as the lowered amounts which they would 
become if taxed at the full rate, the total additional wealth for 
the counties would be $56,249,319, which would lower the aver- 
age county tax rate to $1.60. (See last column. Table 193.) 

The tax rates for school current expense obtained by dividing 
the county school levy by the assessable basis taxable at the full 
rate for county purposes average 69 cents for the counties, with 
a range from 49 cents in Harford to 90 cents in Allegany. Tax 
rates in the counties sharing in the Equalization Fund vary from 
67 cents in Queen Anne's, Garrett, St. Mary's, and Dorchester to 
over 75 cents in Somerset, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, Car- 
roll, and Allegany. In Charles County the county rate of 61 
cents is supplemented by funds received for the Indian Head 



« 



Assessable Basis; County Tax Rates 



261 



Schools from the Federal Government. The only county having 
a tax rate over 67 cents which does not share in the Equaliza- 
tion Fund for 1931-32 is Washington, with a rate of 73 cents. 
(See Table 193.) 

Tax rates for school debt service averaging 12 cents in the 
counties, range from nothing in St. Mary's, and less than 3 cents 
in Garrett, Carroll, and Kent to over 15 cents in Allegany, Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, and Montgomery. For school capital out- 
lay, the tax rates reach 13 cents or more in Somerset, Cecil, and 
Carroll only. (See Table 193.) 

TABLE 193 



COUNTT 



11931-32 County School Tax Rate for 
School 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Total 
Published 

County 
Tax Rate 

1931-32 



County Average 

Allegany 

CarroU 

Anne Arundelf . 
Prince George's . 
Somerset 

Wicomico 

Washington 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Talbot 

Kent 

Worcester 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Garrett . 

Queen Anne's . . 

Frederick 

Baltimore^:. . . . 

Howard 

Charles 

Montgomery. . . 

Cecil 

Harf ordt 



$ .689 

.897 
.829 
.820 
.764 
.757 

.729 
.726 
.724 
.699 
.693 

.682 
.678 
.673 
a. 668 
.668 

.665 
.661 
.630 
.627 
6.608 

.590 
.577 
.488 



$ .121 

*.207 
.021 
.195 
*.139 
*.036 

.072 
.125 
*.114 
*.091 
*.065 

*.026 
*.091 
MOO 



.016 

*.049 
*.119 
.176 
*.057 
*.072 

*.154 
*.031 
♦.039 



$ .024 

.004 
.133 
.002 
.014 
.226 

.010 
.002 



.020 



.017 



116 
024 



.005 
.018 



.170 
,083 



$ .834 

1.108 
.983 

1.017 
.917 

1.019 

.811 
.853 
.838 
.810 
.758 

.708 
.786 
.773 
.784 
.708 

.714 
.780 
.806 
.689 



,744 
,778 
,610 



t$1.69 

1.57 
1.65 
2.45 
1.52 
1.75 

1.70 
1.30 
2.34 
1.50 
1.46 

1.67 
1.45 
1.80 
1.55 
1.77 

1.50 
1.30 
1.75 
1.63 
1.35 

1.37-1.77 
1.30 
1.40 



t Obtained by dividing county budget for various purposes by county basis, taxable at the full rate 
for county purposes. 

* Paid directly by county commissioners in whole or in part. 

X For the calendar year 1932. 

a Excludes funds from tongers' licenses. 

b Excludes federal funds for Indian Head. 



262 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



The total tax rate for school purposes, including current ex- 
pense, debt service, and capital outlay, averages 83 cents for the 
23 counties. There are 5 counties which range in rate from 92 
cents to $1.11 — Allegany, Somerset, Anne Arundel, Carroll, and 
Prince George's. At the other extreme, there are 5 counties with 
tax rates under 71 cents — Harford, Howard, Charles, Garrett, 
and Kent. (See Table 193.) 



1931 SCHOOL PROGRAM EXPRESSED IN TAX RATE CARRIED BY 
STATE AND LOCAL FUNDS 

The school expenditures for current expense in 1930-31 when 
divided by the 1930 basis taxable at the full rate for county pur- 
poses show the amount of county tax rate for school current 
expense which would have had to be raised had there been no 
State and Federal aid. In the average county the rate would 
have been 96 cents. The amounts would have varied in indi- 
vidual counties from 64 cents in Harford, 75 cents in Baltimore, 
77 cents in Cecil, 78 cents in Montgomery, and 84 cents in Fred- 
erick to $1.38 in St. Mary's, $1.44 in Caroline, $1.54 in Garrett, 
$1.59 in Charles, $1.80 in Somerset, and $1.83 in Calvert. (See 
Chart 36.) 

The amount actually raised by the average county for the 
school current expense budget was 70 cents, since 26 cents was 
available in State and Federal aid, 6 cents of the 26 cents being 
in the Equalization Fund. Harford County received 15 cents 
from State and Federal funds, leaving only 49 cents to be raised 
from county funds for the school current expense budget. At 
the opposite extreme, Calvert and Somerset raised 79 and 72 
cents, respectively, for school current expenses, since $1.04 and 
$1.08, respectively, were received in State and Federal aid. The 
amount of 74 cents shown as raised from county funds in 
Charles includes aid received from the Federal Government for 
Indian Head. * 

The Maryland school finance program assumes that in carry- 
ing out the State minimum standards for the school program, no 
county shall be unduly burdened with county taxation for school 
purposes. The counties which pay over 80 cents for their county 
school current expense rate are carrying considerably more than 
the minimum program, in paying salaries above the minimum 
schedule set by the State, or in having an eight- instead of a 
seven-grade elementary school course, or in providing teachers 
in elementary or high schools in excess of the number set up 
as required by State law or by-law, or a combination of these 
factors increasing costs. (See Chart 36.) 



Tax Rate Required to Carry 1931 School Program 263 

CHART ae 



TAX RATES REQUIRED TO CARRI TOTAL 1931 SCHOOL PROGRAM EXCLODING BOHD ISSUES 
tComtj Tax Rate for School 
Cnrrent Expense Represented by 
Total 



Coimtj 



Co. At, 

Oalvert 
Somerset 



Charles 

Garrett 

Caroline 

St. Mary^s 

Dorchester 

Carroll 

Worcester 



Required 
Locally 

for School 
Current 
flense 
Without 

State Aid 



.59 
,54 
.44 
.38 
1.25 
1.24 
1.12 



Anne Arundel 1.12 



Allegany 

Wicomico 

Kent 

Talbot 

Queen Anne*s 

Pr. George's 

Howard 

Washington 

Frederick 

Montgomery 

Cecil 

Baltimore 

Harford 



l.U 
1.08 
1.07 
.99 
,98 
.96 
.92 
.91 
.84 
.78 
.77 
.75 
.64 



Balto. City .80 
State .87 



County 
Levy, and 
All Funds 

Other than 
State and 

Federal Aid 




State Aid 
Other 

than Equal— 
Equali- zation 
zation Fund 

Fund 



County Tax Rate 

for School 
Debt Capital 
Service* Outlay* 



cm 



,76 



.72 




.73 




.85 




•74 




.67 mmm\m 






1^.28 ^Ji;^ .27 


.75 






.69 




.73 














t Obtained by dividing figures in Table 172, page 230 by assessable basis taxable at the 
full rate for county purposes. 

* Taken from the county levy statements for 1930-31 except in Baltimore and Harford 
vfhich are for 1931. 



In Calvert, Somerset, and Garrett the aid from the Equaliza- 
tion Fund exceeds other State and Federal aid. Compare the 
portion of the bars cross-hatched, which represent the Equali- 



264 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

zation Fund, with the portion of the bars filled with horizontal 
lines to represent State and Federal aid, excluding the Equaliza- 
tion Fund. The portion of the bars double cross-hatched repre- 
sent the county levy for debt service, and the portions left white 
indicate the direct levy for capital outlay. (See Chart 36.) 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Parent-Teacher Associations took an active part in school 
affairs in 613 county white schools in 1931, an increase of 37 
schools over 1930. With 55 per cent of the white schools having 
associations, an increase of 7 over the 1930 per cent, the schools 
should be assured of greater interest and support than at any 
time in their previous history. (See Table 194.) 

TABLE 194 

Number and Per Cent of Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools, 

1924 to 1931 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 



Year Number Per Cent 

1924 490 30.8 

1925 623 40.6 

1926 638 42.8 

1927 649 45.1 

1928 617 45.4 

1929 588 45.8 

1930 576 47.7 

1931 613 54.7 



Every type of white elementary school showed an increase 
from 1930 to 1931 in the number and per cent having P. T. A.'s. 
The white one-teacher schools had associations in 33 per cent of 
the total number of schools, the two-teacher schools in 66 per 
cent, and the graded schools had associations in 89 per cent. 
(See Table 195.) 

TABLE 195 

Parent-Teacher Associations in Maryland County White Elementary Schools 



Parent-Teacher Associations 

White Schools Having Number Per Cent 

One Teacher 193 33.0 

Two Teachers 135 65.5 

Three or More Teachers 270 89 . 1 

All Elementary 598 54.7 



Every county had at least one P. T. A. and Baltimore County 
had 89, one in every white scl\pol in the county. The per cent 



Parent Teacher Associations in White Schools 



265 



of schools having associations varied from less than 40 per cent 
in St. Mary's, Washington, Garrett, Carroll, and Cecil to over 
90 per cent in Baltimore, Frederick, Anne Arundel, and Caro- 
line. (See Chart 37.) 

CHART 37 



Countj Nmber 

^ 1930 1931 
Total and 

Co. Average 576 

Baltimore 95 
Fl'ederick 42 
Anne Arundel 54 



PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS IN COUNTY WHITE SCHOOLS, 1930 and 1951 



Per Cent 
1920 1931 



Caroline 
Talbot 
Montgomery 
Kent 
Charles 
Wicomico 
Howard 
Pr, George's 42 
Allegany 41 
Worcester 12 
Harford U 
Queen Anne's 15 



25 
19 
50 
27 
12 
28 
21 



Somerset 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Washington 

St. Mary's 



17 
8 
16 
12 
21 
14 
16 




A number of counties made great gains over 1930 in the num- 
ber and per cent of active associations. Frederick grew from 
42 to 61 in number and from 51 to 95 in per cent of schools hav- 



266 1931 Report of State Department of Education 

ing associations. Wicomico increased from 28 to 35 in number 
and from 53 to 71 in per cent of white schools having P. T. A.'s. 
Harford's growth in P. T. A.'s was from 11 to 30 in number and 
for 19 to 51 in per cent. Worcester's gain was from 12 to 17 
in number and from 33 to 53 in percentage, while Cecil's increase 
from 12 to 18 brought the per cent from 23 to 36 from 1930 to 
1931. (See Chart 37.) 

Unfortunately all of the counties did not show increases. 
Caroline, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, Talbot, Kent, Somerset, 
Queen Anne's, and Washington lost from 1 to 4 associations from 
1930 to 1931. (See Chart 37.) 

RECEIPTS OF AND EXPENDITURES FROM OTHER THAN 
COUNTY FUNDS 

Six of the counties sent in reports on the new blanks prepared 
for reporting on school funds received from other than county 
funds. In these six counties the gross receipts in the white 
schools from funds other than those appropriated by the County 
Board of Education totalled $91,747. Expenses of the activities 
were $45,423, leaving a balance of $46,324 available for school 
improvement. The source of these receipts is shown in Table 
197. 

Of the gross receipts of $91,746.87, the balance on hand at the 
beginning of the year represented 16 per cent. Receipts from 
cafeterias and school lunches accounted for over 37 per cent of 
the gross receipts. Plays, movies and talkies brought in 7 per 
cent of the gross receipts, while donations and publications each 
accounted for about 5 per cent. The receipts from P. T. A.'s 
were nearly 4 per cent of the total. (See Table 197.) 

What was done with the net receipts of $46,323.88? Of the 
total, $25,212.90 was spent for various purposes and $21,110.98 
was carried over as a balance at the end of the year. The dis- 
tribution of the $25,212.90 among the various items for which it 
was spent is shown in Table 198. 

Physical Education and athletics was the purpose for which 
20 per cent of the net receipts were used. Transfers to other 
organizations took 14 per cent, libraries 13 per cent, buildings 
and grounds nearly 10 per cent. Approximately 7 per cent was 
spent for instruction in regular classrooms, 4 per cent for music, 
3 per cent for graduation activities, a similar percentage for 
social affairs and trips, and nearly 3 per cent for commercial 
work and also for cafeterias and school lunches. (See Table 
198.) 



p. T. A.'s: Receipts from Other than County F^tnds 



267 



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268 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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Expenditures Other thax County Funds; School Administration 269 

COUNTY SCHOOL ADxMIXISTRATION 

The salary of the Maiyland county superintendent, accord- 
ing to the minimum State schedule, is determined by years of 
experience and the number of teachers employed. Eight Mary- 
land counties had less than 150 teachers in their schools, 6 em- 
ployed more than 150 but fewer than 200, and in the remaining 
9 counties the teaching staff exceeded 200. The State salary 
schedule for county superintendents ranges between $2,500 and 
$4,140, and from the funds appropriated in the State Public 
School Budget for part-payment of salaries, the State reimburses 
the counties to the extent of two-thirds of the superintendent's 
scheduled salary. In many of the counties, however, the salary 
actually paid the superintendent exceeds the minimum given in 
the State schedule. In 1931, county superintendents' salaries 
ranged from $2,500 to $8,000. (See Table 196 and Table XXIV, 
page 318.) 

The county superintendents and supervisors met with the staff 
of the State Department of Education on October 23, 1930, to 
hear Miss Roxana Steele discuss ''The Problem of Supervising 
Activities in the Elementary School" and Dr. William H. Bur- 
ton present **The Objective Analysis of Classroom Teaching." 
Dr. Henry M. Fitzhugh talked over with the superintendents the 
functions of the State Department of Health, the problems of 
private physicians in rural areas, and the function of the public 
schools in educating for health. 

On April 20, 1931, the superintendents met, and besides their 
regular committee reports, discussed the need for a physical edu- 
cation course directed by a qualified teacher in every approved 
high school. Dr. Burdick summarized the discussion. Reports 
were made on the 1931 school legislation regarding the three- 
year normal school course, school attendance and handicapped 
children. 



TABLE 196 



Minimum State Salary Schedule for Superintendents and for Supervising and 
Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties 



Experience 

in Years 


County Superintendent* in 
Counties Ha\4ng 


Supervising 
Teacher 


Helping 
Teacher 


Less Than 
150 Teachers 


150-199 

Teachers 


200 or More 
Teachers 


1-4 
5-7 

8 + 


/$2,500.00 
\ 2,940.00 


$2,940.00 
3.240.00 
3.540.00 


$3,540.00 
3.840.00 
4,140.00 


$2,040.00 
2,340.00 
2,640.00 


$1,440.00 
1,740.00 
2.040.00 



270 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Annual Conference of Attendance Officers 

The annual meeting of attendance officers was held March 5 
and 6, 1931. Miss Anita Faatz reviewed the report of the Mary- 
land Social Welfare Survey Commission, and Miss Fay C. Bent- 
ley, Director of School Attendance and Work Permits for the 
District of Columbia, presented problems of school attendance. 
There was a discussion of the cases sent in by attendance officers 
classified under the following headings : 

Problems of chronic and temporary poverty and pauperism 
Problems resulting from low intelligence or indifference of parents or 
children 

Problems resulting from broken homes 

Behavior problems 

Problems relating to employment 

Problems relating to mental or physical illness of child or family 
Problems relating to lack of cooperation and understanding of legal 
and judicial officials 

The presence or lack of social agencies in the county to deal 
with attendance problems which require their cooperation, the 
contribution of a county social worker to the solution of attend- 
ance problems, the possibility of securing trained social workers 
through branches of the Maryland Children's Aid Society, the 
necessity for the attendance officer functioning as a social 
worker, the wisest distribution of time among the various prob- 
lems were thoroughly discussed. 

As a result of the organization of a course in social case work 
at Johns Hopkins University in the summer of 1931, given by 
Miss Edith Bain, 11 attendance officers enrolled for the course. 

*NUMBER OF CERTIFICATES ISSUED 

Table 199 indicates the number of certificates of the various 
kinds which have been issued during the period from December 
1 to November 30 in the years 1921-22, 1929-30, and 1930-31. 
The chief differences in the last two years occur in the high 
school certificates. There were evidently very few changes in the 
high school principalships. The increase in the number of aca- 
demic certificates was small because, although the total number 
of high school teaching positions increased with the high school 
enrollment, there was little turnover in the teaching staff. The in- 
crease in the number of special certificates indicates an encour- 
aging improvement in the qualifications of Maryland teachers of 
special subjects. These are the fields in which it has been most 
difficult to get adequately prepared teachers. Fewer vocational 
teachers were issued certificates because a special effort was 

♦ Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 



Conference of Attendance Officers; Teachers' Certificates Issued 271 



made in 1930 to issue certificates to all the vocational teachers 
then in service. A similar condition accounts for the drop in 
the number of non-public school teachers' certificates issued. 
(See Table 199.) 

TABLE 199 



Grade of Certificate 





1921-22 


1929-30 


1930-31 


Administration and Supervision 

Administration and Supervision 








4 









9 


6 


6 


Helping Teacher 


10 


2 


2 


Attendance Officer 





2 


2 


High School 








Principal 


7 


22 


1 


Academic 


157 


181 


196 




30 


49 


77 




24 


70 


30 







102 


66 


Elementary 








Principal 


43 


35 


29 


First 


370 


486 


469 


Second 


325 


5 


6 


Third 


214 









Number of Certificates Issued 
December 1 to November 30 



Substitute Teachers Not Certificated 

Section 6 of By-law 32 of Maryland School Laws was amended 
in order to make it unnecessary to certificate substitute teachers. 
Certification now involves the special medical examination, for 
which the State pays, and membership in the Teachers' Retire- 
ment System, and it was, therefore, thought best not to issue 
certificates to substitute teachers. The by-law now reads as 
follows : 

"No person shall act as a substitute for a teacher for more than 
three days, unless such person has had the training required for a regu- 
lar certificate valid for the position, or is the best qualified person 
available. Salary may be withheld if this regulation be violated. When 
it is necessary for a teacher to be absent for any reason, she shall report 
to the county superintendent, who shall designate a substitute. If a 
teacher absents himself contrary to this regulation, he shall forfeit his 
salary for the time lost, and incur such other penalty as the county 
board may prescribe. No substitute who was not assigned to the school 
by the county superintendent, or whose assignment is not approved by 
him, shall be entitled to compensation." 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued dur- 
ing each of the last nine years, including 1931-32 up to January 



272 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



1, is given in Table 200. There has been an almost steady de- 
crease in these figures except during certain years when a more 
complete check of the certification than had previously been made 
took place, with a resultant rise in the number of provisional 
certificates issued to teachers who had formerly taught without 
certificates. The slight increase in the number of provisional 
certificates issued in the high school field (1927-30) has been 
due to the very large increases in the high school enrollment. 
The January 1 figures, 5 and 78, show an improvement over the 
corresponding figures for last year, which were 15 and 85. (See 
Table 200.) 

TABLE 200 



Provisional or Emergency Certificates 
Issued for 

YEAR Elementary High School 

School Teaching! Teachingt 



1923-24 _ 


276 


225 


1924-25 


316 


184 


1925-26 _ _ _. 


- 175 


132 


1926-27 :. 


...„ „ 214 


104 


1927-28 - 


„ 268 


108 


1928-29 _ 


72 


110 


1929-30.._ _ 


- 35 


112 


1930-31 _ 


_ 25 


92 


1931-32 


_ 5* 


78* 



V Includes both white and colored teachei-s. 
* Up to January 1, 1932. 



MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS 

Beginning with the summer of 1929, all prospective Maryland 
teachers have undergone special medical examinations conducted 
by physicians especially appointed for this purpose. The num- 
bers examined, accepted, and rejected during the three years the 
regulation has been in force are as follows : 

TABLE 201 



Vear Number Accepted Number Rejected Total 

1929 910 7 917 

1930 872 11 883 

1931 754 18 772 



ADDITIONAL NEW CERTIFICATE REGULATIONS 

Upon recommendation of the Certification Committee, the fol- 
lowing new regulations were passed at the Superintendents' 
meeting held on November 20, 1931, and those which needed 
action of the State Board were endorsed at the Board meeting, 
which was held on December 18, 1931. 



Provisional Certificates; Medical Examinations; New Regulations 273 



Advanced First Grade Certificates 

By-law 54. An elementary school teacher's certificate entitled "ad- 
vanced first grade certificate," valid for three years in the elementary 
schools of the State and renewable for four-year periods on evidence of 
successful experience and professional spirit and summer school credits 
earned within the last period who are graduates of a four-year high 
school or the equivalent and who have completed a three-year course 
in a standard normal school or the equivalent. 

Discontinuance of Certain Provisional Certificates 

No provisional high school principals' certificates shall be 
authorized for white applicants after the current year 1931-32. 

No provisional first grade or provisional high school academic 
certificates shall hereafter be issued. (Not to be applied to 
pending cases.) 

Limitation of Issuance of First Grade Certificates 

After June, 1933, no first grade certificates, based on two years 
of normal school training, shall be issued to white applicants, 
except to teachers then in service who later meet the require- 
ments. 

An applicant who qualified for probational entrance only at 
one of the Maryland normal schools and who attends and gradu- 
ates from an out-of-State normal school instead of a Maryland 
one shall not be issued a Maryland teacher's certificate. 

Limited High School Certificates to be No Longer Issued 

Beginning with the school year 1932-33, limited high school 
principals' certificates, based on two or three summer terms be- 
yond the bachelor's degree, will no longer be issued. Every new 
principal of a first group high school will have to meet the re- 
quirement for the full certificate, which calls for at least four 
summer terms of graduate work (twenty-four to thirty-two se- 
mester hours), about two thirds of which must be in secondary 
school methods, supervision, and administration. 

Beginning with the school year 1932-33, one-year high school 
teachers' certificates, based on half the amount of work in Edu- 
cation which is required for a full certificate, will no longer be 
issued. Sixteen semester hours in Secondary Education will be 
necessary for the regular high school teacher's certificate. 

Teaching Experience in Lieu of Practice Teaching 

Two years of successful teaching experience may be accepted 
in lieu of the practice teaching otherwise required for a Mary- 
land high school teacher's certificate. 



TEACHER TRAINING AT STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS FOR 
WHITE STUDENTS 

There were 299 county and 111 city students graduated in 
1931 from the three State normal schools at Towson, Frostburg, 
and Salisbury. Except for the graduates from Baltimore City, 
the number of graduates increased over 1930 in all of the schools. 
Towson had 137 county graduates, Frostburg 84, and Salisbury 
78. (See Table 202.) 



TABLE 202 

White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920-1931 



YEAR 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Total 
Counties 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Total 


1920 


37 
50 
114 
240 
239 
293 
214 
214 
189 
153 
129 
137 




37 
50 
114 
240 
239 
527 
428 
353 
286 
268 
262 
248 


13 
29 
28 
58 
71 
59 
84 
91 
82 
81 
72 
84 




50 
79 
142 
298 
310 
352 
325 
377 
346 
316 
271 
299 


1921 






1922 






1923 






1924 






1925 


234 
214 
139 
97 
115 
133 
111 




1926 


27 
72 
75 
82 
70 
78 


1927 


1928 


1929 


1930 


1931 


Total, 1920-31 


2,009 


1,043 


3,052 


752 


404 


3,165 





These figures bring the total number of county graduates since 
1920 to 3,165 and the total number of city graduates from 1925 
through 1931 to 1,043. (See Table 202.) 

This large number of county graduates from the normal schools 
has made it possible to fill all county vacancies and new positions 
with professionally trained persons, which accounts for the fact 
that 97 per cent of the county teachers now hold first grade cer- 
tificates. Since more graduates are now available than there are 
teaching positions, legislation was secured in 1931 increasing the 
length of the normal school course to three years, instead of two 
years. 

Types of Positions Secured by Normal School Graduates 

For the first time in 1931 more county graduates secured posi- 
tions to teach in schools having three or more teachers (92 or 
53.5 per cent) than took positions in one- and two-teacher schools 
(80 or 46.5 per cent). Of 97 Towson graduates placed in Octo- 
ber, 70 per cent went into graded schools, 24 per cent into one- 
teacher schools, and 6 per cent into two-teacher schools. Of 33 
Frostburg graduates who found positions, 54.5 per cent went into 
one-teacher schools, 27 per cent into two-teacher schools, and 



274 



Graduates of State Normal Schools and Their Placement 275 



18 per cent to graded schools. Of 42 from Salisbury Normal 
School who secured positions, 50 per cent went into one-teacher, 
35.7 per cent into graded, and 14.3 per cent into two-teacher 
schools. (See Table 203.) 



TABLE 203 

Per Cent of 1931 County Normal School Graduates Teaching in the Counties In 

Various Types of Schools 



Type of School 


TOWSON 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 




















No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


One-Teacher 


23 


23.7 


18 


54.5 


21 


50.0 


62 


36.0 


Two-Teacher 


6 


6.2 


6 


18.2 


6 


14.3 


18 


10.5 


Graded 


68 


70.1 


9 


27.3 


15 


35.7 


92 


53.5 


Total 


97 


100.0 


33 


100.0 


42 


100.0 


172 


100.0 



One or more Towson graduates were placed in every county, 
except Garrett in the extreme west, and five Eastern Shore coun- 
ties — Kent, Queen Anne's, Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester. 
The largest numbers from Towson took positions in Baltimore, 
Anne Arundel, Washington, Carroll, Frederick, and Harford. 
(See Table 204.) 

The Frostburg graduates who secured positions went to teach 
in Washington, Garrett, Allegany, Carroll, and one went to each 
of the following counties: Frederick, Montgomery, St. Mary's, 
and Talbot. The Salisbury graduates of 1931 who received posi- 
tions went to all of the Eastern Shore counties, except Queen 
Anne's and Worcester, which had no vacancies, and to all of 
the Western Shore counties, except the three at the extreme west, 
the three at the extreme south, and Baltimore and Montgomery 
counties. (See Table 204.) 

Of the 291 graduates from the counties, 140 or 48 per cent re- 
turned to teach in their home counties, and 30 or 18 per cent took 
positions in counties other than their home counties. Of the 
Towson county graduates, 64 per cent returned to their home 
counties; of the Frostburg graduates, 33 per cent; and of the 
Salisbury graduates, 36 per cent went to teach in their home 
counties. (See Table 205.) 

The number of county graduates who did not secure teaching 
positions (125) was larger than in any year preceding. There 
were 38 Towson county graduates not placed, 51 from Frostburg, 
and 36 from Salisbury. In addition, there were 80 Baltimore 



276 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



City graduates of Towson who did not secure teaching positions. 
All of the counties, except Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Howard, 
Prince George's, St. Mary's, Talbot, and Washington, placed 
fewer gi-aduates in 1931 than they did in 1930. (See Table 204.) 



TABLE 204 

Distribution of 1931 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 
and Type of School 



Towson 



COUNTY 


le-Teacher 1 


vo-Teacher 


•aded 




le-Teacher 1 


vo-Teacher 


T! 
V 
-0 


"3 


ic-Teacher 1 


vo-Teacher 


•aded 




le-Teachcr 1 


vo-Teacher 


radod 


15 




o 




O 


o 


o 


H 


o 


o 


o 


H 


O 


o 
H 


o 




O 


o 
H 


Total Counties: 


23 


6 


68 


97 


18 


6 


9 


33 


21 


6 


13 


40 


62 


18 


90 


170 






38 




651 




c36 


125 




1 






1 


4 






4 








5 






5 


Anne Arundel 


1 


"i 


'i2 


14 












2 


2 


5 


2 


3 


14 


19 




20 


20 






















20 


20 






1 


1 


2 




















1 


1 


2 


















1 


*2 


1 


4 


1 


2 


1 


4 


Carroll 


5 




3 


8 




1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


3 


7 


1 


5 


13 


Cecil 




"3 


1 


4 










4 






4 


4 


3 


1 


3 








3 


3 






















3 


3 




3 




1 

6 


4 










4 




1 


5 


7 




2 


9 


Frederick 


2 




8 




1 




1 






2 


2 


2 


"i 


8 


11 










8 




2 


10 










8 




2 


10 




3 




4 


7 






1 






1 


4 




4 


8 


Howard 


3 






3 










4 






4 


7 






7 


















1 






1 


1 






1 






1 


4 


5 






1 


1 








1 


5 


6 






























1 




3 


4 














5 


5 


1 




8 


9 


St. Mary's 








1 


1 






1 










2 






2 
















2 


1 




3 


2 


1 




3 


Talbot 


1 




1 


2 








1 


1 


1 




2 


3 


1 


' *i 


5 




2 




9 


11 


4 


4 


5 


13 










6 


4 


14 


24 


















*1 


*1 






1 


1 








1 


1 


















1 


1 






















2 


2 






2 


2 


Baltimore City: 






33 


33 






















33 


33 
80 








80 






















Entire State: 








131 








33 








42 








206 










118 








51 ... 






36 








205 



Frostburg 



Salisbury 



Grand Total 



b Includes 5 who will complete their work in December. 

c Of these four are attending colleges and universities, one is a junior clerk at the Salisbury Normal 
School and two are special students at the Salisbury Normal School and working in the Salisbury 
Normal School Library. 

* Includes one acting as a long-time substitute. 



Graduates of State 



Normal Schools and Their Placement 277 



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278 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



Enrollment at the Normal Schools Fall of 1931 

The inauguration of the three-year course with the class which 
entered the normal schools in the fall of 1931, the financial situ- 
ation, and the failure of some recent graduates to secure posi- 
tions brought a decrease in the county enrollment at the normal 
schools, but an increase in the City enrollment. The county en- 
rollment of 544 was lower than it has been at any time since the 
fall of 1921. Since 1926, however, when the maximum was 834, 
the county enrollment has been falling off gradually each year. 
(See Table 206.) 



TABLE 206 
Enrollment at State Normal Schools 



Fall 


Towson 




Frostburg 


Salisbury 




Total 


of 


County 


City 


County 


State 


1920 


184 




57 




241 


241 


1921 


397 




101 




498 


498 


1922 


506 




134 




640 


640 


1923 


569 




125 




694 


694 


1924 


602 


sis 


149 




751 


1,269 


1925 


513 


411 


197 


io7 


817 


1,228 


1926 


475 


275 


201 


158 


834 


1,109 


1927 


402 


268 


192 


170 


764 


1,032 


1928 


359 


315 


178 


186 


723 


1,038 


1929 


368 


346 


173 


174 


715 


1,061 


1930 


348 


298 


161 


165 


674 


972 


1931 


306 


348 


111 


127 


544 


892 



All of the normal schools show a decrease in county enrollment, 
the 1931 enrollment being 88 per cent of the 1930 enrollment at 
Towson, 77 per cent at Salisbury, and 69 per cent at Frostburg.- 
(See Table 206.) 

Students who returned to the normal schools in the fall of 1931 
were given their choice of completing their course in one or two 
years. The majority chose to complete only a two-year course, 
but a sufficient number chose to stay for two years longer, so that 
a junior section could be formed at Towson and also at Frost- 
burg. (See Table 206.) 



Enrollment at State Normal Schools for White Students 279 



^ so 



2- 



I 33 c3 



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fc- U * Q) 



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All Normal Schools ' 


Total 




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1 T). ■ 


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280 



1931 Report op State Department of Education 




Enrollment; Status of Freshmen; Withdrawal of Juniors 281 



The freshmen county enrollment of September, 1931, which is 
74 less than that in September, 1930, was below or equal to that 
of the year before in every county, except Anne Arundel, Cecil, 
Charles, and Harford, which showed considerable increase. The 
senior county enrollment, which is 78 lower than a year ago, was 
below that of the preceding year in every county, except Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, Caroline, Dorchester, Frederick, and St. 
Mary^s. Kent County had no students at normal school. (See 
Table 207 and Chart SS,) 

Status of Freshmen Admitted to Normal School Fall of 1931 

The per cent of the freshmen entrants admitted to the normal 
schools in September, 1931, who had taken the academic course 
was 94 at Salisbury, 88 at Towson, and 71 per cent at Frost- 
burg. The remainder had taken either the general or the com- 
mercial course. (See first half of Table 208.) 



TABLE 208 
1931 Normal School Entrants 



High School 
Course 


Per Cent Having Had Various 
High School Courses 


Third of 
Class 


Per Cent from Upper, Middle 
and Lower Third of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
b\iry 


City 


County 


City 


County 


Academic and 

College Prep , 
General 


88.6 
8.3 
3.1 


88.3 
7.6 
4.1 


70.8 
22.9 
6.3 


93.9 
6.1 


Upper 

Middle 

Lower 


50.0 
42.2 
7.8 


56.7 
33.4 
9.9 


37.5 
54.2 
4.2 
4.1 


55.1 
34.7 
8.2 
2.0 


Commercial. . . . 

Total 
Number 






Total 
Number 






192 


171 


48 


49 


192 


171 


48 


49 



At Towson and Salisbury, over 55 per cent of the freshmen 
were from the upper third of the class, while this was the case 
for 37.5 per cent of the freshmen who entered Frostburg. Less 
than 10 per cent in all of the schools were from the lower third 
of the class or unclassified. (See second half of Table 208.) 

Withdrawal of Juniors Who Entered in September 1930 

Towson lost by withdrawal over 31 per cent of the junior en- 
rollment which entered in September 1930 from the counties. The 
corresponding percentages at Frostburg and Salisbury were 18 
and 12 per cent, respectively. The school requested the with- 
drawal of 23 per cent at Towson, 13 per cent at Frostburg, and 
6 per cent at Salisbury. The withdrawal was voluntary for 9 
per cent of the county juniors at Towson, 5 per cent at Frostburg, 
and 6 per cent at Salisbury. (See Table 209.) 



282 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 209 

Juniors Who Entered Maryland Normal Schools in September, 1930, 
Who Withdrew at the Request of the School or Voluntarily 
Before September, 1931 

Towson Frost- Salis- 

Countv City burg bury 

Junior Enrollment, September, 1930 177 " 160 75 82 

Withdrawals for Removal, Transfer or 

Death 2 

Withdrawals by Request 40 15 10 5 

Withdrawals Voluntarily 16 11 4 5 

Per Cent Withdrawn bv Request 22 . 6 9.4 13 .3 6.1 

Per Cent Withdrawn Voluntarily 9.0 6.9 5.3 6.1 

Total Per Cent of Withdrawals 31.6 16.3 18.6 12.2 



*The Five-Year Study at Towson 

The following conclusions have been drawn from a study of 
data over a five-year period regarding students at the Towson 
Normal School : That the scholarship achievement as measured 
by the rating system used has shown little variation in the past 
three years ; that from approximately 4 to 10 per cent of the stu- 
dents who have been graduated within the past three years took 
more than two years to complete the course; that approximately 
one third of the students entering the normal school withdraw 
without completing the course; that these withdrawals occur 
mainly in the junior year, and that the most frequent causes of 
withdrawal are scholarship failures and lack of desire to teach ; 
that the students who withdraw because of failure make on the 
average lower scores on the psychological test than those who 
voluntarily withdraw or who succeed ; that in two years studied 
there seems to be relationship between the results of the psycho- 
logical examination and junior academic standing. 

The foregoing picture suggests the following fundamental poli- 
cies in planning the three-year program : First, the fact that, 
on the average, the entering students at present score approxi- 
mately as high as entering college students, and that in reading 
ability and in language usage they score somewhat above the 
normal for college entrants, makes possible the planning of the 
program on as high an intellectual plane as that of any good 
college. Second, the economic status of the students — the back- 
ground of the farm, of trade, and of industry, the small high 

* Excerpt from A Five-Year Study made by Agnes Snyder, Catherine Cook, and Gertrude 
Carley, Maryland State Normal School at Towson. 



Withdrawal of Juniors; Five Year Study; Normal School Faculty 283 

schools from which so many of the county students come, and 
the foreign parentage of so many of the city students make im- 
perative the bending of every effort to enrich the cultural oppor- 
tunities offered in the curriculum. The increasing immaturity 
of the entering student necessitates personal guidance as an in- 
tegral part of the program. The lack of positive relationship 
between the results of the psychological examination and student 
teaching shows still further the need for a place in the program 
for the development of personal fitness and emphasis upon traits 
other than the purely intellectual. 

Faculty at the Normal Schools 

The faculty at the normal schools showed little change from 
the year preceding. At Towson, there were fewer teachers in 
the campus elementary school and more in the training centers. 
At Frostburg, with the opening of the new campus elementary 
school, the reverse was the case. At Salisbury, the library staff 
was augmented by the part-time service of two alumnae of the 
school, and there was one fewer training center. (See Table 
210.) 



TABLE 210 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1931 

1 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Tota 


Principal 


1 


1 


1 


3 


Instructors 


31 


8 


aS 


47 


Library 


5 


2 


64 


11 


Campus Elementary School 


9 


6 


3 


18 


Training Centers 










County 


19 


2 


10 


31 


Baltimore City 


22 






22 


Office Staff 


8 


'2 


c3 


13. 


Dormitory Staff 


5 


e2 


dl 


8 



a Includes the Director of Training, who is also Principal of the Elementary School. 
b The Librarian teaches English part-time, and two part-time alumnae are also carrying courses of 
study for the three year diploma. 

c A junior clerk plays the piano for classes in physical education. 

d The Social Director also acts as School Nurse and as Teacher of Home Economics. 

e The social director also teaches English and Education. 

Anne Arundel County added another teacher to the training 
center at Linthicum Heights, which is cooperating with the Tow- 
son Normal School. This makes four critic teachers in Anne 
Arundel. Baltimore County has 14 teachers in 7 centers acting 
as training critics, and Harford has 1. In Baltimore City, the 
number of centers was increased to 11 and the number of train- 
ing teachers to 22. There were 9 teachers in the campus elemen- 
tary school. (See Table 211.) 



284 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 211 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1931 

Number of Number of 

Normal School at County Co-operating 

Towson Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Harford 

Total Counties 

Baltimore City 

Campus School 

Frostburg Allegany 

Campus School 

Salisbury Wicomico 

Somerset 

Campus School 



Schools 


Teachers 


7 


14 


1 


4 


1 


1 


9 


19 


11 


22 


1 


9 


2 


2 


1 


6 


6 


9 


1 


1 


1 


3 



At Frostburg there are only two Allegany County teachers in 
two schools acting as critic training teachers. The campus school 
has increased to 6 teachers. (See Table 211.) 

At Salisbury there are 6 Wicomico County schools with 9 teach- 
ers in which students observe and do practice teaching, and 1 in 
Somerset. The campus school has three teachers. (See Table 
211.) 

Total and Student Costs at the Normal Schools 

Although expenditures at the normal schools were no greater 
in 1931 than in 1930, a slight decrease in the number of students 
caused an increase in the expenditure per student. 

Expenditures at Towsori were nearly $312,000, of which $62,- 
000 came from students' fees and miscellaneous sources, and the 
remaining $250,000 from State appropriations. The cost of in- 
struction per normal school student, which includes provision for 
the instruction of 235 children in the campus elementary school, 
was $365. The payment of an average of $23 in fees made the 
instruction cost to the State $342. The expenditure for board 
and room per dormitory student was $376, and since the average 
payment by the 284 resident students was $169, the average 
dormitory cost to the State of a resident student was $207. The 
total cost of instructing, housing, and boarding a resident student 
was $741. The average fee of $192 paid brought the total cost 
to the State per resident student to $549. (See Table 212.) 

At Frostburg the total expenditures were over $77,000. Re- 
ceipts of $14,000 in fees, left $63,000 for the State appropriation. 
For the 154 students enrolled, and the support of the four-teacher 
campus school enrolling 123 pupils, the cost per normal school 
student for instruction was $352. The average fee paid was 



Normal School Training Centers; Total and per Student Cost 



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286 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



$20, making the cost to the State per student instructed $332. 
Each dormitory student at Frostburg required a total expendi- 
ture of $296 for room and board, toward which an average of 
$143 was paid in fees, leaving the dormitory cost to the State 
$153. Each resident student, therefore, brought about a total 
expenditure of $647, toward which $162 was contributed in fees, 
leaving $485 as the cost to the State. (See Table 212.) 

At Salisbury the total expenditures were over $98,000, of which 
over $28,000 came from students and miscellaneous sources, leav- 
ing $70,000 as the State appropriation. The cost of instruction 
per normal school student for the 160 enrolled, including 95 
pupils in the campus elementary school, was $377. A fee of $15 
made the cost of instruction to the State $362. For each dormi- 
tory student, the cost of room and board was $262, toward which 
each student paid $176 on the average, leaving the cost to the 
State $86. The total cost of each resident student was, therefore, 
$639, toward which $191 was paid in fees, leaving the cost to the 
State $448 per resident student for instruction and dormitory. 
(See Table 212.) 

Instruction costs per student were highest at Salisbury and 
lowest at Frostburg. Dormitory costs and total cost per resident 
student were highest at Towson and lowest at Salisbury. (See 
Table 212.) 

Inventories of the Normal Schools 

The inventories at Towson and Frostburg show increases over 
1930, the total for Towson being $1,305,637, an increase of $14,- 
000 in equipment, and for Frostburg $400,938, an increase of 
$65,530, made possible by the bond issues in 1930 and 1931 for 
building and equipping the new elementary school. The inven- 
tory for Salisbury is the same as that reported in 1930 — $675,- 
700. Use of the bond issues authorized by the legislature in 1932 
of $200,000 for completing the building at Salisbury Normal 
School and of $130,700 for building and equipping an elementary 
school at Towson Normal School will increase the inventories for 
these schools next year. (See Table 213.) 



TABLE 213 



Inventories of the Normal Schools 



Towson 



Frostburg 



Salisbury 



Buildings. . 
Equipment 
Livestock. 



Land 



$ 99,179 
1,023,064 
182,220 
1,174 



S 25,000 
354,718 
21,220 



% 16,266 
628,762 
30,672 



Total 



$1,305,637 



$400,938 



$675,700 



THE MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
Contributions from County Teachers and Membership 

The Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in its fourth year 
of operation received contributions from county teachers to the 
amount of $275,647, an increase of $9,903 over the amount con- 
tributed during 1929-30. In October, 1931, 4,888 county teach- 
ers, 94 per cent of the entire teaching staff, were active members 
of the system. For the preceding October, only 93 per cent of 
the teachers were contributing members. (See Table 214.) 

The proportion of the teaching staff in active membership in 
the Retirement System varied in the individual counties from 
85.6 per cent in Wicomico, to 98.8 per cent in Somerset. Eight 
counties, Somerset, Allegany, Baltimore, Prince George's, Car- 
roll, Frederick, Cecil, and Montgomery, had over 95 per cent of 
their teachers enrolled in the Retirement System. Contributions 
from 193 members in the State Department of Education, the 
Normal schools, and the four State schools for handicapped and 
delinquent children brought the total contributions for 1930-31 
to $297,399. (See Table 214.) 

Retirement and Death Benefits Received 

During 1930-31, $93,031 was paid to teachers retired on an 
annual pension of $400, the plan in effect before the contributory 
plan was put into operation. At the end of this period there 
were 226 teachers receiving this type of pension. Since the es- 
tablishment of the Teachers' Retirement System in 1927, 179 
teachers have been retired on the new basis. Of these, 143 were 
retired because they had reached the age permitting or requir- 
ing retirement, and 36 because of disability. Of those retired on 
the new basis, 15 have died and 2 have returned to service. State 
appropriations to the amount of $82,815 plus $1,855 from their 
own contributions were used during the year ending July 31, 
1931, to pay the annual allowances to the remaining 162 retired 
teachers. The beneficiaries of 21 teachers who died in service 
during 1930-31 received in death benefits $7,158 from State funds 
and $2,962 which the teachers themselves had contributed. 
Teachers who left the service withdrew contributions and accrued 
interest to the amount of $56,712. The expense of administration 
was $9,144. 

During the year 1930-31 the Board of Trustees purchased 
$526,000 par value of bonds for the Retirement System. The 
total holdings in securities on July 31, 1931, had a par value of 
$1,475,000. 



287 



288 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 214 



Contributions to the Annuity Savings Fund of the Teachers' Retirement System of 
the State of Maryland for the Year Ending July 31, 1931, and Per Cent of October, 
1931, Staff, Who are Active Members 





Amount Contrib- 


Active Members in 


COUNTY OR INSTITUTION 


uted Year Cnding 


Oct. 1931 Staff 




July 31, 1931 


Number 


Per Cent 


County; 








$ 29,437.63 


'±\j\j 


Q7 7 
y # . < 


Anne Arundel 


14,559.69 


OTA 


88 A 


Baltimore 


40,966.77 


OD'i 


Q7 1 


Calvert 


2,912.67 


DZ 


QQ Q 

yo . y 




6,083.97 


1 OS 




CarroU 


13.362.83 




Qfi 1 

yu . J. 


Cecil 


9.397.30 




Qf; 7 

yo . 1 


Charles 


4,457.63 


105 


92.9 


Dorchester 


8,099.99 


173 


93.0 


Frederick 


17,675.04 


Oil 


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yo . u 




Q '^QQ 

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1 AO 


Q9 Q 

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Harford 


10,482.33 


1 OA 


Q9 8 

yz . o 


Howard 


5,072.49 


yo 


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yj. . \) 


Kent 


5,671.04 


ini 


Q4 4 

y^ . ^ 


Montgomery 


19,490.89 


340 


95.5 


P*rince George's 


20,280.28 


387 


97.0 


Queen Anne's 


5.183.93 


oy 


SQ Q 

oy . y 




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yz . y 


Somerset 


7,465.83 


loy 


8 

yo . o 


Talbot 


5.535.71 


^^A 


88 4 


Washington 


21,206.08 


373 


88.4 


Wicomico ' 


8,611.09 


167 


85.6 


Worcester 


6,962.80 


1 Af\ 


Ql p; 
yi . D 


Total Counties 


$275,646.58 


4 8SS 

, OOO 


QQ R 
yo . o 


Normal School 








Towson 


7,068.22 






Frostburg 


1,586.80 


16 




Sahsbur\' 


1,819.44 


18 




Bowie 


1,063.33 


13 




Total 


$11,537.79 


99 




TiT'D A 'onn'XfTr'XTn • 

XJhirAllT^ih,^ T . 








State Department of Education 


] 


25 




Md. Pubhc Library Advisory Commission.. 


A 4,700.17 


4 




Md. Teachers' Retirement Svstem 




2 




Total 




31. 




Other Schools: 








Md. Training School for Boj'S 


1.793.87 


21 




Montrose School 


873.78 


7 




Md. School for the Deaf 


1,919.32 


25 




Rosewood 


927.71 


10 




Total 


$5,514.68 


63 








5,081 





Amounts Contributed by Teachers and State to Retirement System 289 



State Appropriations 

The State appropriation of $445,886 for 1931 covered the nor- 
mal contribution and the accrued liabilitj^ contribution of the 
State of Maryland on account of the county members of the 
Maryland State Teachers' Retirement System. The law provides 
that the State shall contribute to the City of Baltimore an amount 
equal to what would be required if the teachers of Baltimore City 
were members of the Maryland Teachers' Retirement System in- 
stead of belonging to the Retirement System available to all em- 
ployees of the City of Baltimore. This amount was $432,487 for 
1931. In addition, an appropriation of $7,500 was made to meet 
the expenses of administration of the State Retirement System. 

The total State appropriations for the Teachers' Retirement 
System for 1932 and 1933 are $977,964 and $1,026,362, respec- 
tively. The amount for the earlier year includes $494,342 for the 
Retirement System for the county teachers, $10,000 for the ad- 
ministration of the system, and $473,622 as the State's share 
towards the Baltimore City Retirement System. For 1933 the 
corresponding amounts are $519,059, $10,000, and $497,303, re- 
spectively. 

Physical Examination of Teachers 

In order to make more effective section 126 of the State school 
law requiring physical examination of teachers and to prevent 
the Teachers' Retirement System from admitting to membership 
physically handicapped teachers, arrangements were made be- 
ginning in the fall of 1929 to have the physicians at the normal 
schools give a thorough physical examination to all graduates 
who are planning to take positions in the Maryland counties. All 
entrants in the service who have not had such examinations are 
required to visit the physician in each county appointed to exam- 
ine such teachers. The State Department of Education bears 
the expense of such examination. Reports of these examinations 
are forwarded to the Medical Board of the Teachers' Retirement 
System. Certificates are issued only to those teachers, reports of 
whose physical examination are approved by the Medical Board. 
The number examined, accepted and rejected during the three 
years the regulation has been in force are as follows : 



Number 



Year 



Examined 



Accepted 



Rejected 



1929- 30 

1930- 31 

1931- 32 



917 
883 
772 



910 
872 
754 



11 
18 



290 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



LIST OF FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL TABLES 
No. SUBJECT OF TABLE Page 



Financial Statements _ 291-293 

I. Number of Schools _ _ 294 

11. Total Enrollment _ _ „ 295 

III. Non-Public School Enrollment 296 

IV. Non-Catholic Private Schools _ 297 

V. Catholic Parochial and Private Schools „ 298-9 

VI. Number Belonging; Per Cent of Attendance 300 

VII. Days in Session; Aggregate Days of Attendance; Average 

Daily Attendance _ _ _ 301 

VIII. Non-Promotions by Grade and Sex — County White Ele- 
mentary Schools _ 302 

IX. Number of Teaching Positions 303 

X. Certificates of County White Elementary Teachers, 

October, 1931 _ 304 

XI. Certificates of County Teachers in White One-Teacher 

Schools, October, 1931 _ _ _ 305 

XII. Certificates of County Teachers in White Two-Teacher 

Schools, October, 1931 _ _ 306 

XIII. Certificates of County Colored Teachers, October, 1931 307 

XIV. Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher, 

1930-31 _ - 308 

XV. Average Salary Per Teacher, 1930-31 309 

XVI. Badge Tests— White Schools _ 310 

XVII. Teams and Entrants— White Schools - 311 

XVIII. White Girls' Relay Teams and Entrants _ 312 

XIX. Badge Tests— Colored Schools 313 

XX. Teams and Entrants — Colored Schools „ 314 

XXI. Receipts from State, 1930-31 _ 315 

XXII. Receipts from All Sources, 1930-31 „ 316 

XXIII. Total Disbursements, 1930-31 317 

XXIV. Disbursements for General Control 318 

XXV. Disbursements for Instruction and Operation 319 

XXVI. Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and 

Fixed Charges _ _ 320 

XXVII. Disbursemnts for Debt Service and Capital Outlay - 321 

XXVIII. Disbursements for White Elementary Schools 322 

XXIX. Disbursements for County White One-Teacher Schools 323 

XXX. Disbursements for County White Two-Teacher Schools 324 

XXXI. Disbursements for County White Graded Schools 325 

XXXII. Disbursements for Junior High Schools 326 

XXXIII. Disbursements for White High Schools 327 

XXXIV. Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools 328 

XXXV. Disbursements for Colored High Schools 329 

XXXVI. Cost, Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates, Normal School 

Entrants, Courses in Individual County High Schools 330-335 

XXXVII. Enrollment by Subject in Individual County High 



Schools 336-341 



List of Statistical Tables; Summary Financial Statement 291 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1931 



Account 



State 
Appropriation 



Receipts 
from Fees, 
Federal 
Aid and 
by Budget 
Amendment 



Withdrawals 
by Budget 
Amendment 
and Failure 
to Collect 
Tax 



Total 
Available 

and 
Disbursed 



Maryland State Normal 

School, Towson 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Salisbury 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Frostburg 

Maryland State Normal 

School, Bowie 

State Department of 

Education 

Maryland Public Library 

Advisory Commission. . . 
Bureau of Educational 

Measurements 

Bureau of Publications 

and Printing 

Physical and Health 

Education 

Vocational Education 

Vocational Rehabilitation . 
Extension Courses for 

Teachers 

State Board of Education . 

Consultant Architect 

Examination and 

Certification 

State Aid to Approved 

High Schools 

Part Payment of Certain 

Salaries 

State Aid to Colored 

Industrial Schools 

Free Textbooks 

Materials of Instruction. . , 
Census and Attendance . . , 

Equalization Fund 

State Aid for Handicapped 

Children 



Totals 

Teachers' Retirement 

System : 

County Teachers 

Baltimore City Teachers 
Expense Fund 



Totals. 



$250,039.00 

70,015.00 

63,265.00 

42,200.00 

73,650.00 

16,420.00 

12,000.00 

7,000.00 

15,000.00 
15,000.00 
5,000.00 

3,000.00 
1,000.00 
1,500.00 

500.00 

518,192.00 

187,000.00 

30,750.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 
1,900,000.00 
526,563.00 

10,000.00 



$67,946.24 
28,347.92 
16,295.62 
13,532.42 
2,511.09 
498.38 
1,814.96 



$27.65 
3.72 



935.71 



11,549.80 
4,907.80 

1,533.75 



124.80 



183.76 
4,693.00 
2,250.00 



4.83 



*271,321.77 



$317,957.59 

98,359.20 

79,560.62 

55,732.42 

76,161.09 

16,918.38 

13,814.96 

6,064.29 

15,000.00 
26,549.80 
9,907.80 

4,533.75 
875.20 
1,500.00 

500.00 

518,008.24 

182,307.00 

28,500.00 
200,000.00 

50,000.00 
1,628,683.06 
526,563.00 

10,000.00 



$3,998,094.00 



445,886.00 
432,487.00 
7,500.00 



$148,942.81 



$279,540.41 



$4,883,967.00 



$148,942.81 



$279,540.41 



$3,867,496.40 



445,886.00 
432,487.00 
7,500.00 



$4,753,369.40 



* The collections of the Public School tax were short $271,321.77 of the amount which it was 
estimated would be received from this source. 



292 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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Financial Statements for State Dep't, Normal Schools, Etc. 293 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES FOR MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 



PrRPOSE 



Receipts 



Stat^ 
Appropriation 


Other 
Receipts 


Budget 
Amendment 


Total 
Receipts 


$15,000.00 
15,000.00 
12,000.00 
7,000.00 
3,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

500.00 
250.00 


o$9,064.45 


$2,485.35 


$26,549.80 
15,000.00 
13,814.96 
7,000.00 
4,533.75 
1.500.00 
1,000.00 

500.00 
5,257.18 
14,053.33 
9,907.80 




1,814.96 




1,533.75 










65,007.18 
cl4,053.33 
a4.907.80 




5,000.00 





Vocational Education 

Physical and Health Education . . 

Educational Measurements 

Publications and Printing 

Extension Teaching 

Consultant Architect 

State Board of Education 

Examination and Certification of 

Teachers 

Supervision of Colored Schools. . . 

Julius Rosenwald Fund 

Vocational Rehabilitation 



ExPENDITtTRES 





Salaries 


Traveling 
Expenses 


County 
Subsidies 


Miscel- 
laneous 


Budget 
Amend- 
ment 


Total Dis- 
bursement 




$11,808.85 


$3,546.30 


$10,493.41 


$ 701.24 
15,000.00 
5,432.11 
6,064.29 
4,533.75 




$26,549.80 
15,000.00 
13,814.96 
7,000.00 
4,533.75 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 

500.00 
5,257.18 
14,053.33 
9.907.80 


Physical and Health Education . . 






8,382.85 






Publications and Printing 






$935.71 


Extension Teaching 










1,500.00 










875.20 






124.80 


Examination and Certification of 






500.00 


Supervision of Colored Schools. . . 
Julius Rosenwald Fund 


i,o66.66 


1,257.18 








dl4,053.33 
3,925.39 






4,800.00 


1,182.41 













a From Federal Government. 

6 From General Education Board. 

c From Julius Rosenwald Fund. 

d For buildings, libraries, and transportation. 



constrttction accofnt 
Fbostpurg Normal School 



Receipts 

Balance, Oct. 1, 1929 $ 911.82 

Interest on Deposits 55 . 93 

Bond Issue, Chapter 132, 1929 50 , 000 . 00 

Bond Issue, Chapter 253, 1931 31 .000 .00 

$81,967.75 

Disbursements 

Construction $53 , 197 . 87 

Equipment 207.92 

Architects' Fees 2 , 317 . 32 

$55,723.11 

Balance, Sept. 30, 1931 26,244.64 



294 



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Number 



OF Public Schools; Public School Enrollment 



295 



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296 1931 Report of State Department op Education 



TABLE III 

Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, for the Year Ending June 30, 1931 



County 


WHITE 


COLORED 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enrollment 




Elemen- 
tary 


Com- 
mercial 
and 
Secondary 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 
of 

Teachers 


t Catholic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institxjtions, Fall of 1930 




9 
1 

15 
1 
2 
2 
8 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 

10 
1 


2,266 
349 

2,579 
24 
193 
313 
538 
69 
205 
281 
111 
680 

1,040 
328 


507 


'i 












83 


2 




120 
16 
54 
83 

303 


86 
9 
9 
12 
54 
4 
6 
10 
18 
29 
46 
9 


Caroline 








CarroU 








Frederick 

Garrett 


1 

2 


112 
27 


2 
2 




10 

11 
132 

84 
150 

21 










1 


46 




St. Mary's 


1 
3 


92 
a293 


2 
18 


Baltimore City 

Total State 








61 
69 


8,976 
29,462 


1,491 
3,191 


373 
776 


9 
9 


a653 
bl,254 


27 
40 


130 


38,438 


4,682 


1,149 


18 


cl,907 


67 


* Non-Catholic Private Schools 




4 
8 

8 
1 
1 
1 
5 
2 
1 
3 


73 
438 
405 
17 
22 
27 
248 
34 
13 
28 


198 
627 
376 


21 
129.6 
51 
1 

5.8 
4 

39.6 
6 
















Cecil 








Garrett 








Howard 


42 
9 
205 








Kent 








Montgomery 








Prince George's 








Queen Anne's 




1 
17 








St. Mar>''s 


163 








Somerset 




d68 


13 


Washington 


2 
1 


19 
57 


66 


10.8 

5 


Wicomico 


1 


36 


2 


Total Counties 

Baltimore City 

Total State 




37 
15 


1,381 
1,970 


1,686 
854 


292.8 
268.6 


2 
1 


104 
e70 


15 
3 


52 


3.351 


2,540 


561.4 


3 


/174 


18 



Schools for Exceptional Children 

Baltimore School for the Blind 

Frederick School for the Deaf 164 16 5 

Montgomery, Reinhardt School 

for Deaf Children 

Md. Training School for Boys 219 20 5 

Montrose School 131 30 4 

t Figures furnished by Rev. John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic Schools. 
* Figures furnished by principals of schools and by Mrs. V. D. Pickard, Superintendent of Seventh 
Day Adventist Parochial Schools. 
a Includes 62 high school pupils. 
b Includes 20 high school pupils, 
c Includes 82 high school pupils. 
d High school pupils. 
€ Includes 1 high school pupil. 
/ Includes 69 high school pupils. 



Enrollment in Private and Parochial Schools 



297 



TABLE IV 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Non-Catholic Private Elementary and 
Secondary Schools in Maryland, Year Ending June 30, 1931 



Enrollment Number of 

Ele- Sec- Teachers 

County and men- ond- Full Part 

School tary ary Time Time 

White Schools 

Anne Arundel 

Severn 135 11 

U. S. Naval Acad. 

Prep 63 4 

HoUaday 57 . . 4 1 

Mrs. Thomas' Kgn. 16 1 

Total 73 198 20 1 

Baltimore 

McDonogh 327 199 31 .6 

Greenwood 53 68 14 2 

Oldfield's 102 16 . . 

St. Timothy's 81 20 . . 

Hannah More ... . 16 63 13 . . 

Robert s Beach. .. . 12 60 11 5 

Garrison Forest*. . 24 28 11 1 

Marston 6 26 5 . . 

Total 438 627 121 8.6 

Cecil 

Tome Town 168 170 14 4 

Tome Institute.... 8 159 15 2 

Parish 103 3 . . 

West Nottingham . 6 41 2 .. 

Perry Point 41 5 . . 

Blythedale Church 29 3 2 . . 

Mabel Reynolds' . . 28 11 
Seventh-Day 

Adventist 22 3 2 . . 

Total 405 376 44 7 

Garrett 

Zion Lutheran 

Accident 17 . . 1 

Howard 

Donaldson 22 42 5 .8 

Kent 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist 27 9 2 2 

Montgomery 
Washington 

Missionary Col. . 119 138 6 10 
National Park 

Seminary 43 1 7.3 

Chevy Chase 

Country 41 . . 5 1 

Bradford Home ... 88 6 . . 

Chevy Chase 24 3 1.3 

Total 248 205 21 19.6 

Prince George's 

Avondale Country. 20 . . 3 2 
Seventh-Day 

Adventist 14 .. 1.. 

Total 34 4 2 



Enrollment 
Ele- Sec- 
County and men- ond- 
School tary ary 

Queen Anne's 
Seventh-Day 

Adventist 13 

St. Mary's 

Charlotte Hall. ... 12 102 
St. Mary's 

Seminary . . 61 

Mrs. Townshend's. 16 

Total 28 163 

Washington 

St. James' 19 65 

Seventh-Day 

Adventist 10 1 

Total 19 66 

Wicomico 

Mrs. Herold's 57 

Colored Schools 

Somerset 

Princess Anne 

Academy . . 68 

Wicomico 

St. Marie Institute 36 



Number of 
Teachers 
Full Part 
Time Time 



13 



Baltimore Cit^ White Schools 

Friends 340 157 40 7 

Roland Park 

Country 275 117 34 8 

Bryn Mawr 261 90 30 6 

Gilman Country. . . 174 161 29 . . 

Calvert 281 17 4 

Park 180 95 22 5.6 

Boys' Latin 74 70 11 5 

Immanuel 

Lutheran 122 . . 3 . . 

Girls' Latin 36 82 12 4 

Mt. Washington 

Country 98 . . 8 1 

Samuel Ready 42 30 4 . . 

Seventh-Dav 

Adventist 42 10 3 . . 

St. Paul's for Boys 22 25 5 . . 
Little School in 

Guilford 23 .. 2 1 

Garey's Army 

Navy Prep 17 4 3 

Total 1,970 854 224 44.6 



Colored School 



Seventh-Day 
Adventist 
(Colored) . . 



Total State 

Wliite Schools . . 
Colored Schools. 



3,351 2,540 471 
105 69 17 



Figures as of year 1929-30. 



298 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE V 

Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions Fall of 1930 



Enrollment 
High 

County and School Elemen- and Teach- 

tary com- ers 
mercial 

Allegany 

SS. Peter and Paul's, 

Cumberland 506 93 13 

St. Patrick's. Cumberland 414 68 14 

St. Mary's, Cumberland. . 361 65 11 

St. Peter's, Westernport. . 263 88 9 

St. Michael's, Frostburg. . 269 ... 6 
La Salle Institute, 

Cumberland 65 170 9 

St. Patrick's, Mt. Savage. 175 23 5 

St. Joseph's, Midland 128 ... 4 

St. Michael's, Eckhardt. . 85 ... 2 

Total 2,266 507 73 

Anne Arundel 

St. Mary's, Annapolis. . . . 349 ... 8 
St. Mary's (Colored) 

Annapolis 83 ... 2 

Baltimore 

Sf Mark's, Catonsville. . . 353 ... 8 

St. Michael's, Overlea 302 ... 6 

Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, 

Middle River 286 ... 5 

School of the Immaculate, 

Towson 205 78 9 

St. Rita's, Dundalk 234 ... 5 

St. Joseph's, Fullerton. . . 231 ... 6 

St. Agnes', Woodlawn. ... 190 ... 4 

St. Charles', Pikesv-ille .. . 171 ... 6 

Ascension, Halethorpe. . . 161 ... 5 

St. Clements', Lansdowne 161 ... 5 
St. Vincent's Orphanage, 

Towson 102 ... 6 

St. Joseph's, Texas 85 ... 3 

Mt. de Sales Academy, 

Catonsville 28 42 13 

Little Flower, Woodstock 58 ... 3 

Sacred Heart, Glyndon. . . 12 ... 2 

Total 2,579 120 86 



County and School 



Caroline 

St. Gertrude's, Academy 
Ridgely 



Enrollment 
High 

Elemen- and Teach- 
tary com- ers 
mercial 



Carroll 

St. John's, Westminster. 
St. Joseph's, Taneytown. 

Total 



Charles 

Sacred Heart, La Plata. . . 
St. Mary's, Bryantown. . . 

Total 

St. Mary's (Colored) 
Bryantown 

Frederick 

St. John's, Frederick 

St. Euphemia's, 

Emmitsburg 

Mt. St. Mary's Prep., 

Emmitsburg 

St. Joseph's College High, 

Emmitsburg 

St. Anthony's, 

Emmitsburg 

Visitation, Frederick 

St. Peter's, Libertytown. . 
St. Francis', Brunswick... 

Total 

St. Peter's (Colored) 

Libertytown 

St. Euphemia's, (Colored) 

Emmitsburg 

Garrett 

St. Peter's, Oakland 

Harford 

St. Margaret's, Bel Air. . . 



24 


16 


9 


161 


54 


7 


32 




2 


193 


54 


9 


183 


26 


6 


130 


57 


6 


313 


83 


12 


112 




2 


172 


51 


8 



162 



109 
41 
29 
25 



94 
125 



538 303 
17 ... 



10 



15 

5 
8 
2 
2 

54 

1 

1 



205 



10 



Enrollment in Individual Catholic Schools 



299 



TABLE V— Continued 
Number of Pupils and Teachers in Catholic Parish and Private Schools and 
Private Institutions, Fall of 1930 



OS, 



Enrollment 
High 

County and School Elemen- and Teach- 

tary com- ers 
mercial 

Howard 

St. Paul's, Ellicott City. . 115 ... 4 

St. Augustine's, Elkridge . 94 . . . 3 

St. Louis', Clarksville.... 72 11 3 

Total 281 11 10 

St. Augustine's (Colored) 

Ellicott City 46 

Montgomery 

Georgetown Prep., 

Garrett Park 132 15 

St. Martin's, Gaithersburg 111 ... 3 

Total Ill 132 18 

Prince George's 

St. James', Mt. Rainier. . 280 ... 6 

St. MUdred's, Laurel 149 15 6 

Maryhurst, Hyattsville. . . 134 ... 6 
St. Mary's, 

Upper Marlboro 117 8 4 

La Salle Hall, Ammendale ... 61 7 

Total 680 84 29 

St. Mary's (Colored) 

Upper Marlboro 92 ... 2 

St. Mary's 

St. Mary's Academy, 

Leonardtown 132 55 7 

Little Flower, Great Mills 180 ... 11 

Holy Angels', Abell 146 21 5 

St. John's, Hollywood. ... 137 ... 4 

St. Joseph's M organza. . . 136 ... 4 

St. Michael's, Ridge 77 25 4 

Leonard Hall, 

Leonardtown 37 49 5 

Our Lady, Medley's Neck 73 ... 2 

Sacred Heart, Bushwood , 68 . . . 2 
St. David'g, 

St. Mary's City 54 ... 2 

Total 1,040 150 46 



Enrollment 
High 

County and School Elemen- and Teach- 

tary com- ers 
mercial 

St. Mary's — Cont. 
St. Peter Clavers, 

(Colored) Ridge 113 ... 5 

Cardinal Gibbons 

Institute (Colored) 42 62 11 

St. Joseph's (Colored) 

M organza 76 ... 2 

Washington 

St. Joseph's, Hagerstown. 328 21 9 

Total County White 

Catholic Schools 8,976 1,491 • 373 

Total County Colored 

Catholic Schools 591 62 27 

Baltimore City 

Seton High School 871 32 

Institute of Notre Dame . 303 287 19 

Loyola 407 21 

Calvert Hall 30 351 16 

Mt. St. Joseph's 48 332 17 

Notre Dame of Maryland 143 182 20 

Mt. St. Agnes' 214 127 19 

Visitation 10 ... 1 

Private Schools for 

White Children 748 2,557 145 

White Parish Schools 27 , 939 542 583 

Institutions for White 

Children 775 92 48 

Grand Total 29 , 462 3 , 19 1 776 

St Francis' Academy 

(Colored) 52 20 8 

Colored Parish Schools . . . 939 ... 20 
Institutions for Colored 

Children 243 ... 12 

Grand Total 1,234 20 40 

Total State 

White 38,438 4,682 1,149 

Colored 1.825 82 67 



300 1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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310 



1931 Report of State Department of Education 



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Disbursements in White Elementary and One-Teacher Schools 323 

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Disbursements in White Two-Teacher and Graded Schools 



325 



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Disbursements in White Junior and Senior High Schools 327 



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4,153.09 
4,290.01 
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3.484.07 
5,735.45 
12,015.97 
1,827.08 
5,179.58 
5.922.03 
2,837.29 
8,820.04 
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172,427.74 
207.090.42 


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INDEX 



A 

Absence : 

Causes of. 33-35 

Colored Schools, 165-167. 180, 300 
Long, 33-34 

White elementary schools, 25-29, 33-35, 
300 

White high schols, 93-94. 300 
Academic course, high schools, 182, 330-335 
Administration and supervision : 

Administration, 269-270, 317-318 

Colored schools, 210-211 

General control costs, 231-233. 235-237, 
317-318 

High schools, 159-160 

Superintendents, 3, 269, 318 

Supervision, 88-91, 159-160. 210-211. 236- 
237, 238, 269-270, 319, 322. 328 
Agriculture, Vocational : 

Cost, 145-147 

Enrollment in, 108, 110. 114, 146-147. 

182, 336-341 
Failures in, and withdrawals, 116-118 
Schools having, 107-108, 122, 133. 336- 

341 

Teachers of, 122 
Aid, State, Federal, and other, 7-9, 227-231, 

291, 293. 315-316 
Colored. 8, 197, 198, 200-201, 291, 315, 

330-335 

Equalization Fund, 8-9, 230-231, 260-264, 
291, 315 

Extension courses, 8, 58, 291. 293. 315 
Federal. 145-147. 240-241, 293, 315, 330- 
335 

High schools, 8, 135-136, 291, 315, 330- 
335 

Medical examinations. 8 
Normal schools, 8, 213. 284-286, 291-293 
Part-payment of salaries, 8, 269, 291. 315 
Retirement System. 8, 287-289, 291, 320 
Rosenwald Fund, 197. 198. 200-201, 293, 
316 

State. 7-9, 136, 145-147, 227-231, 241, 

291-293, 315-316, 330-335 
Vocational education, 8. 145-147, 240-241, 

291, 293, 315 
Vocational rehabilitation, 8, 226, 291, 293. 

315 

Appropriations : 

County, 227-231. 254-258, 316 
State. 227-231, 240-241, 291-293, 315-316, 
330-335 
Public school budget, 7-9 
Approved high schools. 132-134, 176-177, 
330-341 

Art. enrollment taking, 122-123, 336-341 



A — (Continued) 

Assessable basis: 

County. 258-260 

State. 7 
Athletics : 

Colored schools. 206-207. 313-314 

Expenditures. 221-222 

White schools, 214-220, 310-312 
Attendance : 

Aggregate days of, 301 

By months, 27-28, 165-166 

Cause for failure, 45-47 

Colored schools, 165-167, 177. 180. 300- 
301, 328-329. 330-335 

Elementary schools, white. 25-29. 34-35. 
300-301. 322-325 

High schools, white, 92-94, 300-301, 327. 
330-335 

Index of, 34-35 

Number in, 23-24, 92-94, 165-167. 301. 

322-329, 330-335 
Officers, 270 

Per cent of, 25-28, 93, 165-166, 180, 300, 

330-335 
Summary of. 300-301 
Summer school : 

Colored teachers, 184-185 
Elementary and high school pupils, 
222-223 

White elementary teachers, 57-58 
White high school teachers, 124-125 
Auxiliary agencies, expenditures, and cost 
per pupil, 231-234, 237, 239, 320 
Colored, 197-198, 328-329 
White elementary, 73, 75-78. 237, 239, 
322-325 

White high, 143-144, 149-152. 155. 237, 
239. 327 

B 

Badge tests entrants and winners : 

Colored, 206-207. 313 

White, 214-218, 310 
Baltimore City schools : 

Capital outlay, 227. 228, 232, 248-249, 
317, 321-322, 326-329 

Colored. 183-184, 213, 222-224. 328-329 

Enrollment, 23-24, 295, 296-299 

Evening, 223-224. 320 

Expenditures, 227-228, 317-322. 326-329 

Special classes, 52-53 

Summer, 222-223, 320. 322, 327-329 

Vocational program, 240-241 
Belonging, average number: 

By months. 27-28, 165-166 

Colored schools. 165, 166, 177. 300, 328- 
329, 330-335 

342 



Index 



343 



B — (Continued) 

Belonging, average number — (Cont'd) 

Elementary schools, white, 27-28. 300, 
322-325 

High schools, white, 300, 327, 330-335 
Per teacher, 308 

Colored, 191-192, 308. 329 
White elementary, 64-66, 308 
White high, 137-138, 308 
Proportion in high school, 94-96, 179-180 
Board of Education, State, 2 
Bond issues, school, 249-251 
Bonds outstanding, 2B0-251 
Books and materials of instruction, ex- 
penditures and cost per pupil, 232- 
234, 237, 239, 319 
Colored, 328-329 

White elementary, 73-74, 237, 239. 322- 
325 

White high, 143-144, 148, 237, 239, 327 
Boys to girls : 

Graduates, 38-40, 97-99, 172-173, 181-182, 
330-335 

In each grade, 35-37, 170-172 
Non-promotions, 41-44, 116-119, 174-176, 
302 

Ratio in white high schools, 96 
Budgets : 

County, 254-258, 316 
School, 7-9, 227-235 
State Public School, 7-9 
Tax, 254-258 
Buildings : 
Cost, 248-249 

Colored schools, 199-201. 202-203, 248- 

249, 328-329 
White elementary, 73, 84-85, 248-249, 
322-325 

White high, 144, 155-156, 239, 248-249, 
327 

Number of, 294 

Value of, 199, 202-203, 251-254 
C 

Capital outlay, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 228. 232. 234-235, 248-249, 321 
Colored schools. 199-201, 248-249, 328- 
329 

White elementary schools, 73, 84-85. 248- 

249, 322-325 
White high schools, 144. 155-156, 248-249, 
327 
Causes of: 

Absence, 33-34 

Late entrance, 29-31, 167-168 

Non-promotions, 45-47 



C— (Continued) 

Causes of — (Cont'd) 

Resignations of teachers, 58-59, 125-126, 
185-186 

Teacher turnover, 58-59, 125-126, 185-186 
Withdrawals, 32-33, 168-170 

Census, 1930: 
Federal, 9-15 
School, 15-22, 160-162 

Compared with federal, 16-17, 162-163 
Non-school attendants, handicapped and 

other, 20-22 
Place of birth shown, 17-18 

Census and Attendance Fund and deficit,^ 
8-9. 227-229, 291, 315 

Certificates : 304-307 

Additional new regulations, 272-273 
Medical, 272, 289 

New requirements for high school, 158,^ 
273 

Number issued, 270-272 
Provisional, 123-124, 272. 304-307 
Substitutes, 271. 304-306 
Teachers in : 

Colored schools, 184, 307 

Non-public schools, 271 

White elementary schools, 53-57, 271, 
304-306 

White high schools, 123-124, 158, 271- 
272 

Certification of teachers, 270-273, 304-307 
Colored, 184, 307 
In non-public schools, 271 
Provisional, 123-124. 272, 304-307 
White elementary, 53-57, 271, 304-306 
White high, 123-124, 158, 271-272 

Classes : 

Evening school, 223-225 
Size of, 308 

Colored, 191-192, 329 
White elementary, 64-66 
White high, 137-138 
Special, 50-53 
Clerks, 123, 318 
Colleges : 

Attended for summer courses, 57-58. 124- 
125, 184-185 

Pe:- cent of high school graduates enter- 
ing, 101-106, 183 
Maryland colleges, 103, 105-106 

Training Maryland teachers, 128-130, 187, 
188 



344 



Index 



C— (Continued) 

Colored Schools, 159-213, 307, 313-314, 328- 
329 

Aid, 8, 197-198, 200-201, 291, 293, 315 
Baltimore City, 183-184, 213, 222-224 
Capital outlay, 199-201, 248-249, 328-329 
Libraries, 198 

Men teachers in, 190-191, 303 
Neatness and Cleanliness contests, 201- 
202 

Normal school, 211-213, 291, 292, 330-335 
Number belonging, 166, 177, 300, 328- 

329, 330-335 
Number of, 294 

Parent-Teacher Associations, 207-208 
Physical education, 206-207, 313-314 
Rosenwald Fund, 197, 198, 200-201, 293, 
316 

School census, 159-161 

Compared with federal, 161-162 
Session, 164-165, 301 
Size of class, 191-192, 308, 329 
Size of, 203-206 
Supervision, 210-211, 328 
Teachers, 178-179, 303. 328-329 

Certification, lg4, 307 

Experience, 189-190 

Salaries, 178-179, 193-195, 309, 328-329 

Summer school attendance, 184-185 

Resignations, 185-186 

Turnover, 185-188 
Transportation of pupils, 197 
Value of school property, 202-203, 252- 
254 

Commercial subjects: 
Enrollment taking, 108-110, 113-114, 336- 
341 

Failures and withdrawals, 116-119 
Schools having. 122, 336-341 
Teachers of, 122 

Conferences, programs of 
Attendance officers. 270 
High school principals, 157-158 
Superintendents, 269 
Supervisors, 91, 157-158, 211, 269 

Consolidation : 
Decrease in number of one-teacher 

schools. 85-88, 204-205 
Schools closed, 294 

Transportation of school children, 75-76, 
149-151, 197, 242-247 

Cost per pupil, 235-239 
Auxiliary agencies : 

White elementary, 73. 75-78, 237, 239 
White high, 143-144. 149-152, 155. 237, 
239 



C — (Continued) 

Cost per pupil — (Cont'd) 

Books and materials of instruction: 

White elementary, 73-74, 237, 239 

White high. 143-144. 148, 237, 239 
By type of white elementary school, 83, 

85, 238 
Capital outlay: 

White elementary, 84-85 

White high, 144, 155 
Colored schools, 195, 197, 238 
Current expenses. 71-78, 142-146, 148-152, 

155. 195-197. 235-236, 237-238. 
Elementary schools, Arhite, 71-85. 237-239 
Excluding federal vocational aid, 145-146 
CJeneral control, 236-238 
Health activities : 

White elementary, 75, 78 

White high, 149, 155 
High schools, white, 142-146, 148-152, 155, 

237-239, 330-335 
Instruction : 

White elementary, 72-74. 237, 239 

White high, 143-146, 148, 237, 239 
Libraries, 75-77, 239 
Maintenance: 

White elementary, 73-74, 237, 239 

White high, 144, 148, 237, 239 
Normal schools: 

Colored, 213 

White. 284-286 
Operation and maintenance: 

White elementary, 73-74, 237-239 

White high, 144, 148, 237, 239 
Salaries : 

Excluding federal vocational aid, 145- 
146 

White elementary. 72-73, 237, 239 
White hish. 143-146, 237, 239 

Supervision, 72-74 

Transported. 
Colored, 197 

White elementary, 75-76, 239 
, White high, 149-151, 239 
Costs (See also expenditures) : 

Buildings. 84-85. 155-156, 199-201, 202- 

203. 248-249, 317. 321-329 
Colored schools, 195-197. 237, 291, 293, 
328-329 

Elementary schools, white, 71-85, 322-325 
Evening schools, 147, 224, 320 
General control, 236-238, 317-318 
High schools, white. 140-152. 155-156, 291, 
327 

Junior high schools. 326 
Normal schools, 213. 284-286. 291-293 
Summer schools. 222. 320. 322. 327-329 
Supervision. 232-234, 319. 322, 328 
Total current expenses. 227-228, 317-320, 
322-329 



Index 



345 



C— (Continued) 

Costs— (Cont'd) 

Transportation, 75-76, 149-151, 197, 242- 
245, 320 

Vocational education, 145-147, 240-241, 
291, 293 
County : 

Assessments, 258-260 

Budgets, 254-258 

Tax rates, 260-264 
Courses : 

Extension, 58 

In high school, 107-115, 182, 330-335 
Current expenses, expenditures, and cost 
per pupil, 227-228, 235-239, 317 
Colored schools, 195-197, 328-329 
White elementary schools, 71-78, 238-239, 
322-325 

White high schools, 140-152, 238-239, 327 
D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools : 

Ck)lore<i, 164 

White, 24 
Days in session, 301 

Colored schools, 164-165 

White schools, 24-25, 330-335 
Debt service, 254-257, 261-262, 317, 321 
Deficit, Census and Attendance Fund, 8, 

227, 229, 291 
Disbursements, 291-293, 317-329 
Distribution of expenditures, 231-234, 317- 
329 

Ck)lored schools, 328-329 
White schools, 322-327 
Division of school dollar, 231-234 

E 

Elementary schools: 
Colored : 

Attendance, 165-167, 177, 180, 300-301, 
328 

/ Consolidation, 204-205 
I Cost per pupil, 195-197. 238 / 
\ Enrollment, 162-163, 170, 172,/ 239, 295 
Expenditures, 328 / 
Graduates, 172-173 
Late entrants, 167-168 
Non promotions, 174-176 
Number belonging, 166, 300, 328 
Number of teachers, 203-206. 303, 328 
Session in, 164-165, 301 
Size of class, 191-192, 308 
Teachers' certification, 184, 307 
Teachers' salaries, 178-179, 193-195, 

309, 328 
Withdrawals, 168-170 



E — (Continued) 

Elementary schools — (Cont'd) 
White : 

Attendance, 25-29, 33-35, 300-301, 322- 
325 

Books and materials, 239 

Certification of teachers, 53-57, 304-306 

Consolidation, 85-89 

Cost per pupil, 71-78, 83, 85, 237-239 

Enrollment, 23-24, 35-38, 295 

Expenditures, 75, 322-325 

Failures, 41-47, 302 

Graduates, 38-40 

Health program. 78-83 

Late entrants, 29-31 

Libraries, 75-78, 239, 320 

Men teachers, 70^71, 303 

Non promotions, 41-47, 302 

Number belonging, 300, 322-325 

Number of. 86-88, 294 

Pupil-teacher ratio, 64-66, 308 

Sessions, length of, 24-25 

Size of class, 64-66, 237, 239, 308 

Special classes, 50-53 

Standard tests, 47-50 

Supervision, 88-91, 269, 322 

Teachers : 

Certification, 53-57, 271, 304-306 

Experience, 62-63 

Number of, 86-88, 303 

Resignations, 58-59 

Salaries, 66-70. 309. 322-325 

Summer school attendance, 57-58 

Turnover, 59-62 
Tests, 47-50 

Transportation. 75-76, 239, 242-247 
Withdrawals. 32-33 

English : 

Enrollment taking, 107-108, 110, 115-116, 

182. 336-341 
Failures in and withdrawals, 116-118 
Schools having, 122, 336-341 
^^^^,^eachers of, 122 

Enrollment, 7, 295 
By course, 330-335 
By subject, 107-116, 182, 336-341 
By type of elementary school, 37-38 
Colored, 162-163, 170-172, 177-179, 183, 

295, 330-341 
Elementary, white, 23-24, 35-38 
Grade, 35-38, 170-172, 330-335 
High school, white, 92-93, 140-141, 295 

Courses, 330-335 

Subjects, 107-116, 182, 336-341 

Years, 35-38, 330-335 
Non-public schools, 24, 93. 163, 296-299 
Normal schools, 211, 278-283 



346 



Index 



E — (Continued) 

Enrollment — (Cont'd) 

Private and parochial schools. 24, 93, 163, 

296-299 
Public schools, 295 
Summer schools : 
Pupils, 222-223 

Teachers. 57-58, 124-125. 184-185 
Total 295 

Entrants : 

Athletic events : 

Colored, 206-207, 313-314 

White, 214-220, 310-312 
Colored : 

Late, 167-168 

Normal school, 179, 181, 330-335 
White: 

College and normal school, 99-106 
Late, 29-31 

Normal schools, 99-101, 330-335 
Equalization Fund. 8-9, 230-231, 263-264. 
291. 315 

Evening schools and courses. 147. 223-225, 
320 

Expenditures. 315-329 

Auxiliary agencies, 77-78. 149-150, 155. 

317, 320. 322-329 
Capital outlay. 84-85. 155-156. 199-201, 

202-203. 248-249, 317. 321-329 
Colored schools. 328-329 
Current expenses. 227-228, 315-320, 322- 

329 

Debt service, 254-258, 261-264. 317. 321 
Distribution of. 231-235. 317-329 
Elementary schools, white, 71-85, 322-325 
Evening schools. 147, 224, 320 
Extra-curricular activities. 209-210, 266- 
268 

Fixed charges, 317, 320 
General control, 317-318 
Health. 77-78. 149. 155. 320 
High schools, white, 327 
Instruction and operation. 317, 319, 322- 
329 

Junior high schools, 326 
Libraries. 77-78, 149, 320 
Maintenance, 317.320. 322-329 
Normal schools, 213, 284-286. 291-293 
Operation. 317. 319, 322-329 
Salaries. 8. 139-141. 317, 318. 319. 322-329 
State Department of Education. 291-293 
Summer schools. 222. 320, 322. 327-329 
Supervision, 319, 322, 328 
Transportation, 75-76, 149. 197. 242-244. 
320 

Tuition to adjoining counties. 317. 321 
Vocational work. 147. 240-241, 291, 293 



E— (Continued) 

Experience of teachers, 62-63. 130-131, 189- 
190 

Extension courses, 58 

Extra-curricular activities, 209-210. 266-268 
F 

Failures : 

By grade. 44-45, 176. 302 

Causes. 45-47 

Colored schools, 174-176 

In high school subjects, 116-119 

White elementary schools. 41-47 

Financial statements. 291-293 

Financing extra curiicular activities, 209- 
210. 266-268 

Fixed charges. 317. 320 

French : 

Enrollment taking, 107-108, 110, 112, 182, 
336-341 

Failures in and withdrawals, 116-119 
Teachers of, 122 

G 

General control, 236-238, 317-318 
General course, high school, 182, 330-335 
George-Reed Fund. 240 
Grade or year: 
Number enrolled: 

Colored schools, 170-172, 330-335 

White schools. 35-38, 115, 330-335 
Promotions in. 

Colored schools, 176 

White elementary schools, 44-45, 302 

Graduates : 
Colored : 

Elementai-y school, 172-173 
Entering normal school. 179, 181. 330- 
335 

High school. 177. 179. 181-183. 330-335 
Normal school, 211 
Occupations. 183 
White: 

Elementary school, 38-40 

Entering normal school. 100-101, 281- 

282, 330-335 
High school, 96-98, 330-335 
Normal school, 274-277 
Occupations of high school. 101-107 

Growth in high school enrollment, teachers, 
and salaries. 140-141. 177-179 



Index 



347 



H 

Handicapped children, aid for, 8, 291 

1930 school census, 21-22 

Special education for, 50-53 
Health : 

Cost, 

White elementary schools, 78, 80-81, 320 
White high schools, 149, 155, 320 
State Department of, 78-83, 201-202 
High schools : 

Approved, 132-134. 176-177, 291, 330-341 
Colored : 

Attendance, 177, 180, 300-301, 329, 330- 
335 

Cost per pupil, 196-197. 329. 330-335 
Enrollment. 170-172, 177-179, 182, 295. 

330-341 
Expenditures, 329 

Graduates, 177, 179, 181-182, 183, 330- 
335 

Number belonging, 177. 300, 330-335 
Number of, 176-177. 294, 330-335 
Ratio of high to total enrollment, 179- 
180 

Size of class, 191, 329 
State aid, 8, 135-136, 330-335 
Statistics of individual schools, 330-341 
Subjects taught, 182, 336-341 
Teachers' certification, 184, 307 
Teachers' salaries, 178-179, 193, 195, 
309, 329 

Teachers in. 178-179. 204-206, 303, 329- 
335 
Junior, 326 

State aid to. 8. 135-136, 193 
White: 

Attendance, 92-94, 300-301, 327, 330-335 
Books and materials, 239 
Classes, size of, 137-138. 237. 239. 308 
Clerks, 123 

Cost per pupil. 142-146. 148,152, 155, 
237-239, 330-335 

Courses, 107-114. 330-335 

Distribution of. 132-134 

Enrollment. 35-38. 92-93, 107-114, 140- 
141. 239, 295. 330-341 

Expenditures, 327 

Failures, 116-119 

Graduates, 96-98, 330-335 

Growth in enrollment, teachers, sal- 
aries, 140-141 

Libraries, 152-155, 239 

Location, 132-134 

Men teaching in, 130, 132, 303 

Number belonging. 300. 327, 330-335 

Number in each group, 132-134 

Number of, 132-134, 239, 294 

Number offering subjects. 122, 336-341 

Occupations of graduates, 101-107 



H— (Continued) 
High schools — (Cont'd) 
White: 

Persistence to graduation, 98-99 
Promotions, 116-119 
Promotion by subject, 119-120 
Proportion of enrollment in. 94-96 
Ratio of boys to girls, 96 
Relation of number belonging to teach- 
ing staff, 134-136 
Requirements for each group, 134 
Resignations of teachers, 125-126 
Results of State-wide tests, 120-121 
Session, length of, 16-17, 301, 330-335 
Size of, 134-136 

Size of classes, 137-138, 237, 239, 308 
Special subjects, 107-114, 336-341 
State-aid, 8, 135-136. 330-335 
Statistics, individual schools. 330-341 
Subjects available, 107-114, 336-341 
Supervision. 157-158 
Teaching load, 137-138, 308 
Teachers, 140-141, 303. 327, 330-335 

Certification, 123-124, 158, 271-272 

Experience, 130-131 

For each subject, 121-123 

Salaries, 138-141, 309, 327 

Tests. 120-121 

Turnover, 126-130 
Transportation, 149-152. 242-247 
Vocational work in, 107-108, 110, 114, 

146-147 

Withdrawals by subject, 116-119 
Holding power of schools, 35-38, 98-99. 170- 

172, 330-335 
Home Economics : 
Cost, 147 

Enrollment in, 108, 110, 114. 147, 182, 
336-341 

Schools having. 108, 122, 336-341 
Teachers of, 122 

I 

Incorporated towns. Levy for, 256-257 
Index of school attendance, 34-35 
Industrial courses, 107-108, 110, 114, 146- 

147, 182, 336-341 
Instruction, expenditures and cost per pu- 
pil, 231-234 
Colored schools, 328-329 
Normal schools, 212-213, 284, 286 
White elementary schools, 72-74, 237, 239, 
322-325 

White high schools, 143-146. 148, 237, 239, 
327 

J 

Junior high schools, 326 



348 



K 

Kindergartens, enrollment in, 35-37 
L 

Languages in high school: 

Enrollment in, 107-108, 110, 112. 182, 336- 
341 

Failures in, 116-119 

Teachers of. 122 
Late entrance, 29-31, 167-168 
Latin : 

Enrollment taking, 107-108, 110, 182. 336- 
341 

Failures in and withdrawals, 116-119 
Teachers of, 122 
Length of session. 24-25, 164-165, 301, 330- 
335 

Libraries, 320 

Colored schools, 198 

White elementary schools, 77-78 

White high schools, 152-155, 239 

Standards for, 152-153 
Library Advisory Commission, 77-78, 152- 
155 



Maintenance, expenditures and cost per pu- 
pil, 232-234, 320 
Colored schools, 328-329 
White elementary schools, 73-74, 237, 239, 
322-325 

White high schools, 144, 148-149, 237, 239, 
327 

Manual Training — See Industrial Arts 
Materials of instruction and books, expendi- 
tures and cost per pupil, 232-234. 237, 
239, 319 
Colored. 328-329 

White elementary. 72-74. 237, 239. 322-325 
White high, 143-144, 146, 148, 237, 239. 
327 

Mathematics : 

Enrollment taking, 107-111, 182. 336-341 

Failures and withdrawals, 116-118 

Teachers of, 122 
Medical examinati6ns : 

Pupils, 78-83, 220-221 

Teachers, 8, 272, 289 
Meetings, See conferences 
Membership, (See number belonging) : 
Men teachers, 70-71, 130, 132. 190-191, 303 
Monthly attendance, 27-28, 165-166 
Music: 

Enrollment taking, 108-110, 114. 182, 336- 
341 

Teachers of, 122-123 



N 

Neatness and cleanliness contests in col- 
ored schools, 201-202 

New high schools. Establishment of, 132- 
133, 176 

New positions, number of, 59, 128, 186-187 
New requirements for high school teachers' 

certificates, 158, 273 
Night schools, 147, 223-225, 320 
Non-promotions : 

By grade, 44-45, 176, 302 
Causes of, 45-47 
Colored schools, 174-176 
White elementary schools. 41-47, 302 
White high schools, 116-119 
Normal schools, 211-213, 274-286 
Colored, 211-213 
Baltimore City. 213 
Building program, 213 
Costs, 212-213 
Enrollment, 211 
Entrants, 179, 181, 330-335 
Faculty, 212 

Financial statement, 213, 291-292 
Graduates, 211 
Inventory, 213 
Training centei-s, 212 
White. 274-286 
Costs, 284-286 
Enrollment. 278-283 
Entrants, 99-101, 281, 330-335 
Faculty, 283 

Financial statement, 291-292 

Graduates, 274-277 

Inventories, 286 

Training centers, 284 

Withdrawals of juniors, 281-282 
Number belonging, 300 

Colored schools, 166, 177, 300, 328-329 
Elementary schools, white, 300, 322-325 
High schools, white, 300, 327, 330-335 
Per teacher, 64-66, 137-138, 191-192, 308. 
329 

Proportion in high school, 94-96, 179-180 
Number of: 

High schools. 132-134. 176-177, 239, 294 
Schools by size. 85-86, 134-136, 203-206, 

294, 330-335 
Schools having transportation, 246-247 
Supervisors. 88-91, 157, 210-211. 303 
Teachers in schools of each type, 303 
Colored, 178. 203-206 
White elementary, 86-88 
White high, 122, 134-136. 140-141, 330- 
335 

Nurses, County Health. 79-80 
Nursing, occupation of graduates. 102, 106, 
183 



Index 



349 



o 

Occupations of high school graduates, 101- 
107, 183 

One-teacher schools, decrease in, 86-88, 204- 
205 

Opening date of schools, 24, 164-165 
Operation, expenditures and cost per pupil, 
232-234, 237, 239, 319 
Colored schools, 328-329 
White elementary, 73-74, 237, 239, 322-325 
White high, 144, 148-149, 237, 239, 327 

P 

Parent-teacher associations, 207-208, 264-266 
Parochial and private schools, 23-24, 296-299 
Part-payment of salaries, 8, 269, 315 
Patrons' organizations (See parent-teacher 

associations) 
Pensions — (See Retirement System) 
Persistence to high school graduation, 98-99 
Physical Education, 8, 214-222. 310-314 
Activities, 206-207, 214-220, 310-314 
Badge tests, 206-207. 214-218, 220, 310. 
313 

Enrollment taking. 
Colored. 182. 336-341 
White, 108, 110, 114, 336-341 

Playground Athletic League, 206-207, 214- 
222, 310-314 

Teachers of, 122-123 
Physical examinations. 

Pupils, 78-83, 220-221 

Teachers, 8, 272, 289 
Playground Athletic League: 

Activities. 206-207. 214-220, 310-314 

Administration, 221-222 

Appropriation, 8 

Expenditures, 221-222 
Preparation of teachers, 270-273 

Colored. 184, 307 

White elementary schools. 53-57, 271, 304- 
306 

White high school. 123-124, 158. 271-272 
Principals of normal schools, 2, 283 
Private and parochial schools, 23-24, 93, 
296-299 

Programs and conferences, 91, 157-158, 211. 

269-270 
Promotions : 

By subject, 119-120 
Colored schools, 174-176 
White elementary schools. 41-47, 302 
White high schools, 116-119 
Property valuation of schools, 202-203, 251- 
254 



P — (Continued) 

Provisional certificates, 123-124, 271-272, 

304-307 
Public School Tax, State, 7 
Pupils : 

In one-teacher schools, 86-88, 204-205, 

295, 300 
Per teacher, 308 

Colored. 179-180, 329 

White elementary, 64-66 

White high, 137-138 
Transported, 245-246 

Colored, 197 

White elementary, 75-76 
White high, 149, 151 

R — 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 96. 
170-172 

Ratio of high school to total attendance 

and enrollment, 94-96. 179-180 
Receipts from 
All sources, 316 

Extra-curricular activities, 209-210, 266- 
267 

Federal Government. 145-147. 240-241 
Rosenwald Fund, 197, 198, 200-201, 316 
State. 7-9. 227-231, 240-241. 315. 330-335 
State Public School Tax, 7-9 
Rehabilitation, vocational, 8, 225-226 
Required length of session, 24-25, 164-165. 
301 

Resignations of teachers, 58-59, 125-126, 
185-186 

Results of State-wide tests in high schools, 

120-121 
Retardation : 

By grade, 44-45, 170-172, 302 

Causes, 45-47 

Colored schools. 174-176 

White elementary schools, 41-47. 302 

White high schools, 116-119 
Retirement System. Teachers', 2, 8, 287-289 
Rosenwald Fund, 197, 198, 200-201, 316 
Rural schools, decrease in, 86-88, 204-205 

S 

Salaries of superintendents, 269, 318 

Salaries of teachers, 231-233. 309, 319 
Colored, 178-179, 193-195, 328-329 
White elementary, 66-70, 322-325 
White high. 138-141, 327 

Salary cost per white pupil, 72-73, 143-146. 
237, 239 

School bonds. 249-251 



350 



Index 



S — (Continued) 

School budgets, 7-9, 227-234 

School or college attended by teachers new 

to the State, 128-130, 187-188 
School tax dollar, 231-234 
School year, length of. 24-25, 164-165, 301, 

330-335 
Schools : 

Closed, 86-88, 204-205, 294 
Evening, 223-225 

Having certain number of teachers : 

Colored. 203-206, 294 

Whit« elementary, 85-86. 294 

White high, 134-136, 330-335 
Normal, 211-213, 274-286 
Number of, 294 

Colored, 176-177, 203-2u6 

One-teacher, 86-88, 204-205 

White elementary, 86-88 

White high, 132-134 
Offering certain subjects, 107, 122-123, 
336-341 

Open less than legal requirement, 24-25, 
164-165 

Parochial and private, 23-24, 296-299 
Property valuation of, 202-203. 251-254 
Size of, 85-86. 134-136, 203-206 
Summer : 

For pupils, 222-223 

For teachers, 57-58. 124-125, 184-185 
Transportation provided to, 246-247 
Science : 

Enrollment taking, 107-111. 182, 336-341 
Failures in and withdrawals. 116-118 
Teachers of, 122 
Session, length of. 24-25, 164-165, 301, 330- 
335 

Sex of teachers, 70-71, 130, 132, 190-191, 

303 
Size of: 

Classes, 308 

Colored. 179-180, 329 
White elementary, 64-66 
White high, 137-138 
Schools : 

Colored. 203-206 
White elementary, 85-86 
White high. 134-136, 330-335 
Smith-Hughes Act. 240 
Social Studies : 

Enrollment taking. 107-110, 112, 182, 336- 
341 

Failures in and withdrawals. 116-118 

Teachers of, 122 
Special classes, 8, 50-53 
Special high school teachers, 122-123 



S — (Continued) 

Special subjects in high school, 107-110, 113- 

114, 182, 336-341 
Standardized tests, 47-50, 120-121 
S:ate-aid, 7-9, 136-137, 227-231, 240-241, 

291, 293, 315, 330-335 
State Board of Education, 2 
State Department of Education, 2, 8. 291- 

293 

State Department of Health, 78-83. 201-202 
Statistical tables, 294-341 

Index to, 290 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping : 

Enrollment taking. 108-110, 113-114, 336- 
341 

Failures in and withdrawals, 116-119 
Teachers of, 122 
Subjects studied in high schools, 107-116, 

182, 336-341 
Summer school : 
Attendance : 

Colored teachers, 184-185 
Elem.entary and high school pupils, 222- 
223 

White elementary teachers, 57-58 
White high school teachers, 124-125 

Cost. 320, 322, 327-329 

Pupils in, 222-223 
Summer schools attended by teachers, 57- 

58, 124-125. 184-185 
Superintendents, 3, 269, 318 
Supervisors, 3 

Activities. 8S-91, 157-158 

Colored. 210-211, 303 

Conferences, 91, 157-158, 211, 269 

Elementary school, (white), 3, 88-91. 3v.3 

High school, 157-158 

Quota. 88-91, 303 

Salaries, 269, 319, 322. 328 
Supervision, 

Colored, 210-211, 328 

Cost of, 72-74, 231-234, 319, 322. 328 

White elementary, 88-91, 269. 322 

White high, 157-158 

T 

Tables of statistics. 290, 294-341 
Taxable basis : 

For county purposes, 258-260 

For State purposes, 7 
Tax budgets, 254-258 
Tax rates, 7, 260-264 
Teacher-pupil ratio. 308 

Colored. 179-180. 329 

White elementary, 64-66 

White high. 137-138 



Index 



351 



T — (Continned) 

Teacher (3) : 

Attending summer school, 57-58, 124-125, 

184-185 
Certification : 

Colored. 184, 307 

White elementary, 53-57. 271, 304-306 
White high. 123-124, 158, 271-272 
Changing type of position in county, 
61-62 

Exp,erience. 62-63. 130-131, 189-190 
Meif," proportion of, 70-71, 130. 132, 190- 

191, 303 
Number. 303 

For each high school subject, 121-123 
In schools of each type, 303 

Colored. 178-179. 203-206. 307. 32R.329 
White elementary. 86-88, 304-306. 322- 
325 

White high. 107. 134-136. 140-141. 
327. 330-335 
Total. 303 

Of certain high school subje-ts. 121-123 
Pupils per. 308 
Colored. 179-180. 329 

White elementary. 64-66 

White high. 137-138 
Resignation of, 58-59. 125-126. 185-186 
Retirement of. 58-59. 125-126. 185-186. 
287 

Salaries. 309 

Colored. 178-179. 193-195. 328-329 

White elementary. 66-70. 322-325 

White high. 138-141, 327 
Sex of, 70-71, 130, 132. 190-191. 303 
Special, 122-123 
Teaching load. 308 

Colored. 179-180. 329 

White elementary. 64-66 

White high. 137-138 
Training of. 304-307 

Colored. 184, 307 

White elementary. 53-57. 271. 304-306 
White high. 123-124. 158, 271-272 
Turnover of trachers. 58-62. 125-130, 185- 
188 

Teachers' Retirement System. 2. 8. 287-289 
Test? : 

Athletic badge 

Colored. 206-207, 313 
White. 214-218. 310 
Elementary school. 47-50 
High school. 120-121 



T — (Continued) 

Trade and industry, courses in. 107-108. 

110, 114, 146-147, 182. 336-341 
Training centers for normal schools, 212, 

284 

Training of teachei-s : 

At particular colleges, 128-130, 187. 18S 

Colored, 184, 211-213. 307 

White elementary, 53-57, 274-286, 304-306 

White high, 123-124, 158. 271-272 
Transfer of teachers from county to county, 

59-61. 125-127. 186-187 
Transportation of pupils. 242-247 

Colored, 197 

Cost, 75-76, 149-152, 197, 242-245, 320 

Per cent of pupils transported, 76, 151 

White elementary, 75-76 

White high, 149-152 
Tuition to adjoining counties, 317, 321 
Turnover in teaching staff : 

Colored, 185-188 

White elementary. 58-62 

White high school. 125-130 

V 

Valuation of school property. 202-203, 251- 
254 

Vocational rehabilitation. 8, 225-226 
Vocational work : 

Agriculture. 108, 110, 114. 116-113. 146- 
147. 182 

Cost of. 8, 145-147. 240-241. 291. 29n 
Home Economics. 108, llO, 114, 147 
Industrial courses, 107-108, 110, 114, 146- 
147 

Vocations chosen by high school graduates, 
101-107 183 

W 

Withdrawals of pupils: 

Colored, 168-170 

Normal school juniors, 281-282 

White elementary, 32-33 

White high, 116-119 
White schools. See elementary schools, 
white, and See high schools, white 

Y 

Year, length of, 24-25. 164-165, 301, 330- 
335 

Years of experience, 62-63, 130-131, 189-190 



I 3 m30 oEbbisn "?